Special Issue "Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 February 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Lieven Vandevelde
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electromechanical, Systems and Metal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 131, 9052 Gent, Belgium
Interests: electric power systems; sustainable energy; distributed generation; low-frequency electromagnetics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Energies focuses on the electrical engineering aspects of sustainable and renewable energies in the frame of energy transition.

Contributions on the following topics, among others, are invited: 

  • Renewable energy production: Wind, solar, wave, tidal energy, etc. The focus lies on electric power conversions and control (e.g., maximum power point tracking) in these systems;
  • Integration of renewable power generation in power systems: Concepts, design, operation and control of (future) power systems, use of storage devices, demand-side response (for balancing renewables), etc.;
  • Electrical energy efficiency in industry, buildings, transmission and distribution, etc.;
  • Electrification and its role in decarbonized energy systems.

Prof. Dr. Lieven Vandevelde
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • renewable and sustainable energy
  • decarbonization
  • electrical engineering
  • electric power systems
  • energy transition
  • electrification
  • grid integration
  • demand-side response
  • energy efficiency
  • electric energy storage

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Two-Stage Stochastic Optimisation Methodology for the Operation of a Chlor-Alkali Electrolyser under Variable DAM and FCR Market Prices
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5675; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215675 - 30 Oct 2020
Abstract
The increased penetration of renewable energy sources in the electrical grid raises the need for more power system flexibility. One of the high potential groups to provide such flexibility is the industry. Incentives to do so are provided by variable pricing and remuneration [...] Read more.
The increased penetration of renewable energy sources in the electrical grid raises the need for more power system flexibility. One of the high potential groups to provide such flexibility is the industry. Incentives to do so are provided by variable pricing and remuneration of supplied ancillary services. The operational flexibility of a chlor-alkali electrolysis process shows opportunities in the current energy and ancillary services markets. A co-optimisation of operating the chlor-alkali process under an hourly variable priced electricity sourcing strategy and the delivery of Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR) is the core of this work. A short term price prediction for the Day-Ahead Market (DAM) and FCR market as input for a deterministic optimisation shows good results under standard DAM price patterns, but leaves room for improvement in case of price fluctuations, e.g., as caused by Renewable Energy Sources (RES). A two-stage stochastic optimisation is considered to cope with the uncertainties introduced by the exogenous parameters. An improvement of the stochastic solution over the deterministic Expected Value (EV) solution is shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
An Adjusted Weight Metric to Quantify Flexibility Available in Conventional Generators for Low Carbon Power Systems
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5658; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215658 - 29 Oct 2020
Abstract
With the increasing shares of intermittent renewable sources in the grid, it becomes increasingly essential to quantify the requirements of the power systems flexibility. In this article, an adjusted weight flexibility metric (AWFM) is developed to quantify the available flexibility within individual generators [...] Read more.
With the increasing shares of intermittent renewable sources in the grid, it becomes increasingly essential to quantify the requirements of the power systems flexibility. In this article, an adjusted weight flexibility metric (AWFM) is developed to quantify the available flexibility within individual generators as well as within the overall system. The developed metric is useful for power system operators who require a fast, simple, and offline metric. This provides a more realistic and accurate quantification of the available technical flexibility without performing time-consuming multi-temporal simulations. Another interesting feature is that it can be used to facilitate scenario comparisons. This is achieved by developing a new framework to assure the consistency of the metric and by proposing a new adjusted weighting mechanism based on correlation analysis and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). A new ranking approach based on flexibility was also proposed to increase the share of the renewable energy sources (RESs). The proposed framework was tested on the IEEE RTS-96 test-system. The results demonstrate the consistency of the AWFM. Moreover, the results show that the proposed metric is adaptive as it automatically adjusts the flexibility index with the addition or removal of generators. The new ranking approach proved its ability to increase the wind share from 28% to 37.2% within the test system. The AWFM can be a valuable contribution to the field of flexibility for its ability to provide systematic formulation for the precise analysis and accurate assessment of inherent technical flexibility for a low carbon power system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Test Grids for the Integration of RES—A Contribution for the European Context
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5431; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205431 - 17 Oct 2020
Abstract
A long-term sustainable energy transition can only be achieved by technological advancements and new approaches for efficiently integrating renewable energies into the overall energy system. Significantly increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES) within the overall energy system requires appropriate network models [...] Read more.
A long-term sustainable energy transition can only be achieved by technological advancements and new approaches for efficiently integrating renewable energies into the overall energy system. Significantly increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES) within the overall energy system requires appropriate network models of current transmission and distribution grids, which, as limiting factors of energy infrastructures, confine this share due to capacity constraints. However, especially regarding electrical network models, data (e.g., geographical data, load and generation profiles, etc.) is rarely available since it usually includes user-specific information and is, therefore, subject to data protection. Synthetically obtained electrical networks, on the other hand, may not be representative and may fail to replicate real grid structures due to the heterogeneous properties of currently operated networks. To account for this heterogeneity, this paper offers a contribution for the European electrical energy system and presents the development of four synthetic test networks at different voltage levels which are representative and include non-confidential time-series data. The test network development is based on an extensive literature research on a multitude of different network parameters for grids within the ENTSO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity) interconnected system in Europe. These parameters are then used to design the networks in NEPLAN®. Then, these networks are provided with load and generation profiles for enabling time-series calculations. To validate the representativeness of the test networks, a short-circuit analysis is conducted and the obtained results are compared to short-circuit parameters common for Austrian and German literature values as well as for value ranges for European ENTSO-E grids. The analysis shows that the presented test networks replicate European electrical network behavior accurately and can, therefore, be utilized for various application purposes to assess technological impacts on European ENTSO-E grids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Indirect Matrix Converter-Based Grid-Tied Photovoltaics System for Smart Grids
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5405; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205405 - 16 Oct 2020
Abstract
This paper proposes an Indirect Matrix Converter (IMC)-based grid-tied Photovoltaic (PV) system for Smart Grids (SGs). The PV array injects current in the ‘dc link’ of the IMC through an inductive link, and is connected to the SG with shunt and series connections, [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an Indirect Matrix Converter (IMC)-based grid-tied Photovoltaic (PV) system for Smart Grids (SGs). The PV array injects current in the ‘dc link’ of the IMC through an inductive link, and is connected to the SG with shunt and series connections, allowing for the compensation of current- and voltage-related Power Quality (PQ) issues, respectively, for the sensitive loads and the SG connection. A direct sliding mode-based controller is proposed to guarantee nearly sinusoidal currents in the connection to the SG, and sinusoidal voltages guaranteeing compliance with international standards, when supplying the sensitive loads. Additionally, a novel control approach for the ‘dc link’ voltage is synthesised to allow for the control of both the PV array current and the power flow to the SG. To guarantee the semiconductors safe commutation an asynchronous commutation strategy is derived. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed system significantly improves PQ in the SG, minimizing the total harmonic distortion of the currents injected in the SG, and guaranteeing the quality of the voltage supplied to the sensitive loads, even in the occurrence of voltage sags or overvoltages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Pitch-To-Stall and Pitch-To-Feather Control on the Structural Loads and the Pitch Mechanism of a Wind Turbine
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4503; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174503 - 01 Sep 2020
Abstract
This article investigates the impact of the pitch-to-stall and pitch-to-feather control concepts on horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) with different blade designs. Pitch-to-feather control is widely used to limit the power output of wind turbines in high wind speed conditions. However, stall control [...] Read more.
This article investigates the impact of the pitch-to-stall and pitch-to-feather control concepts on horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) with different blade designs. Pitch-to-feather control is widely used to limit the power output of wind turbines in high wind speed conditions. However, stall control has not been taken forward in the industry because of the low predictability of stalled rotor aerodynamics. Despite this drawback, this article investigates the possible advantages of this control concept when compared to pitch-to-feather control with an emphasis on the control performance and its impact on the pitch mechanism and structural loads. In this study, three HAWTs with different blade designs, i.e., untwisted, stall-regulated, and pitch-regulated blades, are investigated. The control system is validated in both uniform and turbulent wind speed. The results show that pitch-to-stall control enhances the constant power control for wind turbines with untwisted and stall-regulated blade designs. Stall control alleviates the fore-aft tower loading and the blades flapwise moment of the wind turbine with stall-regulated blades in uniform winds. However, in turbulent winds, the flapwise moment increases to a certain extent as compared to pitch-to-feather control. Moreover, pitch-to-stall control considerably reduces the summed blade pitch movement, despite that it increases the risk of surface damage in the rolling bearings due to oscillating movements with a small amplitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Fault Ride-Through Characteristics of Small Wind Turbines
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4587; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234587 - 02 Dec 2019
Abstract
There is significant potential for an increase in the use of kilowatt-class small wind turbines (SWTs) in Japan due to reduced limitations with respect to installation, despite their high cost. At this stage, the Japanese grid code has not been considered sufficiently with [...] Read more.
There is significant potential for an increase in the use of kilowatt-class small wind turbines (SWTs) in Japan due to reduced limitations with respect to installation, despite their high cost. At this stage, the Japanese grid code has not been considered sufficiently with respect to grid-connected SWTs, and the addition of fault ride-through (FRT) requirements for SWTs has been requested. Moreover, the FRT of SWTs is challenging to achieve owing to the low inertia constants when compared with those of large-scale wind turbines, which result in significant acceleration of the rotor speed and an increase in the input voltage of the power conditioning system (PCS) during FRT operation. In this study, FRT field tests were conducted on SWT systems against a voltage dip with a duration of ~ 1 s, and it was confirmed that the SWT systems satisfied the FRT requirements for photovoltaic (PV) systems connected to low-voltage distribution lines in Japan. The behaviors of the rotational speed of the SWTs and the PCS input voltage in an FRT operation were then analyzed, and it was noted that the increase in the PCS input voltage with the overspeed of the turbine can reach the upper limit and make the PCS cease operation, which indicates failure of the FRT. The overvoltage, therefore, requires restriction using a method such as pitch control, furling, and electrical and/or mechanical brakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Generation Expansion Planning Based on Dynamic Bayesian Network Considering the Uncertainty of Renewable Energy Resources
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2492; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132492 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In generation expansion planning, sustainable generation expansion planning is gaining more and more attention. Based on the comprehensive consideration of generation expansion planning economics, technology, environment, and other fields, this paper analyzes the sustainable development of power supply planning evaluation indicators and builds [...] Read more.
In generation expansion planning, sustainable generation expansion planning is gaining more and more attention. Based on the comprehensive consideration of generation expansion planning economics, technology, environment, and other fields, this paper analyzes the sustainable development of power supply planning evaluation indicators and builds a multi-objective generation expansion planning decision model considering sustainable development. According to the target variables in the model, the variables such as attribute variables are divided into different subsets, and the logical relationship analysis method between different nodes is obtained based on Dynamic Bayesian network theory, which reduces the complexity of the planning model problem. The application examples show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model and the solution method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Research of the Fundamental Wave of Wound-Rotor Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine
Energies 2019, 12(6), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061172 - 26 Mar 2019
Abstract
The brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM) is a special type of machine with two sets of stator windings and one set of rotor winding. The magnetic field of the BDFM is considered to be complex with no regularity. To study the principles of magnetic [...] Read more.
The brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM) is a special type of machine with two sets of stator windings and one set of rotor winding. The magnetic field of the BDFM is considered to be complex with no regularity. To study the principles of magnetic fields for the BDFM, a general expression of the fundamental wave is deduced, which shows that the fundamental wave can be regarded as a standing wave when it is observed from rotor reference; also, some discussions about the characteristics of the fundamental wave are presented in the paper. Next, a model of wound-rotor BDFM prototype is established, and the enveloping line and the relations between rotor position and its electrical angle of the magnetic field are figured out in the paper. Finally, after detecting the induced electromotive force (EMF) of measurement coils embedded in the corresponding prototype machine, the validity of the proposed conclusions is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Propagation Characteristic of Subsynchronous Oscillation in Wind Integrated Power System
Energies 2019, 12(6), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061081 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper proposes oscillation propagation factors to analyze power oscillations caused by the interharmonics of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) at different points in the power system. First, a dynamic model of the DIFG is built, including the asynchronous generator, its transmission system, [...] Read more.
This paper proposes oscillation propagation factors to analyze power oscillations caused by the interharmonics of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) at different points in the power system. First, a dynamic model of the DIFG is built, including the asynchronous generator, its transmission system, converters and the control systems. Then, the state space expression is formed by deducing the input and output matrices. From this, the oscillation propagation factor is proposed and denoted to exhibit the propagation mechanism of interharmonics in the view of frequency domain, by deducing the multi-input-multi-output transfer functions matrix. Along with this, the sensitivity of propagation is calculated for adjusting the parameters to block the oscillation propagating path. Finally, the modified four machine system with two DFIGs and the New-England 39 bus system with two DFIGs is used as a test system to verify the effectiveness of the oscillation propagation factor. From this the simulation results demonstrate that the subsynchronous interharmonics of DFIGs injected into the grid will propagate to the different points of the system and results in oscillation of the power. The oscillation propagation factor could quantize the oscillation magnitude propagating from one point to other point in the wind integrated power system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Power Loss Minimization and Voltage Stability Improvement in Electrical Distribution System via Network Reconfiguration and Distributed Generation Placement Using Novel Adaptive Shuffled Frogs Leaping Algorithm
Energies 2019, 12(3), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030553 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 18
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel adaptive optimization algorithm to solve the network reconfiguration and distributed generation (DG) placement problems with objective functions including power loss minimization and voltage stability index (VSI) improvement. The proposed technique called Adaptive Shuffled Frogs Leaping Algorithm (ASFLA) was [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a novel adaptive optimization algorithm to solve the network reconfiguration and distributed generation (DG) placement problems with objective functions including power loss minimization and voltage stability index (VSI) improvement. The proposed technique called Adaptive Shuffled Frogs Leaping Algorithm (ASFLA) was performed for solving network reconfiguration and DG installation in IEEE 33- and 69-bus distribution systems with seven different scenarios. The performance of ASFLA was compared to that of other algorithms such as Fireworks Algorithm (FWA), Adaptive Cuckoo Search Algorithm (ACSA) and Shuffled Frogs Leaping Algorithm (SFLA). It was found that the power loss and VSI provided by ASFLA were better than those given by FWA, ACSA and SFLA in both 33- and 69-bus systems. The best solution of power loss reduction and VSI improvement of both 33- and 69-bus systems was achieved when the network reconfiguration with optimal sizing and the location DG were simultaneously implemented. From our analysis, it was indicated that the ASFLA could provide better solutions than other methods since the generating process, local and global searching of this algorithm were significantly improved from a conventional method. Hence, the ASFLA becomes another effective algorithm for solving network reconfiguration and DG placement problems in electrical distribution systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle
Model Reduction of DFIG Wind Turbine System Based on Inner Coupling Analysis
Energies 2018, 11(11), 3234; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11113234 - 21 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine system, which is composed of the wind turbine, generator, rotor-side converter, grid-side converter, and so on, is a typical multi-time scale system. The dynamic processes at different time scales do not exist in isolation. Furthermore, neglecting [...] Read more.
The doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine system, which is composed of the wind turbine, generator, rotor-side converter, grid-side converter, and so on, is a typical multi-time scale system. The dynamic processes at different time scales do not exist in isolation. Furthermore, neglecting the coupling of parameters of different time scales to reduce the order of the model will lead to deviation between the simulation results and the actual results, which may not be suitable for power system transient analysis. This paper proposes an electromechanical transient model and an electromagnetic transient model of the DFIG wind turbine system that consider the interaction of multiple time-scale dynamic processes. Firstly, the paper applies the modal analysis method to explain the multi-time scale characteristics of the DFIG wind turbine system. Secondly, the variation in the eigenvalues of the DFIG wind turbine system before and after the order reduction and the coupling between variables and the system, as well as the coupling between variables of different time scales, are analyzed to obtain the preliminary 21-order simplified model. Thirdly, considering the weak coupling characteristics between the mechanical part and the electromagnetic part of the DFIG wind turbine system, the 21-order simplified model is decomposed into a 15-order electromagnetic transient model and a six-order electromechanical transient model on the basis of their time scales. Then, according to the balance between simulation time and simulation accuracy, the 14-order electromagnetic transient model and the 10 or 12-order electromechanical transient model are finally obtained. Finally, the rationality of the simplified models is verified by simulations under two large disturbance conditions, namely wind speed abrupt change and voltage sag. The obtained simplified models have reference significance for improving the simulation speed of a wind power grid-connected system and analyzing the internal mechanism of the DFIG wind turbine system’s stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrical Engineering for Sustainable and Renewable Energy)
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