Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 19th IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (19th IEEE EEEIC)"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy and Environment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 19th IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (IEEE EEEIC19) is an international forum for the exchange of ideas and information on energy systems. The Conference provides a unique opportunity for designers and people from industry to interact with manufacturers, energy utilities people, and university researchers, and to discuss a wide variety of topics related to energy systems and environmental issues. Ever-increasing awareness of environmental concerns and intensive international efforts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases has stimulated the best contributions towards achieving the goals of renewable energy diversification and sustainable development. IEEE EEEIC 2019 is the 19th edition of the Conference and is one of Europe’s largest, longest-running professional networking and educational events. The conference has been technically co-sponsored by IEEE since 2008 and by EMCS, IAS, and PES since 2015.

The 3nd IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power System Conference Europe (I&CPS Europe) is the second edition of a conference organized by the department I&CPS of the Industry Application Society (IAS-IEEE). The scope of the Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Department includes all matters within the scope of the Industry Application Society relating to the technology of electric power generation, transmission, or distribution in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities, and within that segment of industry associated specifically with rural or agricultural applications. The scope also includes the creation of related technical standards governing such applications. The objective of I&CPSD shall be the advancement of the theory and practice of engineering as it relates to the design and management of electrical power systems and comfort conditioning systems within industrial plants, commercial buildings, and institutional facilities, and electrical power systems that serve primarily agricultural areas.

Submissions related to any of the following topics are welcomed:

- Renewable-energy sources and storage

- Power systems and smart grids

- Energy-efficient systems

- Smart buildings

- Circuits, sensors, and actuators

- Materials

- Environmental phenomena and pollution

- Regulation and electricity markets

- Mobility

- Maintenance, operation, and safety

- Measurements

Prof. Dr. Rodolfo Araneo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • renewable-energy sources and storage
  • power systems and smart grids
  • energy-efficient systems
  • smart buildings
  • circuits, sensors, and actuators
  • materials
  • environmental phenomena and pollution regulation and electricity markets
  • mobility
  • maintenance, operation and safety
  • measurements

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Optimising Frequency-Based Railway Services with a Limited Fleet Endowment: An Energy-Efficient Perspective
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2403; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102403 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Energy-saving and energy-recovery strategies represent key factors to achieve operational cost reductions within rail systems’ management tasks. However, in altering service features, they also affect passenger satisfaction. This paper investigates the effect of implementing such measures in the case of rolling stock unavailability. [...] Read more.
Energy-saving and energy-recovery strategies represent key factors to achieve operational cost reductions within rail systems’ management tasks. However, in altering service features, they also affect passenger satisfaction. This paper investigates the effect of implementing such measures in the case of rolling stock unavailability. Numerous operational scenarios were explored by analysing different planned headway and rolling stock configurations. The scenarios were simulated with and without the adoption of Energy-Saving Strategies (ESS), both in ordinary and in disruption conditions. Our results show that, in ordinary conditions, the optimal scenarios are those that minimise the planned headway. By contrast, in disrupted conditions, due to greater passenger inconvenience, the use of a time-optimal condition is preferable if a real-time adjustment of ESS is not feasible. However, if the ESS can be updated in real-time, use of ESS is preferable only if the adopted headway is the smallest of those associated with the rolling stock scheme considered. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lightning Performance Evaluation of Italian 150 kV Sub-Transmission Lines
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2142; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092142 - 30 Apr 2020
Abstract
A significant majority of overhead transmission lines’ (OHLs) outages is due to backflashovers caused by direct lightning strikes: the realistic assessment of the lightning performance is thus an important task. The paper presents the analysis of the lightning performance of an existing 150 [...] Read more.
A significant majority of overhead transmission lines’ (OHLs) outages is due to backflashovers caused by direct lightning strikes: the realistic assessment of the lightning performance is thus an important task. The paper presents the analysis of the lightning performance of an existing 150 kV Italian OHL, namely, its backflashover rate (BFOR), carried out by means of an ATP-EMTP-based Monte Carlo procedure. Among other features, the procedure makes use of a simplified pi-circuit for line towers’ grounding system, allowing a very accurate reproduction of transient behaviours at a very low computational cost. Tower grounding design modifications, aimed at improving the OHL lightning performance, are also proposed and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Online Grey-Box Model Based on Unscented Kalman Filter to Predict Temperature Profiles in Smart Buildings
Energies 2020, 13(8), 2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13082097 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Nearly 40% of primary energy consumption is related to the usage of energy in Buildings. Energy-related data such as indoor air temperature and power consumption of heating/cooling systems can be now collected due to the widespread diffusion of Internet-of-Things devices. Such energy data [...] Read more.
Nearly 40% of primary energy consumption is related to the usage of energy in Buildings. Energy-related data such as indoor air temperature and power consumption of heating/cooling systems can be now collected due to the widespread diffusion of Internet-of-Things devices. Such energy data can be used (i) to train data-driven models than learn the thermal properties of buildings and (ii) to predict indoor temperature evolution. In this paper, we present a Grey-box model to estimate thermal dynamics in buildings based on Unscented Kalman Filter and thermal network representation. The proposed methodology has been applied in two different buildings with two different thermal network discretizations to test its accuracy in indoor air temperature prediction. Due to a lack of a real-world data sampled by Internet of Things (IoT) devices, a realistic data-set has been generated using the software Energy+, by referring to real industrial building models. Results on synthetic and realistic data show the accuracy of the proposed methodology in predicting indoor temperature trends up to the next 24 h with a maximum error lower than 2 °C, considering one year of data with different weather conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Advances in the Definition of Needs and Specifications for a Climate Service Tool Aimed at Small Hydropower Plants’ Operation and Management
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071827 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The operation feasibility of small hydropower plants in mountainous sites is subjected to the run-of-river flow, which is also dependent on a high variability in precipitation and snow cover. Moreover, the management of this kind of system has to be performed with some [...] Read more.
The operation feasibility of small hydropower plants in mountainous sites is subjected to the run-of-river flow, which is also dependent on a high variability in precipitation and snow cover. Moreover, the management of this kind of system has to be performed with some particular operation conditions of the plant (e.g., turbine minimum and maximum discharge) but also some environmental flow requirements. In this context, a technological climate service is conceived in a tight connection with end users, perfectly answering the needs of the management of small hydropower systems in a pilot area, and providing a forecast of the river streamflow together with other operation data. This paper presents an overview of the service but also a set of lessons learnt related to the features, requirements, and considerations to bear in mind from the point of view of climate service developers. In addition, the outcomes give insight into how this kind of service could change the traditional management (normally based on past experience), providing a probability range of the future river flow based on future weather scenarios according to the range of future weather possibilities. This highlights the utility of the co-generation process to implement climate services for water and energy fields but also that seasonal climate forecasting could improve the business as usual of this kind of facility. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Sensing of Internal and Surface Partial Discharges in Air-Insulated Medium Voltage Switchgear
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1738; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071738 - 05 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Partial discharge (PD) measurements have proved their reliability for health monitoring of insulation systems in power system components including synchronous generators, power transformers, switchgear and cables etc. Online condition monitoring and pro-active detection of PD faults have been highly demanded over the last [...] Read more.
Partial discharge (PD) measurements have proved their reliability for health monitoring of insulation systems in power system components including synchronous generators, power transformers, switchgear and cables etc. Online condition monitoring and pro-active detection of PD faults have been highly demanded over the last two decades. This paper provides results from a research project to develop advanced non-intrusive sensing technologies that are cost effective, reliable and efficient for early detection of PD faults in medium voltage (MV) and high voltage (HV) air-insulated switchgear. Three sensors (high frequency E-field (D-dot) sensor, Rogowski coil and loop antenna) have been developed and tested under various PD faults and their performance were evaluated in comparison with high frequency current transformer (HFCT) which is being used commercially for PD testing and measurement. Among these three sensors, it is shown that D-dot sensor and Rogowski coil are more dependable when it comes to the PD measurements due to their high signal to noise ratio and hence high accuracy. These sensors can be customized according to a specific application and can be connected together with one data acquisition device while developing an online condition monitoring system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Revision of Threshold Luminance Levels in Tunnels Aiming to Minimize Energy Consumption at No Cost: Methodology and Case Studies
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071707 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Because of the absence of lighting calculation tools at the initial stage of tunnel design, the lighting systems are usually over-dimensioned, leading to over illumination and increased energy consumption. For this reason, a fine-tuning method for switching lighting stages according to the traffic [...] Read more.
Because of the absence of lighting calculation tools at the initial stage of tunnel design, the lighting systems are usually over-dimensioned, leading to over illumination and increased energy consumption. For this reason, a fine-tuning method for switching lighting stages according to the traffic weighted L20 luminance is proposed at no additional cost. The method was applied in a real –case scenario, where L20 luminance of the access zone at eleven (11) existing tunnels was calculated. The traffic weighted method of CR14380 was used in order to calculate the actual luminance levels for the entrance zone. The new transition zone, which decreases luminance curves, was produced and compared with the existing ones. Thus, a new switching control was proposed and programed for the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system of the tunnel. The signals of the corresponding eleven L20 meters for a period of eight days were used and the corresponding annual energy consumptions were calculated using the proposed switching program for each tunnel. The results were compared with a number of scenarios in which the existing lighting system was retrofitted with Lighting Emitting Diodes (LED) luminaires. In these scenarios, the new luminaire arrangement was based not only on the existing luminance demand value for the threshold zone, but also on the newly proposed one with two different control techniques (continuous dimming and 10% step dimming). The fine-tuning method for switching resulted in energy savings between 11% and 54% depending on the tunnel when the scenario of the existing installation at no extra cost was used. Energy savings, when LED luminaires were installed, varied between 57% (for the scenario with existing luminance demand value for the threshold zone and 10% step dimming) and 85% (for the scenario with the new calculated luminance demand and continuous dimming). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Hydrogen-Production-Based Power Management Control of a Wind Turbine Conversion System Coupled with Multistack Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051239 - 07 Mar 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
This paper deals with two main issues regarding the specific energy consumption in an electrolyzer (i.e., the Faraday efficiency and the converter topology). The first aspect is addressed using a multistack configuration of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers supplied by a wind turbine [...] Read more.
This paper deals with two main issues regarding the specific energy consumption in an electrolyzer (i.e., the Faraday efficiency and the converter topology). The first aspect is addressed using a multistack configuration of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers supplied by a wind turbine conversion system (WTCS). This approach is based on the modeling of the wind turbine and the electrolyzers. The WTCS and the electrolyzers are interfaced through a stacked interleaved DC–DC buck converter (SIBC), due to its benefits for this application in terms of the output current ripple and reliability. This converter is controlled so that it can offer dynamic behavior that is faster than the wind turbine, avoiding overvoltage during transients, which could damage the PEM electrolyzers. The SIBC is designed to be connected in array configuration (i.e., parallel architecture), so that each converter operates at its maximum efficiency. To assess the performance of the power management strategy, experimental tests were carried out. The reported results demonstrate the correct behavior of the system during transient operation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cantilevered Piezoelectric Micro Generator Design Issues and Application to the Mining Locomotive
Energies 2020, 13(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010063 - 20 Dec 2019
Abstract
This paper will present a complete discussion in recent design strategies for harvesting vibration energy using piezoelectric cantilever transducers. The interest in this primary energy source is due to its presence in non-negligible quantities in most of the engines used in the industrial [...] Read more.
This paper will present a complete discussion in recent design strategies for harvesting vibration energy using piezoelectric cantilever transducers. The interest in this primary energy source is due to its presence in non-negligible quantities in most of the engines used in the industrial process. Previous work has shown that it is possible to harvest significant amounts of energy capable of supplying a wireless sensor (WS) node. However, in most research, only one step of the energy conversion and utilization chain is studied. Starting from the definition of the different design issues for a piezoelectric micro generator (PMG), the leading optimization solutions will be reviewed in this paper. Based on the findings, the quantification of the data transmission range of wireless sensor nodes powered by a PMG is proposed to support the objectives envisioned by Industry 4.0. The vibration characteristics taken from mining locomotives that have not yet been treated previously are used to illustrate the improvement of the various optimization solutions. Through our objectives, this work offers a comprehensive discussion on the use of vibrational energy by wireless sensors, bringing together the fields of mechanics, electrical, electronics, and wireless communications. The theoretical basis for each design stage is provided through the design equations. Based on actual measurements of ambient vibration, it is demonstrated, considering an optimal design of the PMG, that a WS could transmit data beyond 1 km for physical phenomena to be controlled every 7 min. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of the Imbalance Netting Process on Power System Dynamics
Energies 2019, 12(24), 4733; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12244733 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper discusses the imbalance netting process (INP) between control areas (CAs) that was developed due to the high costs of balancing energy. The main objective of INP is to net the demand for balancing energy between the participating CAs with opposite signs [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the imbalance netting process (INP) between control areas (CAs) that was developed due to the high costs of balancing energy. The main objective of INP is to net the demand for balancing energy between the participating CAs with opposite signs of interchange power variation. However, INP incorporates a frequency term; hence, it affects the frequency response of participating CAs inherently, which is not discussed in the literature. Therefore, the impacts of INP on the frequency quality and provision of load-frequency control (LFC) are shown thoroughly with dynamic simulations of a three-CA testing systems, in addition to an eigenvalue analysis of a two CA system. It is shown clearly herein that INP changes the eigenvalues of the system matrix, which results in decreased damping of the entire power system. Furthermore, the simulation results confirmed that INP reduces balancing energy, releases regulating reserve and reduces the unintended exchange of energy; thus, LFC performance indicators were improved. However, the impact of INP on frequency quality is not so explicit, since cases exist of frequency quality improvement and deterioration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Radiation in the Optical and UHF Range Emitted by Partial Discharges
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4334; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224334 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
This paper presents the results of analysis of a solid dielectric’s influence on the phenomena associated with the signals emitted by surface partial discharges. Three types of electrode systems were tested, in which solid dielectrics made of pressboard, Teflon, and glass were used. [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of analysis of a solid dielectric’s influence on the phenomena associated with the signals emitted by surface partial discharges. Three types of electrode systems were tested, in which solid dielectrics made of pressboard, Teflon, and glass were used. The emission of such signals as radio waves in the Ultra high frequency (UHF) range and optical radiation was analyzed. The measurements were carried out in the insulation systems most commonly used in electrical power equipment, i.e., mineral oil and air. UHF and optical spectrophotometry methods were used to register the emitted signals. The obtained results indicate that the type of material from which the dielectric solid is made may have a potential impact on some ranges of emitted electromagnetic waves during the surface electrical discharges. The research topic undertaken is important in issues associated with high-voltage insulation systems and in particular with surface discharges, which are often the cause of their damage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical and Mineralogical Composition of Soot and Ash from the Combustion of Peat Briquettes in Household Boilers
Energies 2019, 12(19), 3784; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12193784 - 05 Oct 2019
Abstract
Soot and ash as residues from the combustion of peat briquettes were analysed by chemical and mineralogical methods. The study aimed to characterize combustion in domestic boilers of two different emission classes. Ten samples of soot deposited in exhausting ways of boilers were [...] Read more.
Soot and ash as residues from the combustion of peat briquettes were analysed by chemical and mineralogical methods. The study aimed to characterize combustion in domestic boilers of two different emission classes. Ten samples of soot deposited in exhausting ways of boilers were obtained (five of each emission class). The analyses of organic substances in soot were performed using a combination of the methods for the determination of elemental and organic forms of carbon with analytical pyrolysis. Pyrolysis gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (Py-GC/MS) allowed the identification of organic compounds belonging to twenty different groups. The major and minor elements in peat briquettes, char and soot, were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The identification of grains and the chemical character of soot was performed using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The mineral phases in ash were determined by X-ray diffraction. The behaviour of the inorganic elements in combustion products (ash and soot) was studied by means of an enrichment factor. The analytical results are used for characterizing the technological conditions of combustion. The soot deposits from the more advanced boilers with increased combustion temperature contain more organic compounds which indicate the highly carbonized cellulose (benzofurans and dibenzofurans). The increased combustion temperature is indicated by increased concentrations of heterocyclic and aliphatic nitrogen compounds, while the total concentrations of nitrogen in soot from boilers of both types are comparable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The IEC 61850 Sampled Measured Values Protocol: Analysis, Threat Identification, and Feasibility of Using NN Forecasters to Detect Spoofed Packets
Energies 2019, 12(19), 3731; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12193731 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The operation of the smart grid is anticipated to rely profoundly on distributed microprocessor-based control. Therefore, interoperability standards are needed to address the heterogeneous nature of the smart grid data. Since the IEC 61850 emerged as a wide-spread interoperability standard widely accepted by [...] Read more.
The operation of the smart grid is anticipated to rely profoundly on distributed microprocessor-based control. Therefore, interoperability standards are needed to address the heterogeneous nature of the smart grid data. Since the IEC 61850 emerged as a wide-spread interoperability standard widely accepted by the industry, the Sampled Measured Values method has been used to communicate digitized voltage and current measurements. Realizing that current and voltage measurements (i.e., feedback measurements) are necessary for reliable and secure noperation of the power grid, firstly, this manuscript provides a detailed analysis of the Sampled Measured Values protocol emphasizing its advantages, then, it identifies vulnerabilities in this protocol and explains the cyber threats associated to these vulnerabilities. Secondly, current efforts to mitigate these vulnerabilities are outlined and the feasibility of using neural network forecasters to detect spoofed sampled values is investigated. It was shown that although such forecasters have high spoofed data detection accuracy, they are prone to the accumulation of forecasting error. Accordingly, this paper also proposes an algorithm to detect the accumulation of the forecasting error based on lightweight statistical indicators. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is experimentally verified in a laboratory-scale smart grid testbed. Full article
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