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Special Issue "Tri-Generation Cycles, Combined Heat, Power and Cooling (CHPC)"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Brian Agnew

NewRail, School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: thermal systems, heat transfer, finite-time thermodynamics, subway climatology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The thermodynamic community has been engaged for the past 20 years or so in improving the efficiency of thermal systems so as to meet the challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The concept of CHP is well developed, particularly for large scale operation, but the focus is now shifting to low scale tri-generation cycles for district or community use. Ingenious arrangements of combined cycles have been proposed to make use of the waste heat from the initial cycle to improve the overall efficiency (entropy generation minimization) and to produce fresh water from desalination plants, or to feed pottery kilns or LNG gasification plants (to name but a few). Also, new thermodynamic cycles, such as the COOLCEP-S, Kalina, MATIANT, Brayson, and Goswami have been proposed. Several ORC-based systems using solar power combined with geothermal energy have been analyzed and suitable working fluids have been identified. However, it is notable the Energy Utilization Factor of several real
tri-generation installations is less than that obtained from CHP systems. We are still at the early stage of development of tri-generation cycles. Thus, it is likely that performance will improve through theoretical analysis and the development of new and imaginative systems.

This Special Issue focuses on new developments in tri-generation systems for the purposes of improved thermal efficiency, energy utilization, and minimal environmental impact.

Prof. Dr. Brian Agnew
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Exergy Analysis
  • Trigeneration
  • Combined Cycles
  • LNG Processing
  • Heat Driven Cycles

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Scheduling of Multiple Chillers in Trigeneration Plants
Energies 2015, 8(10), 11095-11119; https://doi.org/10.3390/en81011095
Received: 6 August 2015 / Revised: 24 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 7 October 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The scheduling of both absorption cycle and vapour compression cycle chillers in trigeneration plants is investigated in this work. Many trigeneration plants use absorption cycle chillers only but there are potential performance advantages to be gained by using a combination of absorption and [...] Read more.
The scheduling of both absorption cycle and vapour compression cycle chillers in trigeneration plants is investigated in this work. Many trigeneration plants use absorption cycle chillers only but there are potential performance advantages to be gained by using a combination of absorption and compression chillers especially in situations where the building electrical demand to be met by the combined heat and power (CHP) plant is variable. Simulation models of both types of chillers are developed together with a simple model of a variable-capacity CHP engine developed by curve-fitting to supplier’s data. The models are linked to form an optimisation problem in which the contribution of both chiller types is determined at a maximum value of operating cost (or carbon emission) saving. Results show that an optimum operating condition arises at moderately high air conditioning demands and moderately low power demand when the air conditioning demand is shared between both chillers, all recovered heat is utilised, and the contribution arising from the compression chiller results in an increase in CHP power generation and, hence, engine efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tri-Generation Cycles, Combined Heat, Power and Cooling (CHPC))
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Open AccessArticle Exergetic Analysis of an Integrated Tri-Generation Organic Rankine Cycle
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8835-8856; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088835
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 9 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports on a study of the modelling, validation and analysis of an integrated 1 MW (electrical output) tri-generation system energized by solar energy. The impact of local climatic conditions in the Mediterranean region on the system performance was considered. The output [...] Read more.
This paper reports on a study of the modelling, validation and analysis of an integrated 1 MW (electrical output) tri-generation system energized by solar energy. The impact of local climatic conditions in the Mediterranean region on the system performance was considered. The output of the system that comprised a parabolic trough collector (PTC), an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), single-effect desalination (SED), and single effect LiBr-H2O absorption chiller (ACH) was electrical power, distilled water, and refrigerant load. The electrical power was produced by the ORC which used cyclopentane as working fluid and Therminol VP-1 was specified as the heat transfer oil (HTO) in the collectors with thermal storage. The absorption chiller and the desalination unit were utilize the waste heat exiting from the steam turbine in the ORC to provide the necessary cooling energy and drinking water respectively. The modelling, which includes an exergetic analysis, focuses on the performance of the solar tri-generation system. The simulation results of the tri-generation system and its subsystems were produced using IPSEpro software and were validated against experimental data which showed good agreement. The tri-generation system was able to produce about 194 Ton of refrigeration, and 234 t/day distilled water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tri-Generation Cycles, Combined Heat, Power and Cooling (CHPC))
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Open AccessArticle Exergy Analysis of a Two-Pass Reverse Osmosis (RO) Desalination Unit with and without an Energy Recovery Turbine (ERT) and Pressure Exchanger (PX)
Energies 2015, 8(7), 6910-6925; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8076910
Received: 11 March 2015 / Revised: 17 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 10 July 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an exergy analysis of an actual two-pass (RO) desalination system with the seawater solution treated as a real mixture and not an ideal mixture. The actual 127 ton/h two pass RO desalination plant was modeled using IPSEpro software and validated [...] Read more.
This paper presents an exergy analysis of an actual two-pass (RO) desalination system with the seawater solution treated as a real mixture and not an ideal mixture. The actual 127 ton/h two pass RO desalination plant was modeled using IPSEpro software and validated against operating data. The results show that using the (ERT) and (PX) reduced the total power consumption of the SWRO desalination by about 30% and 50% respectively, whereas, the specific power consumption for the SWRO per m3 water decreased from 7.2 kW/m3 to 5.0 kW/m3 with (ERT) and 3.6 kW/m3 with (PX). In addition, the exergy efficiency of the RO desalination improved by 49% with ERT and 77% with PX and exergy destruction was reduced by 40% for (ERT) and 53% for (PX). The results also showed that, when the (ERT) and (PX) were not in use, accounted for 42% of the total exergy destruction. Whereas, when (ERT) and (PX) are in use, the rejected seawater account maximum is 0.64%. Moreover, the (PX) involved the smallest area and highest minimum separation work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tri-Generation Cycles, Combined Heat, Power and Cooling (CHPC))
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Open AccessArticle Finite Time Analysis of a Tri-Generation Cycle
Energies 2015, 8(6), 6215-6229; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8066215
Received: 28 February 2015 / Revised: 13 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 23 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review of the literature indicates that current tri-generation cycles show low thermal performance, even when optimised for maximum useful output. This paper presents a Finite Time analysis of a tri-generation cycle that is based upon coupled power and refrigeration Carnot cycles. The [...] Read more.
A review of the literature indicates that current tri-generation cycles show low thermal performance, even when optimised for maximum useful output. This paper presents a Finite Time analysis of a tri-generation cycle that is based upon coupled power and refrigeration Carnot cycles. The analysis applies equally well to Stirling cycles or any cycle that exhibits isothermal heat transfer with the environment and is internally reversible. It is shown that it is possible to obtain a significantly higher energy utilisation factor with this type of cycle by considering the energy transferred during the isothermal compression and expansion processes as useful products thus making the energy utilisation larger than the enthalpy drop of the working fluid of the power cycle. The cycle is shown to have the highest energy utilisation factor when energy is supplied from a low temperature heat source and in this case the output is biased towards heating and cooling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tri-Generation Cycles, Combined Heat, Power and Cooling (CHPC))
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Open AccessArticle An Environmental Analysis of the Effect of Energy Saving, Production and Recovery Measures on Water Supply Systems under Scarcity Conditions
Energies 2015, 8(6), 5937-5951; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8065937
Received: 3 April 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1869 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water is one of the primary resources provided for maintaining quality of life and social status in urban areas. As potable water is considered to be a primary need, water service has usually been managed without examining the economic and environmental sustainability of [...] Read more.
Water is one of the primary resources provided for maintaining quality of life and social status in urban areas. As potable water is considered to be a primary need, water service has usually been managed without examining the economic and environmental sustainability of supply processes. Currently, due to increases in energy costs and the growth of environment preservation policies, reducing water leakage, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) production have become primary objectives in reducing the environmental footprint of water service. The present paper suggests the implementation of some performance indicators that show the interdependence of water loss, energy consumption and GHG emission. These indicators are used to compare a few possible mitigation scenarios involving water loss reduction and increasing the system’s energy efficiency. The proposed indicators were applied to a complex urban water supply system serving the city of Palermo (Italy). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tri-Generation Cycles, Combined Heat, Power and Cooling (CHPC))
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