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Special Issue "Advances in Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Synthesis"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "B3: Bio-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021) | Viewed by 6890

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Makareviciene Violeta
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Agricultural Academy, Vytautas Magnus University, 44248 Kaunas, Lithuania
Interests: renewable energy engineering; liquid and gaseous biofuel production technologies; biofuel quality and environmental indicators; new raw materials for biofuel and biolubricant production; microalgae cultivation and application for energy purposes
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Guest Editor is inviting submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of “Advances in Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Synthesis”.

The biodiesel industry has undergone stable growth over the past few decades. The biodiesel production process is relatively complex and rather expensive relative to the production of mineral diesel, and, thus, to retain production shares and expand the industry, there is a growing demand for changes related to the search for new raw materials and advanced technologies.

This Special Issue aims to gather innovative and original research articles on the evaluation of the effectiveness of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel synthesis, the application of innovative, more effective, and modern oil extraction and transesterification technologies, and prospects for their implementation in industry. Articles on the physical and chemical as well as environmental properties of biodiesel produced form new raw materials are also welcome.

Prof. Makareviciene Violeta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biodiesel
  • new raw materials
  • production technologies
  • homogeneous catalysis
  • heterogeneous catalysis
  • enzymatic catalysis
  • supercritical conditions
  • synthesis “in situ”
  • process optimization
  • fuel quality
  • innovations
  • economics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Advances in Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Synthesis
Energies 2022, 15(3), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030782 - 21 Jan 2022
Viewed by 365
Abstract
The greenhouse effect and its consequences are a growing concern for humanity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Synthesis)

Research

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Article
Physiological, Biochemical and Energetic Characteristics of Torulaspora globosa, a Potential Producer of Biofuel
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3198; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113198 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
It was obtained that the yeast Torulaspora globosa VKPM Y-953 is suitable for the production of biodiesel fuel. Zinc plays an important regulatory role in the metabolism of the studied strain. The study of the growth parameters and the fatty acid profile of [...] Read more.
It was obtained that the yeast Torulaspora globosa VKPM Y-953 is suitable for the production of biodiesel fuel. Zinc plays an important regulatory role in the metabolism of the studied strain. The study of the growth parameters and the fatty acid profile of the yeast T. globosa showed that the limitation of its growth by ethanol, at different concentrations of zinc in the medium, considerably influences the chemical composition and the energy content of yeast cells, but not their yield by weight (Yx/s). The increased concentrations of zinc in the medium, in combination with the yeast growth limitation by ethanol, elevated the content of lipids in the cells by 28% and diminished the content of proteins by 14%. At the same time, the limitation of yeast growth by zinc decreased Yx/s and energy (ηX/S) by 2.6 and 3.1 times, respectively. In this case, the content of lipids in cells fell by 72%, while that of proteins rose by 65%. The fatty acid profile of the T. globosa cells was used to estimate the main characteristics of biodiesel (iodine value, cetane number, density, and kinematic viscosity). The biomass of T. globosa can also be used in agriculture as a feed additive rich in essential amino acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Synthesis)
Article
Effect of Ethanol Additives on Combustion and Emissions of a Diesel Engine Fueled by Palm Oil Biodiesel at Idling Speed
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051428 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 572
Abstract
Biodiesel is known for its high cetane number and high oxygen content among other advantages, but its high viscosity and density are not trivial issues for fuel flow and atomization, especially under idling conditions. Due to low cylinder temperature and incomplete combustion, engine [...] Read more.
Biodiesel is known for its high cetane number and high oxygen content among other advantages, but its high viscosity and density are not trivial issues for fuel flow and atomization, especially under idling conditions. Due to low cylinder temperature and incomplete combustion, engine idling is one of the worst operating conditions. As a common fuel additive, ethanol can address some of the shortcomings of biodiesel. This work evaluated the combustion and emission characteristics of different concentrations of ethanol additives on a diesel engine fueled with palm oil biodiesel under idling conditions. The results show that ethanol helps to increase peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate, suppressing the production of certain emissions with a maximum reduction in smoke opacity of 71%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Synthesis)
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Article
Continuous Integrated Process of Biodiesel Production and Purification—The End of the Conventional Two-Stage Batch Process?
Energies 2021, 14(2), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14020403 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
In this research, optimization of the integrated biodiesel production process composed of transesterification of edible sunflower oil, catalyzed by commercial lipase, with simultaneous extraction of glycerol from the reaction mixture was performed. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used in this integrated process as [...] Read more.
In this research, optimization of the integrated biodiesel production process composed of transesterification of edible sunflower oil, catalyzed by commercial lipase, with simultaneous extraction of glycerol from the reaction mixture was performed. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used in this integrated process as the reaction and extraction media. For two systems, choline chloride:glycerol (ChCl:Gly) and choline chloride:ethylene glycol (ChCl:EG), respectively, the optimal water content, mass ratio of the phase containing the mixture of reactants (oil and methanol) with an enzyme and a DES phase (mass ratio of phases), and the molar ratio of deep eutectic solvent constituents were determined using response surface methodology (RSM). Experiments performed with ChCl:Gly resulted in a higher biodiesel yield and higher glycerol extraction efficiency, namely, a mass ratio of phases of 1:1, a mass fraction of water of 6.6%, and a molar ratio of the ChCl:Gly of 1:3.5 were determined to be the optimal process conditions. When the reaction was performed in a batch reactor under the optimal conditions, the process resulted in a 43.54 ± 0.2% yield and 99.54 ± 0.19% glycerol extraction efficiency (t = 2 h). Unfortunately, the free glycerol content was higher than the one defined by international standards (wG > 0.02%); therefore, the process was performed in a microsystem to enhance the mass transfer. Gaining the same yield and free glycerol content below the standards (wG = 0.0019 ± 0.003%), the microsystem proved to be a good direction for future process optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Synthesis)
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Article
Biofuels from Diethyl Carbonate and Vegetable Oils for Use in Triple Blends with Diesel Fuel: Effect on Performance and Smoke Emissions of a Diesel Engine
Energies 2020, 13(24), 6584; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246584 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
The main objective of this work is to contribute to a gradual replacement process of fossil diesel (D) with biofuels composed by diethyl carbonate (DEC) and either sunflower or castor oil, as straight vegetable oils (SVOs). DEC is a very interesting candidate as [...] Read more.
The main objective of this work is to contribute to a gradual replacement process of fossil diesel (D) with biofuels composed by diethyl carbonate (DEC) and either sunflower or castor oil, as straight vegetable oils (SVOs). DEC is a very interesting candidate as an oxygenated additive not only because of its low price and renewable nature, but also its favorable fuel properties, such as very low kinematic viscosity, high cetane number, high oxygen content, rich cold flow properties and good miscibility with fossil diesel and vegetable oils. In this work, the more suitable DEC/SVO biofuels are chosen based on kinematic viscosity, according to the European normative. Additionally, the most relevant physical–chemical properties of (bio)fuels such as density, calorific value, cloud point, pour point and cetane number are determined. The influence of DEC on engine performance and exhaust emissions is analyzed by fueling a conventional Diesel engine with the different D/DEC/SVO triple and DEC/SVO double mixtures. The tests results are also compared with commercial diesel. From the results, it is concluded that Diesel engine fueled with the blends studied exhibits an excellent performance in terms of power output, very similar to diesel. Additionally, the use of these blends can remarkably decrease smoke emissions down to 98%, with respect to fossil diesel. The addition of DEC shows a significant improvement in cold flow properties of fuel mixtures in the exchange of a slightly higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than diesel. Interestingly, the pure biofuels composed by DEC and SVO allow for a suitable engine operation and achieve the lowest emissions, which means these blends can be successfully employed in current engines without adding fossil diesel, i.e., their use entail a 100% renewability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Synthesis)
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Article
Biodiesel Production by Lipase-Catalyzed in Situ Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil Containing a High Free Fatty Acid Content with Ethanol in Diesel Fuel Media
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2588; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102588 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
In this study, low-quality rapeseed was used as a raw material for biodiesel fuel production. The application of such seeds with an enzyme catalyst is a green approach to producing renewable biodiesel fuel. During the in situ transesterification process, mineral diesel was selected [...] Read more.
In this study, low-quality rapeseed was used as a raw material for biodiesel fuel production. The application of such seeds with an enzyme catalyst is a green approach to producing renewable biodiesel fuel. During the in situ transesterification process, mineral diesel was selected as an extraction solvent for the simultaneous extraction and transesterification of rapeseed oil (RO). This allowed, at the end of the process, for the production of a mixture of mineral diesel and biodiesel fuel. Energy is saved using this process, as the need to extract the oil separately is eliminated and extraction and transesterification take place together in the in situ process. In this study, 11 different lipases were analyzed from which to select the most effective biocatalyst according to the chosen experimental conditions. The most suitable lipase for in situ transesterification was Lipozyme TL IM (Thermomyces lanuginosus). The impact of the temperature and duration of the reaction was investigated along with the concentration of the lipase. A ethanol-to-oil molar ratio of 5:1 was chosen. The optimal reaction conditions were as follows: a reaction duration of 7 h, a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a lipase concentration of 5% (based on oil weight). Under these conditions, 99.92% of oil was extracted from the rapeseed. The degree of oil transesterification acquired was 99.89%. A mineral diesel and rapeseed oil ethyl ester blend of 9:1 (w/w) was produced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Synthesis)
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Review

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Review
Application of Simultaneous Oil Extraction and Transesterification in Biodiesel Fuel Synthesis: A Review
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092204 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are leading to increased production and use of biofuels. The industrial development of biodiesel production and the use of biodiesel in the EU transport sector have been ongoing for almost two decades. Compared to mineral [...] Read more.
Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are leading to increased production and use of biofuels. The industrial development of biodiesel production and the use of biodiesel in the EU transport sector have been ongoing for almost two decades. Compared to mineral diesel production, the process of producing biodiesel is quite complex and expensive, and the search for new raw materials and advanced technologies is needed to maintain production value and expand the industrial production of biodiesel. The purpose of this article is to review the application possibilities of one of the new technologies—simultaneous extraction of oil from oily feedstock and transesterification (in situ)—and to evaluate the effectiveness of the abovementioned process under various conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Synthesis)
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