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Next-Generation Energy Systems: Towards Sustainable and Resilient Microgrids

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A1: Smart Grids and Microgrids".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 16956

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Center for Research on Microgrids (CROM), AAU Energy, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
Interests: AC/DC microgrids; hierarchical controls; microgrid clusters; fast-time domain methods; harmonic analysis; stability analysis

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Guest Editor
AAU Energy, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
Interests: microgrids; inverter control; Internet of Things; energy internet
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microgrids emerged as a potential electrification solution for the integration of controlled distributed generation units, including beneficial special operating characteristics. In this way, emphasis has been placed on the potential benefits offered by microgrids, such that the analysis, coordination, and energy management of microgrid clusters for ensuring a reliable and resilient system have been explored for the next-generation electrical power grid.

This Special Issue of Energies focuses on the future challenges associated with the deployment and coordination of multiple renewable-energy-based microgrids. In detail, this Special Issue includes, but it is not limited to, the following:

  • Transient and steady-state analysis methods for planning and designing microgrid clusters;
  • Hierarchical control schemes for coordination and energy management;
  • Resilient-oriented energy system hardening measures;
  • Resilient microgrid and smart grid frameworks;
  • Resilient operation management system;
  • Black-start and self-restoration;
  • Grid-fault ride-through;
  • Microgrid protection schemes.

Dr. Gibran David Agundis Tinajero
Dr. Yajuan Guan
Prof. Dr. Juan C. Vasquez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • AC/DC microgrid clusters
  • hierarchical control
  • coordination and energy management
  • transient analysis
  • steady-state analysis
  • stability
  • power quality
  • planning methods
  • resilient control strategy

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 7299 KiB  
Article
A Resilient Prosumer Model for Microgrid Communities with High PV Penetration
by Kihembo Samuel Mumbere, Yutaka Sasaki, Naoto Yorino, Yoshifumi Zoka, Yoshiki Tanioka and Ahmed Bedawy
Energies 2023, 16(2), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16020621 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Worldwide energy shortages and the green energy revolution have triggered an increase in the penetration of standalone microgrids. However, they have limited generation capacity and are wasteful when excess generated energy is curtailed. This presents an opportunity for the coordinated operation of multiple [...] Read more.
Worldwide energy shortages and the green energy revolution have triggered an increase in the penetration of standalone microgrids. However, they have limited generation capacity and are wasteful when excess generated energy is curtailed. This presents an opportunity for the coordinated operation of multiple prosumer microgrids that absorb this waste to enhance their resiliency and reliability. This paper proposes a reliable prosumer model with an inbuilt energy management system (EMS) simulator that considers the mentioned deficiencies for constructing resilient interconnected prosumer microgrids. The EMS simulator operates in a real-time dynamic environment to coordinate the prosumer components and performs flexible switching for (1) prioritizing critical load by shedding the non-critical load and (2) meeting load demand locally or from other interconnected prosumers. The EMS simulator maintains energy balance by setting limits for the battery energy storage system (BESS) to preserve energy during low generation and performs real-time monitoring. The novelty of this model lies in its simplicity and flexibility, which allows interconnected prosumer microgrids to operate in cooperation without the need for communication. The proposed model is evaluated in a post-disaster off-grid scenario using a single-phase average value model that considers reasonable computation time. The simulation results of the proposed system indicate the preservation of stored energy while maintaining critical resources beyond three days of poor weather conditions. Full article
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15 pages, 2299 KiB  
Article
Distributed Nodal Voltage Regulation Method for Low-Voltage Distribution Networks by Sharing PV System Reactive Power
by Xiangdong Wang, Lei Wang, Wenfa Kang, Tiecheng Li, Hao Zhou, Xuekai Hu and Kai Sun
Energies 2023, 16(1), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010357 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
With the intensive integration of photovoltaic (PV) sources into the low-voltage distribution networks (LVDN), the nodal voltage limit violations and fluctuation problem cause concerns on the safety operation of a power system. The intermittent, stochastic, and fluctuating characteristics of PV output power leads [...] Read more.
With the intensive integration of photovoltaic (PV) sources into the low-voltage distribution networks (LVDN), the nodal voltage limit violations and fluctuation problem cause concerns on the safety operation of a power system. The intermittent, stochastic, and fluctuating characteristics of PV output power leads to the frequent and fast fluctuation of nodal voltages. To address the voltage limit violation and fluctuation problem, this paper proposes a distributed nodal voltage regulation method based on photovoltaic reactive power and on-load tap changer transformers (OLTC). Using the local Q/V (Volt/Var) feedback controller derived from the grid sensitivity matrix, the voltage magnitude information is adopted to adjust the output of PV systems. Moreover, in order to share the burden of voltage regulation among distributed PV systems, a weighted distributed reactive power sharing algorithm is designed to achieve the voltage regulation according to the rated reactive power. Theoretical analysis is provided to show the convergence of the proposed algorithm. Additionally, the coordination strategy for distributed PV systems and OLTC is provided to reduce the reactive power outputs of PV systems. Five simulation case studies are designed to show the effectiveness of the proposed voltage regulation strategy, where the voltage regulation and proportional reactive power sharing can be achieved simultaneously. Full article
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16 pages, 1021 KiB  
Article
Sequential Design of Decentralized Robust Controllers for Strongly Interconnected Inverter-Based Distributed Generation Systems: A Comparative Study versus Independent Design
by Milad Shojaee and S. Mohsen Azizi
Energies 2022, 15(23), 8995; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15238995 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Internal oscillations among multiple generation systems in low-voltage stand-alone nanogrids and small-scale microgrids can cause instability in the entire generation system. This issue becomes worse when the coupling strength between the generation systems increases, which is a result of a shorter distance between [...] Read more.
Internal oscillations among multiple generation systems in low-voltage stand-alone nanogrids and small-scale microgrids can cause instability in the entire generation system. This issue becomes worse when the coupling strength between the generation systems increases, which is a result of a shorter distance between them and a smaller reactance to resistance ratio. Previous approaches, which were based on the independent control design and considered the coupling effect as disturbances, may fail to tackle this issue when the two generation systems become strongly coupled. Therefore, in this paper a novel method is proposed to handle this coupling effect by designing robust decentralized controllers in a sequential manner to address the problem of voltage and frequency control in a nanogrid. This proposed sequential design is a general technique that is applicable to multiple inverter-based generation systems in a nanogrid or small-scale microgrid. For the ease of demonstration, in this paper the case of two interconnected inverters with LC output filters is studied. Two robust decentralized controllers are designed for the two inverter systems by using the μ-synthesis technique. The sequential design takes into account the interconnection line between the two inverters. Moreover, the controllers are designed to be robust against all the parameter variations in the system including the LC filter and interconnection line parameters. The simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed controller over the independently-designed controllers for the case of two generation systems that are highly coupled due to the short distance between them. Moreover, the proposed controller is shown to be robust against the LC filter and interconnection line parameter uncertainties as compared to the sequentially-designed linear quadratic Gaussian controllers. Full article
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23 pages, 13156 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Dual Active Bridge-Based DC-DC Converter Topologies, High-Frequency Transformer, and Control Techniques
by Haris Ataullah, Taosif Iqbal, Ihsan Ullah Khalil, Usman Ali, Vojtech Blazek, Lukas Prokop and Nasim Ullah
Energies 2022, 15(23), 8944; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15238944 - 26 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6153
Abstract
A power conversion system needs high efficiency for modern-day applications. A DC–DC isolated bidirectional dual active bridge-based converter promises high efficiency and reliability. There are several converter topologies available in the market claiming to be the best of their type, so it is [...] Read more.
A power conversion system needs high efficiency for modern-day applications. A DC–DC isolated bidirectional dual active bridge-based converter promises high efficiency and reliability. There are several converter topologies available in the market claiming to be the best of their type, so it is essential to choose from them based on the best possible result for operation in a variety of applications. As a result, this article examines the characteristics, functionality, and benefits of dual active bridge-based DC–DC converter topologies and the other members of the family, as well as their limits and future advances. A high-frequency transformer is also an important device that is popular due to high leakage inductance in dual active bridge (DAB) converters. Therefore, a detailed review is presented, and after critical analysis, minimized leakage inductance in the toroidal transformer is obtained using the ANSYS Maxwell platform. Furthermore, this work includes a comprehensive examination of the control approaches for DAB converters, which is important for selecting the most appropriate technique for a certain application. The outcome of ANSYS Maxwell is integrated with a DAB-based boost inverter in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, and the results are validated with the help of an experimental prototype. Full article
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19 pages, 5559 KiB  
Article
Bifurcation Stability Analysis of the Synchronverter in a Microgrid
by Juan Segundo Ramírez, Josué Hernández Ramírez, Nancy Visairo Cruz and Rafael Peña Gallardo
Energies 2022, 15(21), 7992; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15217992 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1586
Abstract
Synchronized converters are being studied as a viable alternative to address the transition from synchronous generation to power-electronics-based generation systems. One of the important features that make the synchronous generator an unrivaled alternative for power generation is its stability properties and inherent inertial [...] Read more.
Synchronized converters are being studied as a viable alternative to address the transition from synchronous generation to power-electronics-based generation systems. One of the important features that make the synchronous generator an unrivaled alternative for power generation is its stability properties and inherent inertial response. This work presents a stability analysis of a synchronverter-based system conducted through the bifurcation theory to expose its stability regions in a grid-connected configuration with an aggregate load model conformed by a ZIP model and an induction motor model. One and two-parameter bifurcation diagrams on the gain, load, and Thévenin equivalent plane are computed and analyzed. All the results confirm the strong stability properties of the syncronverter. Some relevant findings are that the reduction in a droop gain or time constant results in Hopf bifurcations and inertia reduction, but the increase in the time constant leads to decoupling between the reactive and active power loops. It is also found that the increment of a specific time constant (τf>0.02 s) increases the stability region on the droop gains plane to all positive values. It is also found that a low lagging power factor reduces the feasible operating and stable operating regions. For a lagging power factor above 0.755, subcritical Hopf bifurcation disappears, and also, the feasible operating solution overlaps the stability region. Finally, it is also found how the Thévenin equivalent affects the stability and that the stability boundary is delimited by Hopf bifurcations. The bifurcation diagrams are numerically computed using XPP Auto software. Full article
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Review

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31 pages, 5047 KiB  
Review
Water Content in Transformer Insulation System: A Review on the Detection and Quantification Methods
by Siti Rosilah Arsad, Pin Jern Ker, Md. Zaini Jamaludin, Pooi Ying Choong, Hui Jing Lee, Vimal Angela Thiviyanathan and Young Zaidey Yang Ghazali
Energies 2023, 16(4), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16041920 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3988
Abstract
Water can be an irritant to a power transformer, as it is recognized as a major hazard to the operation of transformers. The water content of a transformer insulation system comprises the water in the transformer insulation oil and in the cellulose paper. [...] Read more.
Water can be an irritant to a power transformer, as it is recognized as a major hazard to the operation of transformers. The water content of a transformer insulation system comprises the water in the transformer insulation oil and in the cellulose paper. The increase in the water content in the insulation system leads to reduced breakdown voltage, accelerated aging of the oil–paper insulation system, and the possibility of producing bubbles at high temperatures. Therefore, various techniques have been applied to measure the water content in both oil and paper insulation. This article comprehensively reviews and analyzes the methods (technically or nontechnically) that have been used to monitor the water content in transformer insulation systems. Apart from discussing the advantages and major drawbacks of these methods, the accuracy, measurement time, and cost of each technique are also elucidated in this review. This review can be extremely useful to the utility in monitoring and maintaining the good condition of transformers. Based on the reviewed methods and their challenges, a few future research directions and prospects for determining the water content in transformer insulation systems are outlined, such as utilizing artificial intelligence and enhancing current techniques. Full article
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