New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioelectronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 16 June 2024 | Viewed by 46282

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), EE-259D, 1150 10th Ave. S., Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
Interests: wearable technologies; neural and bionic implantable microelectronic systems; bio-sensor interface; integrated analog/mixed signal circuits and micro systems; wireless power/data transmission; ultrasound technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
TU Wien (Austria), Gußhausstraße 27-29, 1040 Vienna, Austria
Interests: Wearable healthcare; computational self-awareness; affective computing; and embedded system design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

New biomedical technologies, offer efficient and cost-effective solutions that allow us to understand our nature better and help overcome our disabilities, diagnose our diseases, and provide more advanced treatment options. The recent advances in developing biomedical systems and circuits, such as wearable and implantable devices, wireless sensors, etc. have opened opportunities for developing new assistive, diagnostic, and treatment technologies, supporting biomedical, healthcare, and well-being needs. Designing novel circuits and systems is the main driving force of such advancement. This Special Issue will focus on all aspects of the research and development related to the biomedical area, including but not limited to ultra-low-power apparatus, mixed-signal integrated devices, wireless and portable wearables, sensors and sensor interfaces, brain-machine interfaces, biomedical signal processing, and application areas of biomedical systems. Our objective is to highlight the capabilities of new technologies for a wide variety of biomedical applications, lying at the intersection between the life sciences, computer science and circuits and systems engineering disciplines. Original research papers that focus on the design and experimental implementation of new biomedical circuits and systems, as well as papers that focus on their testing for biomedical and clinical applications, are welcome. In addition to original research articles, review articles will be considered for publication as well.

We look forward to, and welcome, your participation in this Special Issue.

Dr. S. Abdollah Mirbozorgi
Dr. Nima TaheriNejad
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomedical Circuits and Systems
  • Wearable Biomedical Systems
  • Bio-Implants
  • Neural and Rehabilitation Engineering
  • Bio Signal Recording
  • Vital Sign Monitoring 
  • Wireless Biosensors 
  • Biomedical Signal Processing
  • IoT and Personalized Health Care
  • Point-of-Care and Diagnostic Systems
  • Human-Machine Interface
  • Application and Impact of Biomedical Systems

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 3049 KiB  
Article
A Mechatronic Cardiovascular Simulation System for Jugular Venous Echo-Doppler Training
by Antonino Proto, Andrea Cavalieri, Giacomo Gadda, Angelo Taibi, Luca Astolfi, Marcello Bonfè, Alessandro Bertagnon, Maddalena Nonato, Marco Gavanelli, Giulia Cristofori, Andrea D’Antona and Saverio Farsoni
Electronics 2023, 12(11), 2419; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12112419 - 26 May 2023
Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Echo-doppler examination of the jugular vessel is a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of cardiovascular disorders that can be further related to central nervous system diseases. Unfortunately, the ultrasound technique is strongly operator-dependent, so the quality of the scan, the accuracy of [...] Read more.
Echo-doppler examination of the jugular vessel is a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of cardiovascular disorders that can be further related to central nervous system diseases. Unfortunately, the ultrasound technique is strongly operator-dependent, so the quality of the scan, the accuracy of the measurement, and therefore the rapidity and robustness of the diagnosis reflect the degree of training. The paper presents the development of a mechatronic simulation system for improving the skill of novice physicians in echo-doppler procedures. The patient is simulated by a silicone manikin whose materials are designed to have a realistic ultrasound response. Two tubes allow blood-mimicking fluid to flow inside the manikin, simulating the hemodynamics of the internal jugular vein. The mechatronic system is designed for controlling the flow waveform, to reproduce several clinical cases of interest for diagnosis. The experiments investigate the accuracy of the echo-doppler measurements performed on the proposed system by novice operators using a real ultrasound scanner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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19 pages, 2650 KiB  
Article
Lightweight Deep Learning Model for Real-Time Colorectal Polyp Segmentation
by Seung-Min Jeong, Seung-Gun Lee, Chae-Lin Seok, Eui-Chul Lee and Jun-Young Lee
Electronics 2023, 12(9), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12091962 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
In colonoscopy, computer vision and artificial intelligence technology have enabled the automatic detection of the location of polyps and their visualization. These advancements have facilitated considerable research in the field. However, deep learning models used in the segmentation problem for capturing various patterns [...] Read more.
In colonoscopy, computer vision and artificial intelligence technology have enabled the automatic detection of the location of polyps and their visualization. These advancements have facilitated considerable research in the field. However, deep learning models used in the segmentation problem for capturing various patterns of polyps are becoming increasingly complex, which has rendered their operation in real time difficult. To identify and overcome this problem, a study was conducted on a model capable of precise polyp segmentation while increasing its processing speed. First, an efficient, high-performance, and lightweight model suitable for the segmentation of polyps was sought; the performance of existing segmentation models was compared and combined to obtain a learning model that exhibited good accuracy and speed. Next, hyperparameters were found for the MobileNetV3-encoder-based DeepLabV3+ model and, after tuning the hyperparameters, quantitative and qualitative results were compared, and the final model was selected. The experimental results showed that this model achieved high accuracy, with a Dice coefficient of 93.79%, while using a limited number of parameters and computational resources. Specifically, the model used 6.18 million parameters and 1.623 giga floating point operations for the CVC-ClinicDB dataset. This study revealed that increasing the amount of computation and parameters of the model did not guarantee unconditional performance. Furthermore, for the search and removal of polyps in cases in which morphological information is critical, an efficient model with low model complexity and high accuracy was proposed for real-time segmentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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13 pages, 1148 KiB  
Article
Detection of Inferior Vena Cava in Ultrasound Scans through a Deep Learning Model
by Piero Policastro, Giovanni Chiarion, Francesco Ponzio, Leonardo Ermini, Stefania Civera, Stefano Albani, Giuseppe Musumeci, Silvestro Roatta and Luca Mesin
Electronics 2023, 12(7), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12071725 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Ultrasound (US) scans of inferior vena cava (IVC) are widely adopted by healthcare providers to assess patients’ volume status. Unfortunately, this technique is extremely operator dependent. Recently, new techniques have been introduced to extract stable and objective information from US images by automatic [...] Read more.
Ultrasound (US) scans of inferior vena cava (IVC) are widely adopted by healthcare providers to assess patients’ volume status. Unfortunately, this technique is extremely operator dependent. Recently, new techniques have been introduced to extract stable and objective information from US images by automatic IVC edge tracking. However, these methods require prior interaction with the operator, which leads to a waste of time and still makes the technique partially subjective. In this paper, two deep learning methods, YOLO (You only look once) v4 and YOLO v4 tiny networks, commonly used for fast object detection, are applied to identify the location of the IVC and to recognise the either long or short axis view of the US scan. The output of these algorithms can be used to remove operator dependency, to reduce the time required to start an IVC analysis, and to automatically recover the vein if it is lost for a few frames during acquisition. The two networks were trained with frames extracted from 18 subjects, labeled by 4 operators. In addition, they were also trained on a linear combination of two frames that extracted information on both tissue anatomy and movement. We observed similar accuracy of the two models in preliminary tests on the entire dataset, so that YOLO v4 tiny (showing much lower computational cost) was selected for additional cross-validation in which training and test frames were taken from different subjects. The classification accuracy was approximately 88% when using original frames, but it reached 95% when pairs of frames were processed to also include information on tissue movements, indicating the importance of accounting for tissue motion to improve the accuracy of our IVC detector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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18 pages, 7142 KiB  
Article
Early-Stage Lung Tumor Detection Based on Super-Wideband Microwave Reflectometry
by Wasan Alamro, Boon-Chong Seet, Lulu Wang and Prabakar Parthiban
Electronics 2023, 12(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12010036 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2426
Abstract
This paper aims to detect early-stage lung tumors in deep-seated and superficial locations, and to precisely measure the size of the detected tumor using non-invasive microwave reflectometry over a super-wideband (SWB) frequency range. Human lung phantom and lung tumors are modeled using a [...] Read more.
This paper aims to detect early-stage lung tumors in deep-seated and superficial locations, and to precisely measure the size of the detected tumor using non-invasive microwave reflectometry over a super-wideband (SWB) frequency range. Human lung phantom and lung tumors are modeled using a multi-layer concentric cylinder structure and spherical-shaped inclusions, respectively. Firstly, a study on the dielectric properties of human torso tissues is carried out over an SWB frequency range of 1–25 GHz based on the Cole–Cole dispersion model. Intensive full-wave simulations of the modeled phantom under irradiation by a custom-designed SWB antenna array are then performed. Results show that small tumor sizes from 5 mm radius in both deep-seated and superficial locations of the lung tissue can be detected based on the contrast of reflection coefficients and reconstructed images produced from backscattered signals between normal and anomalous tissues. The potential of using SWB microwave reflectometry to successfully detect the lung tumors in their early stages and at different depths of the lung tissue has been demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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19 pages, 9553 KiB  
Article
A Quasi-Wireless Intraoperatory Neurophysiological Monitoring System
by Eduardo Alonso Rivas, Romano Giannetti, Carlos Rodríguez-Morcillo García, Javier Matanza Domingo, José Daniel Muñoz Frías, Graziella Scandurra, Carmine Ciofi, Lorena Vega-Zelaya and Jesús Pastor
Electronics 2022, 11(23), 3918; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11233918 - 27 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring is a set of monitoring techniques that reads electrical activity generated by the nervous system structures during surgeries. In non-trivial surgeries, neurophysiologists require a significant number of electrical signals to be picked up to check the effects of the surgeon’s [...] Read more.
Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring is a set of monitoring techniques that reads electrical activity generated by the nervous system structures during surgeries. In non-trivial surgeries, neurophysiologists require a significant number of electrical signals to be picked up to check the effects of the surgeon’s actions in real time or to confirm that the correct nerves are selected. As a result, cabling the patient in the operating room can become cumbersome. The proposed WIONM module solves part of the problem by converting a good part of those cables into a wireless connection that is substantially transparent to the human operator and the existing medical instrumentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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10 pages, 2457 KiB  
Article
The Influence of a High-Voltage Discharge in a Helicoidal Twisted-Pair Structure on Enzyme Adsorption
by Yuri D. Ivanov, Vadim Yu. Tatur, Ivan D. Shumov, Andrey F. Kozlov, Anastasia A. Valueva, Irina A. Ivanova, Maria O. Ershova, Nina D. Ivanova, Igor N. Stepanov, Andrei A. Lukyanitsa and Vadim S. Ziborov
Electronics 2022, 11(20), 3276; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11203276 - 12 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
The effect of a high-voltage discharge in a helicoidal structure on the adsorption properties of an enzyme on mica has been studied with the example of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The discharge was generated at the expense of a sparkover in a 3 mm [...] Read more.
The effect of a high-voltage discharge in a helicoidal structure on the adsorption properties of an enzyme on mica has been studied with the example of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The discharge was generated at the expense of a sparkover in a 3 mm gap between two electrodes, to which a 10 kV, 50 Hz AC voltage was applied. The electrodes were connected to a twisted pair, which was wound onto a cone, forming the helicoidal structure. The incubation of the enzyme solution near the top of the helicoidal structure has been found to cause an increase in the degree of aggregation of HRP adsorbed on mica in comparison with the control HRP sample. The results obtained should be taken into account in studies of enzymes using biosensors with helicoidal structures as heating elements, as well as in refining models describing effects of low-frequency alternating current, flowing through helicoidal structures, on proteins and biological objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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15 pages, 2885 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Time-Gated SPAD Array with Integrated Coarse TDCs
by Ryan Scott, Wei Jiang, Xuanyu Qian and M. Jamal Deen
Electronics 2022, 11(13), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11132015 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2461
Abstract
Time-gating of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) was commonly used as a method to reduce dark noise in biomedical imaging applications where photon events are correlated with a reference clock. Time-gating was also used to obtain timing information of photon events by shifting the [...] Read more.
Time-gating of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) was commonly used as a method to reduce dark noise in biomedical imaging applications where photon events are correlated with a reference clock. Time-gating was also used to obtain timing information of photon events by shifting the gate windows applied to a SPAD array. However, in this approach, fine timing resolution comes at the cost of a lengthened measurement time due to the large number of counts required for each shift. As a solution, we present a multi-time-gated SPAD array that simultaneously applies shifted gate windows to an array of SPADs, which has the potential to reduce the measurement time compared to a single time gate window. Compared to similar works, this design has fully integrated the multi-gate generation using shared circuitry which also functions as a coarse time-to-digital converter. The proposed array, fabricated in the TSMC 65 nm standard CMOS process, achieved a median dark count rate (DCR) of 37 kHz, 4.37 ns gate widths, 550 ps timing resolution, and a peak photon detection probability (PDP) of 42.9% at 420 nm, all at a 0.8 V excess bias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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12 pages, 1204 KiB  
Article
The Use of Excess Electric Charge for Highly Sensitive Protein Detection: Proof of Concept
by Sergey L. Kanashenko, Rafael A. Galiullin, Ivan D. Shumov, Irina A. Ivanova, Yuri D. Ivanov, Andrey F. Kozlov, Vadim S. Ziborov, Alexander N. Ableev and Tatyana O. Pleshakova
Electronics 2022, 11(13), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11131955 - 22 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1421
Abstract
In highly sensitive bioanalytical systems intended for the detection of protein biomarkers at low and ultra-low concentrations, the efficiency of capturing target biomolecules from the volume of the analyzed sample onto the sensitive surface of the detection system is a crucial factor. Herein, [...] Read more.
In highly sensitive bioanalytical systems intended for the detection of protein biomarkers at low and ultra-low concentrations, the efficiency of capturing target biomolecules from the volume of the analyzed sample onto the sensitive surface of the detection system is a crucial factor. Herein, the application of excess electric charge for the enhancement of transport of target biomolecules towards the sensitive surface of a detection system is considered. In our experiments, we demonstrate that an uncompensated electric charge is induced in droplets of protein-free water owing to the separation of charge in a part of the Kelvin dropper either with or without the use of an external electric field. The distribution of an excess electric charge within a protein-free water droplet is calculated. It is proposed that the efficiency of protein capturing onto the sensitive surface correlates with the sign and the amount of charge induced per every single protein biomolecule. The effect described herein can allow one to make the protein capturing controllable, enhancing the protein capturing in the desired (though small) sensitive area of a detector. This can be very useful in novel systems intended for highly sensitive detection of proteins at ultra-low (≤10−15 M) concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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9 pages, 3613 KiB  
Article
Dependence of Temperature Rise on the Position of Catheters and Implants Power Sources Due to the Heat Transfer into the Blood Flow
by Hossein Zangooei, Seyed Ali Mirbozorgi and Seyedabdollah Mirbozorgi
Electronics 2022, 11(12), 1878; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11121878 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1733
Abstract
This work provides a numerical analysis of heat transfer from medical devices such as catheters and implants to the blood flow by considering the relative position of such power sources to the vessel wall. We have used COMSOL Multiphysics® software to simulate [...] Read more.
This work provides a numerical analysis of heat transfer from medical devices such as catheters and implants to the blood flow by considering the relative position of such power sources to the vessel wall. We have used COMSOL Multiphysics® software to simulate the heat transfer in the blood flow, using the finite element method and Carreau-–Yasuda fluid model (a non-Newtonian model for blood flow). The location of the power source is changed (from the center to near the wall) in the blood vessel with small steps, while the blood flow takes different velocities. The numerical simulations show that when the catheter/implant approaches the vessel wall, the temperature increases linearly for ~90% of the radial displacement from the centerline position to the vessel wall, while for the last 10% of the radial displacement, the temperature increases exponentially. As a result, the temperature is increased significantly, when changing the position of the catheter/implant from the centerline to the area adjacent to the vessel wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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18 pages, 7461 KiB  
Article
Improved Noise Cancelling Algorithm for Electrocardiogram Based on Moving Average Adaptive Filter
by Américo K. Tanji, Jr., Moacyr A. G. de Brito, Marcos G. Alves, Raymundo C. Garcia, Gen-Lang Chen and Naji R. N. Ama
Electronics 2021, 10(19), 2366; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10192366 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2864
Abstract
The electrocardiogram (ECG) is basic equipment used in the diagnosis of cardiac illness. However, in non-developed countries, most of the population does not have access to medical tests, and many hospitals do not even have these ECGs. On the other hand, the electrical [...] Read more.
The electrocardiogram (ECG) is basic equipment used in the diagnosis of cardiac illness. However, in non-developed countries, most of the population does not have access to medical tests, and many hospitals do not even have these ECGs. On the other hand, the electrical signals generated by the heart and acquired by the ECG have low power and are affected by electromagnetic interference (EMI), mainly produced by the electrical system. Filtering EMI when frequency varies is a challenging task. Within this context, this work aims to produce an easy-to-use low-cost ECG with good electromagnetic disturbances rejection. The proposed noise rejection system is composed of two moving average filters and a phase-locked-loop, namely 2MAV-PLL. The system operates with a low sampling frequency and attenuates the EMI noise present in the ECG signal regardless of the amplitude, obtaining a filtered signal with a 44-dB signal–noise ratio (SNR) between the frequencies of± 10 Hz of the fundamental frequency. Simulation and experimental results prove that the ECG system can attenuate the EMI using relatively low sampling frequency, giving adequate information for health professionals to properly evaluate an electrocardiogram. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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11 pages, 2330 KiB  
Communication
High PSRR Wide Supply Range Dual-Voltage Reference Circuit for Bio-Implantable Applications
by Ruhaifi Bin Abdullah Zawawi, Hojong Choi and Jungsuk Kim
Electronics 2021, 10(16), 2024; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10162024 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
On-chip systems are challenging owing to the limited size of the components, such as the capacitor bank in the rectifier. With a small on-chip capacitor, the output voltage of the rectifier might ring if the circuit experiences significant changes in current. The reference [...] Read more.
On-chip systems are challenging owing to the limited size of the components, such as the capacitor bank in the rectifier. With a small on-chip capacitor, the output voltage of the rectifier might ring if the circuit experiences significant changes in current. The reference circuit is the first block after the rectifier, and the entire system relies on its robustness. A fully integrated dual-voltage reference circuit for bio-implantable applications is presented. The proposed circuit utilizes nonlinear current compensation techniques that significantly decrease supply variations and reject high-supply ripples for various frequencies. The reference circuit was verified using a 0.35 µm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. Maximum PSRR values of −112 dB and −128 dB were obtained. With a supply range from 2.8 to 12 V, the proposed design achieves 0.916 and 1.5 mV/V line regulation for the positive and negative reference circuits, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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22 pages, 4996 KiB  
Article
Therapeutic Exercise Platform for Type-2 Diabetic Mellitus
by Je-Hoon Lee, Jai-Chang Park and Seong-Beom Kim
Electronics 2021, 10(15), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10151820 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3008
Abstract
Exercise enables continuous glycemic control for diabetic patients, and it is effective in preventing diabetic complications and maintaining emotional stability. However, it is difficult for diabetic patients to know the appropriate intensity and duration of exercise. Excessive exercise causes sudden hypoglycemia, and patients [...] Read more.
Exercise enables continuous glycemic control for diabetic patients, and it is effective in preventing diabetic complications and maintaining emotional stability. However, it is difficult for diabetic patients to know the appropriate intensity and duration of exercise. Excessive exercise causes sudden hypoglycemia, and patients avoid therapeutic exercise or perform it conservatively owing to the repeated hypoglycemia symptoms. In this paper, we propose a new therapeutic exercise platform that supports type 2 diabetes patients to exercise regularly according to the exercise prescription received from the hospital. The proposed platform includes the following three significant contributions. First, we develop a hardware platform that automatically tracks and records all aerobic exercise performed by a patient indoors or outdoors using a wearable band and aerobic exercise equipment. Second, we devise a patient-specific exercise stress test to know whether the patient is exercising according to his or her usual exercise regimen. Finally, we develop a mobile application that informs patients in real-time whether they are exercising appropriately for their exercise regimen each time they exercise. For platform evaluation and future improvement, we received satisfaction ratings and functional improvements through a questionnaire survey on 10 type 2 diabetes patients and 10 persons without a diabetes diagnosis who had used the proposed platform for more than 3 months. Most users were (1) satisfied with automatic exercise recording, and (2) exercise time increased. Diabetics reported that their fasting blood glucose was dropped, and they were more motivated to exercise. These results prove that exercise must be combined with medication for blood glucose management in chronic diabetic patients. The proposed platform can be helpful for patients to continue their daily exercise according to their exercise prescription. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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19 pages, 5042 KiB  
Article
Portable Knee Health Monitoring System by Impedance Spectroscopy Based on Audio-Board
by Graziella Scandurra, Emanuele Cardillo, Gino Giusi, Carmine Ciofi, Eduardo Alonso and Romano Giannetti
Electronics 2021, 10(4), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10040460 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2528
Abstract
Knee injuries are among the most common health problems in the world. They not only affect people who practice sports, but also those who lead a rather sedentary life. Factors such as age, weight, working and leisure activities can affect the health of [...] Read more.
Knee injuries are among the most common health problems in the world. They not only affect people who practice sports, but also those who lead a rather sedentary life. Factors such as age, weight, working and leisure activities can affect the health of the knees, causing disorders such as inflammation, edema, deterioration of cartilage and osteoarthritis. Although for the diagnosis and treatment of the various pathologies it is always advisable to contact orthopedists and specialized structures, it would often be useful to monitor the state of health of the knees in order to evaluate the healing (or worsening) process and the effects of sport/motion activities or rehabilitation. In this perspective, a portable knee health monitoring system was developed to be used at home or in gyms and sports environments in general. Besides requiring a simple custom front end, the system relies on a PC audio board capable of a sampling rate of 192 kHz to perform bioimpedance measurements at frequencies in excess of 50 kHz. A simple numerical calibration procedure allows to obtain high accuracy while maintaining low hardware complexity. The software developed for the operation of the system is freely available to any researcher willing to experiment with the bioimpedance measurement approach we propose, ensuring the conditions of portability and low complexity. Primary (intracellular and extracellular resistances and cell membrane capacitance) and secondary (real and imaginary parts of the total impedance) bioimpedance parameters can be obtained and analyzed through direct measurements with reference to an equivalent circuit model. The functionality of the system has been tested on nine subjects with different well-known health conditions, providing encouraging results in terms of the ability to correlate bioimpedance measurements to the health status of the knees. If proper clinical trials were to confirm our preliminary results, a system such as the one we propose could be used for fast and frequent monitoring of knee joints, thus possibly reducing the frequency at which complex and expensive medical exams, sometimes involving long waiting lists, must be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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Review

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19 pages, 4342 KiB  
Review
New Frontier in Terahertz Technologies for Virus Sensing
by Tiziana Mancini, Augusto Marcelli, Stefano Lupi and Annalisa D’Arco
Electronics 2023, 12(1), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12010135 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
The recent pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 virus has made evident critical issues relating to virus sensing and the need for deployable tools for adequate, rapid, effective viral recognition on a large-scale. Although many conventional molecular and immuno-based techniques are widely used for these purposes, [...] Read more.
The recent pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 virus has made evident critical issues relating to virus sensing and the need for deployable tools for adequate, rapid, effective viral recognition on a large-scale. Although many conventional molecular and immuno-based techniques are widely used for these purposes, they still have some drawbacks concerning sensitivity, safety, laboriousness, long-term collection and data analysis. Therefore, new rapidly emerging approaches have been introduced such as terahertz (THz)-based technologies. In this contribution, we summarize the emerging THz radiation technology, its solutions and applications for high-sensitivity viral detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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12 pages, 650 KiB  
Review
Motion Tracking Algorithms Based on Wearable Inertial Sensor: A Focus on Shoulder
by Umile Giuseppe Longo, Sergio De Salvatore, Martina Sassi, Arianna Carnevale, Giovanna De Luca and Vincenzo Denaro
Electronics 2022, 11(11), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11111741 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
Shoulder Range of Motion (ROM) has been studied with several devices and methods in recent years. Accurate tracking and assessment of shoulder movements could help us to understand the pathogenetic mechanism of specific conditions in quantifying the improvements after rehabilitation. The assessment methods [...] Read more.
Shoulder Range of Motion (ROM) has been studied with several devices and methods in recent years. Accurate tracking and assessment of shoulder movements could help us to understand the pathogenetic mechanism of specific conditions in quantifying the improvements after rehabilitation. The assessment methods can be classified as subjective and objective. However, self-reported methods are not accurate, and they do not allow the collection of specific information. Therefore, developing measurement devices that provide quantitative and objective data on shoulder function and range of motion is important. A comprehensive search of PubMed and IEEE Xplore was conducted. The sensor fusion algorithm used to analyze shoulder kinematics was described in all studies involving wearable inertial sensors. Eleven articles were included. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 was used to assess the risk of bias (QUADAS-2). The finding showed that the Kalman filter and its variants UKF and EKF are used in the majority of studies. Alternatives based on complementary filters and gradient descent algorithms have been reported as being more computationally efficient. Many approaches and algorithms have been developed to solve this problem. It is useful to fuse data from different sensors to obtain a more accurate estimation of the 3D position and 3D orientation of a body segment. The sensor fusion technique makes this integration reliable. This systematic review aims to redact an overview of the literature on the sensor fusion algorithms used for shoulder motion tracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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24 pages, 3378 KiB  
Review
Revolution in Flexible Wearable Electronics for Temperature and Pressure Monitoring—A Review
by Muhammad A. Butt, Nikolay L. Kazanskiy and Svetlana N. Khonina
Electronics 2022, 11(5), 716; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11050716 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 8696
Abstract
In the last few decades, technology innovation has had a huge influence on our lives and well-being. Various factors of observing our physiological characteristics are taken into account. Wearable sensing tools are one of the most imperative sectors that are now trending and [...] Read more.
In the last few decades, technology innovation has had a huge influence on our lives and well-being. Various factors of observing our physiological characteristics are taken into account. Wearable sensing tools are one of the most imperative sectors that are now trending and are expected to grow significantly in the coming days. Externally utilized tools connected to any human to assess physiological characteristics of interest are known as wearable sensors. Wearable sensors range in size from tiny to large tools that are physically affixed to the user and operate on wired or wireless terms. With increasing technological capabilities and a greater grasp of current research procedures, the usage of wearable sensors has a brighter future. In this review paper, the recent developments of two important types of wearable electronics apparatuses have been discussed for temperature and pressure sensing (Psensing) applications. Temperature sensing (Tsensing) is one of the most important physiological factors for determining human body temperature, with a focus on patients with long-term chronic conditions, normally healthy, unconscious, and injured patients receiving surgical treatment, as well as the health of medical personnel. Flexile Psensing devices are classified into three categories established on their transduction mechanisms: piezoresistive, capacitive, and piezoelectric. Many efforts have been made to enhance the characteristics of the flexible Psensing devices established on these mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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17 pages, 830 KiB  
Review
On the Treatment and Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with EEG Assistance
by David Freismuth and Nima TaheriNejad
Electronics 2022, 11(4), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11040606 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4214
Abstract
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder most notable in children. The disease may affect the ability to focus and cause a physical and mental restlessness and risky behavior. Recommended treatment consists of stimulant administration and behavioral therapy. However, medicating children [...] Read more.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder most notable in children. The disease may affect the ability to focus and cause a physical and mental restlessness and risky behavior. Recommended treatment consists of stimulant administration and behavioral therapy. However, medicating children is problematic since there are indications that brain development is affected by ADHD medication agents. Therefore, behavioral therapy is the preferred approach in ADHD treatment for children. In order to monitor and optimize the success of such behavioral therapies, neuro-feedback methods can be used. The most notable technology used in such methods is Electroencephalography (EEG). In this article, an overview of the pathology of ADHD, EEG and its usage as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the context of ADHD is given. Based on that knowledge, novel EEG measurement modes, new development principles, and system on chip implementations are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Technologies for Biomedical Circuits and Systems)
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