Special Issue "Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Monitoring"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. José Javier Astrain
Website
Guest Editor
Mathematical Engineering and Computer Science Department, Public University of Navarre, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
Interests: health monitoring; wireless sensor networks; unmanned aerial systems (UAS); distributed systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Alberto Córdoba
Website
Guest Editor
Mathematical Engineering and Computer Science Department, Public University of Navarre, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
Interests: distributed systems; semantic web; wireless sensor networks; unmanned aerial systems (UAS)
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For a while now, there has been a tendency to monitor all kinds of production processes, our physical activity, the evolution of our health, our eating habits, our sleep habits, our energy consumption, etc. Our daily lives are dotted with smart monitoring devices in charge of providing a great amount of data concerning many aspects of our lives and activities. Current technology allows classical monitoring, but also activity and lifestyle monitoring.

IoT devices (Internet of Things) make easy the development of health, sport, and home-care applications. Classical monitoring includes issues as air pollution, environmental, water quality, parking occupancy, traffic monitoring, and many others. Actually, different approaches emerge focusing on other more novel aspects such as reliability, quality assurance, accreditation of responsibilities, custody assurance, etc. Current WSN monitoring applications are not only in charge of data collection, but also of guaranteeing its integrity, certifying the processes carried out, and guaranteeing full transparent traceability.

This Special Issue will explore new and visionary applications in wireless sensor networks monitoring. Contributions that address but are not restricted to the following topics are welcome:

  • Medical Internet of Things (MIoT) applications: patient monitoring, elderly monitoring, health assistants, e-nurse, smart and assisted self-care, etc.
  • Smart cities monitoring applications: social patterns identification, governance impact monitoring, informational ecosystem discovery and sharing, participatory applications, etc.
  • Mobility monitoring: dynamic proposition of travel routes according to individual user parameters (phobias, phyllia, allergies, etc.), event-driven mobility due to culture, sport or traditional events, monitoring the environment of people with intellectual disabilities, mobility difficulties (Parkinson disease) or reduced mobility in order to facilitate their mobility through active policies.
  • Aerial surveillance and monitoring: unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in cooperation with wireless sensor networks, optimal data collection, inspection, and monitoring of power transmission lines, large area monitoring, collaborative monitoring.
  • Structural health monitoring: damage detection and characterization for engineering structures, monitoring of the changes experimented by a material, or certain property of a structural system.
  • Environmental monitoring: early fire detection, landslide detection, detection and monitoring of floods and river overflows, forest monitoring, etc.
  • Athlete monitoring: fatigue and recovery monitoring in high-performance sport, smart heart rate monitoring for sports, evaluation of people movement, etc.
  • Multi-sensor fusion approaches

Prof. Dr. José Javier Astrain
Prof. Dr. Alberto Córdoba
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wireless sensor network (WSN)
  • Monitoring
  • Medical Internet of Things
  • Mobility monitoring
  • Structural health monitoring
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Unmanned aerial vehicles

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
DMRVR: Dynamic Milk-Run Vehicle Routing Solution Using Fog-Based Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Electronics 2020, 9(12), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9122010 - 27 Nov 2020
Abstract
Milk-run tours with time windows are an essential strategy to collect goods to minimize production and transportation costs. Due to unexpected events at the supplier production or traffic congestion, delays can occur during the vehicle route execution, causing non-compliance between the logistics operator [...] Read more.
Milk-run tours with time windows are an essential strategy to collect goods to minimize production and transportation costs. Due to unexpected events at the supplier production or traffic congestion, delays can occur during the vehicle route execution, causing non-compliance between the logistics operator and the company. This paper describes the DMRVR (Dynamic Milk-Run Vehicle Routing) solution that uses a dynamic routing algorithm along with fog-based vehicular ad hoc networks for implementing the collection of goods in milk-run operations that respect the company’s time window. When a production delay occurs, the supplier sends a message through the vehicular network to alert the pickup vehicle, forcing it to make dynamic route changes to satisfy the constraints. We have implemented a queue with a timeout and retransmission features to improve the vehicular network’s message delivery. To assess the DMRVR solution, we analyzed the efficiency of the dynamic vehicle routing and the vehicular network impacts. In the experiments, we used an event-based network simulator OMNeT++ bidirectionally coupled with SUMO (Simulation of Urban Mobility), aiming to make the most realistic simulations. Simulation results show the average route time was lower than the time limit imposed by the company with the DMRVR solution. In dense vehicular network scenarios, the message delivery success rate is higher. Conversely, when the vehicular network scenario is sparse, it is necessary to balance network coverage and distribute more RSUs in specific places. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
A Visitor Assistance System Based on LoRa for Nature Forest Parks
Electronics 2020, 9(4), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9040696 - 24 Apr 2020
Abstract
Ecotourism activities are attracting more people each day, including national forest parks. Unfortunately, the number of incidents involving visitors to natural parks grows at the same pace. Among the most prevalent risks inside forests are getting lost and the occurrence of natural disasters. [...] Read more.
Ecotourism activities are attracting more people each day, including national forest parks. Unfortunately, the number of incidents involving visitors to natural parks grows at the same pace. Among the most prevalent risks inside forests are getting lost and the occurrence of natural disasters. In this work, we propose a system for monitoring and assisting visitors of forest parks, based on a low power wide range wireless network, LoRa. The proposed visitor assisting system is composed of mobile terminals that communicate between them and with fixed infrastructure, using a protocol designed for exchanging visitor locations data. The infrastructure consists of wireless gateways distributed on the trails, the totems. User terminals, the mobile nodes, work collaboratively through a Delay and Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN), to cope with the possibility that the gateway infrastructure does not cover the whole trail. In addition to improvements and gains for minimizing risks, the proposal also brings contributions to the preservation of the environment, raising awareness of the influence of human presence in the natural environment and to the development of environmental education actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Health Monitoring System for Snow and Wind Load Measurement
Electronics 2020, 9(4), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9040609 - 03 Apr 2020
Abstract
This article presents a system for monitoring the load caused by strong winds and snow on buildings’ roofs. An estimation of the total load on the structure is obtained by measuring the strain on the main roof girders. The system is based on [...] Read more.
This article presents a system for monitoring the load caused by strong winds and snow on buildings’ roofs. An estimation of the total load on the structure is obtained by measuring the strain on the main roof girders. The system is based on a wireless sensor network structure. The measurement node uses metal strain gauges and strain sensors based on conductive carbon polymers. The application of such sensors allowed us to achieve a measurement resolution of 5.5 ustrain. The node is managed by an Atmeg8A microcontroller. The use of energy saving modes allows for a battery life of 6 months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensor Selection via Maximizing Hybrid Bayesian Fisher Information and Mutual Information in Unreliable Sensor Networks
Electronics 2020, 9(2), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9020283 - 07 Feb 2020
Abstract
The sensor selection problem is addressed for unreliable sensor networks. The Bayesian Fisher information (BFI) matrix, mutual information (MI) and their relationship are investigated under Gaussian mixture noise conditions. To overcome the flaw that the sensor selection methods based on either BFI matrix [...] Read more.
The sensor selection problem is addressed for unreliable sensor networks. The Bayesian Fisher information (BFI) matrix, mutual information (MI) and their relationship are investigated under Gaussian mixture noise conditions. To overcome the flaw that the sensor selection methods based on either BFI matrix or MI could not provide coincident results, the multiple objective optimal (MOP) -based sensor selection approach is developed via minimizing the number of selected sensors while maximizing corresponding BFI matrix and MI. The variable weight decision making (VWDM) and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) approaches are then proposed to find the candidate that can better trade off the cost and two performance metrics. Comparison results demonstrated that the proposed method can find a more informative sensor group, and ultimately, its overall localization performance outperforms the sensor selection methods based on BFI or MI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Monitoring)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Wireless Sensors Network for Monitoring the Carasau Bread Manufacturing Process
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121541 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
This work copes with the design and implementation of a wireless sensors network architecture to automatically and continuously monitor, for the first time, the manufacturing process of Sardinian Carasau bread. The case of a traditional bakery company facing the challenge of the Food-Industry [...] Read more.
This work copes with the design and implementation of a wireless sensors network architecture to automatically and continuously monitor, for the first time, the manufacturing process of Sardinian Carasau bread. The case of a traditional bakery company facing the challenge of the Food-Industry 4.0 competitiveness is investigated. The process was analyzed to identify the most relevant variables to be monitored during the product manufacturing. Then, a heterogeneous, multi-tier wireless sensors network was designed and realized to allow the real-time control and the data collection during the critical steps of dough production, sheeting, cutting and leavening. Commercial on-the-shelf and cost-effective integrated electronics were employed, making the proposed approach of interest for many practical cases. Finally, a user-friendly interface was provided to enhance the understanding, control and to favor the process monitoring. With the wireless senors network (WSN) we designed, it is possible to monitor environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity, gas concentrations); cinematic quantities of the belts; and, through a dedicated image processing system, the morphological characteristics of the bread before the baking. The functioning of the WSN was demonstrated and a statistical analysis was performed on the variables monitored during different seasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Monitoring)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
WSN Hardware for Automotive Applications: Preliminary Results for the Case of Public Transportation
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121483 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The ubiquitous nature and great potential of Wireless Sensors Network has not yet been fully exploited in automotive applications. This work deals with the choice of the cost-effective hardware required to face the challenges and issues proposed by the new trend in the [...] Read more.
The ubiquitous nature and great potential of Wireless Sensors Network has not yet been fully exploited in automotive applications. This work deals with the choice of the cost-effective hardware required to face the challenges and issues proposed by the new trend in the development of intelligent transportation systems. With this aim, a preliminary WSN architecture is proposed. Several commercially available open-source platforms are compared and the Raspberry Pi stood out as a suitable and viable solution. The sensing layer is designed with two goals. Firstly, accelerometric, temperature, and relative humidity sensors were integrated on a dedicated PCB to test if mechanical or environmental stresses during bus rides could be harmful to the device or to its performances. The physical quantities are monitored automatically to alert the driver, thus improving the quality of service. Then, the rationale and functioning of the management and service layer is presented. The proposed cost-effective WSN node was employed and tested to transmit messages and videos, while investigating if any quantitative relationship exists between these operations and the environmental and operative conditions experienced by the hardware. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Monitoring)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Air Quality Monitoring Using Assistive Robots for Ambient Assisted Living and Enhanced Living Environments through Internet of Things
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1375; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121375 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
This paper presents iAirBot, an assistive robot for indoor air quality monitoring based on Internet of Things. The system can communicate with occupants and triggers alerts automatically using social networks. The information can be accessed by the caregiver to plan interventions for enhanced [...] Read more.
This paper presents iAirBot, an assistive robot for indoor air quality monitoring based on Internet of Things. The system can communicate with occupants and triggers alerts automatically using social networks. The information can be accessed by the caregiver to plan interventions for enhanced living environments in a timely manner. The results are promising, as the proposed architecture presents a cost-effective assistive robot for indoor quality monitoring. It connects several technological fields and knowledge areas, such as ambient assisted living, Internet of Things, wireless sensor networks, social networks, and indoor air quality. When compared to other systems, iAirBot stands out for the modularity and scalability of its sensors network, as well as the use of social networks for information sharing. Therefore, iAirBot is a significant system for enhanced living environments, occupational health, and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Monitoring)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Closing the Wearable Gap-Part VII: A Retrospective of Stretch Sensor Tool Kit Development for Benchmark Testing
Electronics 2020, 9(9), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9091457 - 07 Sep 2020
Abstract
This paper presents a retrospective of the benchmark testing methodologies developed and accumulated into the stretch sensor tool kit (SSTK) by the research team during the Closing the Wearable Gap series of studies. The techniques developed to validate stretchable soft robotic sensors (SRS) [...] Read more.
This paper presents a retrospective of the benchmark testing methodologies developed and accumulated into the stretch sensor tool kit (SSTK) by the research team during the Closing the Wearable Gap series of studies. The techniques developed to validate stretchable soft robotic sensors (SRS) as a means for collecting human kinetic and kinematic data at the foot-ankle complex and at the wrist are reviewed. Lessons learned from past experiments are addressed, as well as what comprises the current SSTK based on what the researchers learned over the course of multiple studies. Three core components of the SSTK are featured: (a) material testing tools, (b) data analysis software, and (c) data collection devices. Results collected indicate that the stretch sensors are a viable means for predicting kinematic data based on the most recent gait analysis study conducted by the researchers (average root mean squared error or RMSE = 3.63°). With the aid of SSTK defined in this study summary and shared with the academic community on GitHub, researchers will be able to undergo more rigorous validation methodologies of SRS validation. A summary of the current state of the SSTK is detailed and includes insight into upcoming experiments that will utilize more sophisticated techniques for fatigue testing and gait analysis, utilizing SRS as the data collection solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wireless Sensor Networks in Monitoring)
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