Special Issue "Optical Communications and Networks"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Alberto Gatto

Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39 02 2399 8926
Interests: optical communications systems, advanced modulation formats, innovative optical sources (VCSELs/RSOAs), Digital Signal Processing for optical transmitters/receivers, spatial division multiplexing systems, optical vortices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The continuous growth of bandwidth demands in optical access networks, to support different data traffic types, including mobile backhaul and fronthaul, and the migration towards a more flexible, efficient and agile paradigm of optical metro networks, are posing new challenges, urgently requiring low-cost and power-efficient solutions. In the last few decades, optical communications reached maturity in intra-datacenters and long-haul scenarios, the former being based on simple Intensity Modulation/Direct Detection (IM/DD) multimode fiber optic systems and the latter exploiting digital coherent detection to drastically increase the spectral efficiency and, hence, the transported capacity of the core network segment. Different from intra-datacenter and long-haul transmissions, access and metro networks require innovative solutions, driving research on energy- and cost-efficient photonic technologies, in order to target both capacity enhancement and dynamic and heterogeneous data delivery in a cost-effective way.

The aim of this Special Issue is to gather the most recent developments and applications of optical communication systems, covering, but not limited to, the following scopes:

  • Optical access/metro networks scenarios;
  • Modulation formats for short/medium reach applications;
  • Flexible/agile optical networks;
  • Novel energy- and cost-effective photonics technologies for access/metro networks;
  • Spatial division multiplexing systems (few-mode fibers, multicore fibers);
  • Low-complexity Digital Signal Processing for short/medium reach transmissions.

Prof. Alberto Gatto
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Optical access/metro networks
  • Flexible optical networks
  • Spatial division multiplexing systems
  • Advanced modulation formats (PAM, DMT, OFDM, QAM)
  • Intensity Modulation/Direct Detection
  • Coherent transmission/detection
  • Low-complexity DSP
  • Energy- and cost-effective photonics technologies
  • Optical sources for short/medium reach applications

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis of Bandwidth Allocation Based on Dynamic User Priority for Indoor Visible Light Communication Ultra-Dense Networks
Electronics 2019, 8(3), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8030276
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
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Abstract
Focusing on the high user density in visible light communication ultra-dense networks (VLC-UDNs), this paper proposes a resource allocation method based on dynamic user priority (DUP). Firstly, this paper establishes the DUP model, which realizes a multi-dimensional measurement for differences of users. Considering [...] Read more.
Focusing on the high user density in visible light communication ultra-dense networks (VLC-UDNs), this paper proposes a resource allocation method based on dynamic user priority (DUP). Firstly, this paper establishes the DUP model, which realizes a multi-dimensional measurement for differences of users. Considering the variety of network environments, we dynamically select multiple features of users and achieve the calculation of DUP by fuzzy logic (FL). Secondly, the throughput-maximizing resource allocation (TMRA) scheme with user priority guarantee is proposed. Thirdly, the lower bound of the proposed DUP-TMRA is derived. Simulation results show that the proposed multi-dimensional DUP model outperforms the conventional one-dimensional DUP model and fixed priority model. In addition, the proposed TMRA scheme outperforms the conventional proportion allocation scheme. Finally, in comparisons of system throughput, the proposed DUP-TMRA achieves 4% performance improvement against the conventional required data rate proportion allocation (RPA) method. In comparisons of fairness, DUP achieves the modest performance. In comparisons of satisfaction, when the average blocking probability is higher than 0.45, the proposed DUP-TMRA improves the proportion of satisfied users against the conventional RPA method by up to 17.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Communications and Networks)
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Open AccessArticle QoS-Based DWBA Algorithm for NG-EPON
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020230
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
The next-generation Ethernet passive optical network (NG-EPON) is basically classified into two architectures on the basis of the wavelength sharing by the optical network units (ONUs). The single scheduling domain (SSD) and multi-scheduling domain (MSD) EPON are the two different design architectures for [...] Read more.
The next-generation Ethernet passive optical network (NG-EPON) is basically classified into two architectures on the basis of the wavelength sharing by the optical network units (ONUs). The single scheduling domain (SSD) and multi-scheduling domain (MSD) EPON are the two different design architectures for NG-EPON. A vital task in NG-EPON is to design dynamic wavelength bandwidth allocation (DWBA) algorithms that can meet the future demands of the network subscribers. A number of DWBA algorithms have been designed for time and wavelength division multiplex (TWDM) EPON. The existing DWBA algorithms for TWDM-EPON could be used in MSD-EPON by making necessary parametric changes. The design and implementation of new DWBA algorithms for MSD-EPON are still required specifically. In this paper, we have proposed a quality of service (QoS)-based DWBA algorithm for NG-EPON. We have comparatively analyzed our proposed DWBA with the existing algorithms like earlier finished time (EFT), weighted bipartite matching (WBM), and earlier finished time with void filling (EFT-VF). The results show that our proposed DWBA algorithm performs better as compared to EFT, WBM, and EFT-VF on the basis of average packet delay and average completion time for NG-EPON. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Communications and Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Design of XOR Photonic Gate using Highly Nonlinear Fiber
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020215
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, a comprehensive design and simulation of an all-photonic XOR logic gate is proposed. The design is based on the third-order Kerr nonlinear effect in highly nonlinear fiber, i.e., utilizing the self-phase and cross-phase modulations phenomena. This work presents the first [...] Read more.
In this paper, a comprehensive design and simulation of an all-photonic XOR logic gate is proposed. The design is based on the third-order Kerr nonlinear effect in highly nonlinear fiber, i.e., utilizing the self-phase and cross-phase modulations phenomena. This work presents the first photonic logic gate based on highly nonlinear fiber component only that achieves a data rate of 20 Gbps. Moreover, the design is based on two input binary bit sequences, narrow pulsed by a Gaussian distribution as 8-bit incoming data streams. Also, optical cross connectors with different coupling coefficients are used to generate pump and probe signals and tuneable optical band pass filters are leveraged to perform the logic gate functionalities. Remarkable performance outcomes are concluded from the eye pattern diagram and bit error rate analyzers. Simulation results show that the proposed XOR optical logic gate design is achieved at very low power penalties, low bit error rates, a significant Q-factor, and high extinction ratios as compared to existing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Communications and Networks)
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Open AccessArticle A New Type of AODF Based on an Imitation of the Weft Insertion of a Rapier Loom
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020157
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
The main distribution frame (MDF) is an important component between the user and the operator that supplies a telecommunication service and is the only layer in the seven-layer communication architecture that is not fully automated. In this paper, a cross-connect method for simulating [...] Read more.
The main distribution frame (MDF) is an important component between the user and the operator that supplies a telecommunication service and is the only layer in the seven-layer communication architecture that is not fully automated. In this paper, a cross-connect method for simulating the rapier picking of a rapier loom (shuttleless loom) is proposed to imitate the shedding and the picking action to achieve quick switching. Using the designed “shedding device” and “picking device”, a model prototype of the automatic optical distribution frame (AODF) was constructed and tested for verification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Communications and Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Demand Forecasting DBA Algorithm for Reducing Packet Delay with Efficient Bandwidth Allocation in XG-PON
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020147
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
In a typical 10G-Passive Optical Network (XG-PON), the propagation delay between the Optical Network Unit (ONU) and Optical Line Terminal (OLT) is about 0.3 ms. With a frame size of 125 μs, this amounts to three frames of data in the upstream and [...] Read more.
In a typical 10G-Passive Optical Network (XG-PON), the propagation delay between the Optical Network Unit (ONU) and Optical Line Terminal (OLT) is about 0.3 ms. With a frame size of 125 μs, this amounts to three frames of data in the upstream and three frames of data in the downstream. Assuming no processing delays, the grants for any bandwidth requests reach the ONU after six frames in this request-grant cycle. Often, during this six-frame delay, the queue situation is changed drastically, as much, more data would arrive in the queue. As a result, the queued data that is delayed loses its significance due to its real-time nature. Unfortunately, almost all dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms follow this request-grant cycle and hence lacking in their performance. This paper introduces a novel approach for bandwidth allocation, called Demand Forecasting DBA (DF-DBA), which predicts ONU’s future demands by statistical modelling of the demand patterns and tends to fulfil the predicted demands just in time, which results in reduced delay. Simulation results indicate that the proposed technique out-performs previous DBAs, such as GigaPON access network (GIANT) and round robin (RR) employing the request-grant cycle in terms of Throughput and Packet delivery ratio (PDR). Circular buffers are introduced in statistical predictions, which produce the least delay for this novel DF-DBA. This paper, hence, opens up a new horizon of research in which researchers may come up with better statistical models to brew better and better results for Passive optical networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Communications and Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Model for the Prediction of Rain Attenuation Affecting Free Space Optical Links
Electronics 2018, 7(12), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7120407
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
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Abstract
A model for the prediction of the attenuation induced by rain on free space optical (FSO) links is presented. The proposed methodology is developed, starting from the accurate simulation of the interaction between FSO links (path length up to 5 km) and precipitation [...] Read more.
A model for the prediction of the attenuation induced by rain on free space optical (FSO) links is presented. The proposed methodology is developed, starting from the accurate simulation of the interaction between FSO links (path length up to 5 km) and precipitation maps, from which analytical expressions are then proposed. The model is simple as it only receives the local rainfall statistics for the site of interest as the input, but it is also accurate, as it takes into account the dependence of the attenuation on the drop size distribution (DSD), as well as multiple scattering effects associated with rain, which contributes to reducing the overall predicted attenuation. The proposed model represents a useful tool to dimension FSO links in areas where fog is negligible, i.e., where rain has the highest impact on the link performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Communications and Networks)
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Open AccessArticle Label Stacking Scenarios in Hybrid Wavelength and Code-Switched GMPLS Networks
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100251
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 14 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3919 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) is a promising solution to implement high-speed internet protocol (IP) networks by reducing the layer number. To meet the increasing demand for data traffic, optical packet switching (OPS) is integrated under IP to provide high bandwidth to end users. [...] Read more.
Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) is a promising solution to implement high-speed internet protocol (IP) networks by reducing the layer number. To meet the increasing demand for data traffic, optical packet switching (OPS) is integrated under IP to provide high bandwidth to end users. Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) is perfectly compatible with the routing algorithm in IP/MPLS as it supports packet-switching functions. In this paper, we investigate the label stacking scenarios in GMPLS networks. In GMPLS, label stacking is done to reduce the node complexity by appending multiple labels to a single packet. Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and optical code-division multiplexing (OCDM) signals have been widely used as identifying labels. As the labels can be permutated among the wavelengths or code dimensions, the structure of a label stack can be varied. However, studies on the relationship between label stacking scenarios and network performance are limited. To investigate this issue, we propose three label stacking models: sequential code distribution; sequential wavelength distribution, and random label distribution. The simulation results show that the sequential wavelength assignment, wherein the labels are uniformly distributed among the wavelengths, exhibits the best system performance in terms of the label-error rate (LER). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Communications and Networks)
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