Special Issue "Advanced Control Systems for Electric Drives"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical and Autonomous Vehicles".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Adel Merabet
Website
Guest Editor
Division of Engineering, Saint Mary's University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 Canada
Interests: electric drives; control systems; renewable energy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, electric drives have attracted the attention of researchers in emerging fields such as electric vehicles (EV), renewable energy systems (wind, tidal, ocean, etc.) and high precision motion applications. Electric drives are composed of electrical machines, power electronic converters and control systems. Their efficient operation, for position and speed regulation, is determined by the control system. Furthermore, electric drives are a highly nonlinear, multivariable, time-varying system, depending on the type of the electrical machines, and require more complex methods of control. They constitute a theoretical and practical challenging control problem. The main aim of this Special Issue is to seek high-quality submissions that highlight advances in control techniques for electric drives, address the implementation challenges, and the use in emerging fields.

Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • Control algorithms for power electronics converters;
  • Adaptive control, robust control, predictive control, and sliding mode control;
  • Sensorless control;
  • Fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control;
  • Control of electric drives in electric vehicles (EV)l
  • Control of electric drives in renewable energy systems;
  • State and parameters estimation;
  • Artificial intelligence (neural network, fuzzy logic, etc.) control applications.

Dr. Adel Merabet
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electric AC and DC drives
  • Advanced control
  • Precision control
  • Power converters
  • Fault detection and tolerance
  • Speed and torque control
  • Estimation and filtering
  • Control design and implementation

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Benchmark of Rotor Position Sensor Technologies for Application in Automotive Electric Drive Trains
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1063; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071063 - 28 Jun 2020
Abstract
Rotor shaft position sensors are required to ensure the efficient and reliable control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM), which are often applied as traction motors in electrified automotive powertrains. In general, various sensor principles are available, e.g., resolvers and inductive- or magnetoresistive [...] Read more.
Rotor shaft position sensors are required to ensure the efficient and reliable control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM), which are often applied as traction motors in electrified automotive powertrains. In general, various sensor principles are available, e.g., resolvers and inductive- or magnetoresistive sensors. Each technology is characterized by strengths and weaknesses in terms of measurement accuracy, space demands, disturbing factors and costs, etc. Since the most frequently applied technology, the resolver, shows some weaknesses and is relatively costly, alternative technologies have been introduced during the past years. This paper investigates state-of-the-art position sensor technologies and compares their potentials for use in PMSM in automotive powertrain systems. The corresponding evaluation criteria are defined according to the typical requirements of automotive electric powertrains, and include the provided sensor accuracy under the influence of mechanical tolerances and deviations, integration size, and different electrical- and signal processing-related parameters. The study presents a mapping of the potentials of different rotor position sensor technologies with the target to support the selection of suitable sensor technologies for specified powertrain control applications, addressing both system design and components development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control Systems for Electric Drives)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of a Low-Order FIR Filter for a High-Frequency Square-Wave Voltage Injection Method of the PMLSM Used in Maglev Train
Electronics 2020, 9(5), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050729 - 28 Apr 2020
Abstract
In position sensorless control based on a high-frequency pulsating voltage injection method, filters are used to complete the extraction of high-frequency response signals for position observation. A finite impulse response (FIR) filter has the advantages of good stability and linear phase. However, the [...] Read more.
In position sensorless control based on a high-frequency pulsating voltage injection method, filters are used to complete the extraction of high-frequency response signals for position observation. A finite impulse response (FIR) filter has the advantages of good stability and linear phase. However, the FIR filter designed by using traditional methods has a high order which will cause a large time delay. This paper proposes a low-order FIR filter design method for a high-frequency signal injection method in the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor. Based on the frequency characteristics of the current signal, the requirement that the FIR filter needs to meet were analyzed. According to the amplitude–frequency characteristic of the FIR filter, these requirements were converted into constraint equations. By solving these equations, the coefficient of the FIR filter could be obtained. The simulation and experiment results showed the effectiveness of this low-order FIR filter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control Systems for Electric Drives)
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Open AccessArticle
Realization of the Sensorless Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive Control System with an Intelligent Controller
Electronics 2020, 9(2), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9020365 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents the sensorless control algorithm for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system with the estimator and the intelligent controller. The estimator is constructed on the novel sliding mode observer (SMO) in combination with a phase-locked loop (PLL) to estimate [...] Read more.
This paper presents the sensorless control algorithm for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system with the estimator and the intelligent controller. The estimator is constructed on the novel sliding mode observer (SMO) in combination with a phase-locked loop (PLL) to estimate the position and speed of the rotor. The intelligent controller is a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN)-based self-tuning PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller, applied to the velocity control loop of the PMSM drive control system to adapt strongly to dynamic characteristics during the operation with an external load. The I-f startup strategy is adopted to accelerate the motor from standstill, then switches to the sensorless mode smoothly. The control algorithm program is based on MATLAB and can be executed in simulations and experiments. The control system performance is verified on an experimental platform with various speeds and the dynamic load, in which the specified I-f startup mode and sensorless mode, inspected by tracking response and speed regulation. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has worked successfully. The motor control system has smooth switching, good tracking response, and robustness against disturbance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control Systems for Electric Drives)
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Open AccessArticle
Effective Position Control for a Three-Phase Motor
Electronics 2020, 9(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9020241 - 01 Feb 2020
Abstract
This document presents an efficient proportional derivative (PD) position controller for three-phase motor drives. The regulator has been designed in frequency domain, employing the direct–quadrature (dq) synchronous rotating reference frame and the indirect vector control. The presented position regulator [...] Read more.
This document presents an efficient proportional derivative (PD) position controller for three-phase motor drives. The regulator has been designed in frequency domain, employing the direct–quadrature (dq) synchronous rotating reference frame and the indirect vector control. The presented position regulator is easy to tune and incorporates a feed forward (FF) term to compensate effectively the effect of the load disturbance. This position controller has been validated experimentally by using two industrial three-phase motors: an induction motor (IM) of 7.5 kW and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) of 3.83 kW. The inner proportional integral (PI) current loops of both machines have also been designed in the frequency domain. Each machine has connected in its shaft an incremental encoder of 4096 pulses per revolution, to measure the position. Several simulations and experimental tests have been carried out with both motors, in favorable conditions and also with various types of adversities (parametric uncertainties, unknown load disturbance and measurement noise in the position and current loops), getting very good results and suggesting that this controller could be used in the research area and also in the industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control Systems for Electric Drives)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Control Method of Clutch During Mode Transition of Single-Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010054 - 30 Dec 2019
Abstract
The mode transition of single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) between engine and motor has an important impact on power and drivability. Especially, in the process of mode transition from the pure motor-drive operating mode to the only engine-drive operating mode, the motor [...] Read more.
The mode transition of single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) between engine and motor has an important impact on power and drivability. Especially, in the process of mode transition from the pure motor-drive operating mode to the only engine-drive operating mode, the motor starting engine and the clutch control problem have an important influence on driving quality, and solutions have a bit of room for improving dynamic performance. In this paper, a novel mode transition control method is proposed to guarantee a fast and smooth mode transition process in this regard. First, an adaptive sliding mode control (A-SMC) strategy is presented to obtain the desired torque trajectory of the clutch transmission. Second, a proportional-integral (PI) observer is designed to estimate the actual transmission torque of the clutch. Meanwhile, a fractional order proportional-integral-differential (FOPID) controller with the optimized control parameters by particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to realize the accurate position tracking of the direct current (DC) motor clutch so as to ensure clutch transmission torque tracking. Finally, the effectiveness and adaptability to system parameter perturbation of the proposed control approach are verified by comparison with the traditional control strategy in a MATLAB environment. The simulation results show that the driving quality of the closed-loop system using the proposed control approach is obviously improved due to fast and smooth mode transition process and better adaptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control Systems for Electric Drives)
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Open AccessArticle
Unified Predictive Current Control of PMSMs with Parameter Uncertainty
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121534 - 12 Dec 2019
Abstract
Predictive current control (PCC) applied on permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) has been developed into mainly three methods: the conventional finite-control-set PCC, the double voltage vectors PCC, and deadbeat PCC. However, each approach has its particular calculation way for voltage vectors selection and [...] Read more.
Predictive current control (PCC) applied on permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) has been developed into mainly three methods: the conventional finite-control-set PCC, the double voltage vectors PCC, and deadbeat PCC. However, each approach has its particular calculation way for voltage vectors selection and respective execution duration. This paper, based on the deadbeat idea, presents a unified predictive current control scheme of PMSMs. Under this scheme, the prior three classes are able to be clearly unified into one frame with lower calculation effort. Furthermore, to cope with problem of parameter mismatch in dq-axis current predictive model, a integrated identification method is proposed. Firstly, data selectors are designed to reject abnormal data of sampling signals, and then the interval-varying multi-innovation least squares algorithm is combined with forgetting factor (V-FF-MILS) to approximate the error terms caused by electromagnetic parameters error. The estimated results are online fed to the model of PMSM to enhance its accuracy. Finally, the processor in loop (PIL) simulation results verify that the proposed integrated scheme has advantages in current control of PMSMs with large-scale parameter uncertainty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control Systems for Electric Drives)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Cascade Second Order Sliding Mode Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121508 - 09 Dec 2019
Abstract
This paper presents a cascade second-order sliding mode control scheme applied to a permanent magnet synchronous motor for speed tracking applications. The control system is comprised of two control loops for the speed and the armature current control, where the command of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a cascade second-order sliding mode control scheme applied to a permanent magnet synchronous motor for speed tracking applications. The control system is comprised of two control loops for the speed and the armature current control, where the command of the speed controller (outer loop) is the reference of the q-current controller (inner loop) that forms the cascade structure. The sliding mode control algorithm is based on a single input-output state space model and a second order control structure. The proposed cascade second order sliding mode control approach is validated on an experimental permanent magnet synchronous motor drive. Experimental results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy with respect to speed and current control. Moreover, the robustness of the second-order sliding mode controller is guaranteed in terms of unknown disturbances and parametric and modeling uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control Systems for Electric Drives)
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Open AccessArticle
A Method Based on Multi-Sensor Data Fusion for UAV Safety Distance Diagnosis
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121467 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
With the increasing application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to the inspection of high-voltage overhead transmission lines, the study of the safety distance between drones and wires has received extensive attention. The determination of the safety distance between the UAV and the transmission [...] Read more.
With the increasing application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to the inspection of high-voltage overhead transmission lines, the study of the safety distance between drones and wires has received extensive attention. The determination of the safety distance between the UAV and the transmission line is of great significance to improve the reliability of the inspection operation and ensure the safe and stable operation of the power grid and inspection equipment. Since there is no quantitative data support for the safety distance of overhead transmission lines in UAV patrol, it is impossible to provide accurate navigation information for UAV safe obstacle avoidance. This paper proposes a mathematical model based on a multi-sensor data fusion algorithm. The safety distance of the line drone is diagnosed. In these tasks, firstly, the physical model of the UAV in the complex electromagnetic field is established to determine the influence law of the UAV on the electric field distortion and analyze the maximum electric and magnetic field strength that the UAV can withstand. Then, based on the main factors affecting the UAV such as the maximum wind speed, inspection speed, positioning error, and the size of the drone, the adaptive weighted fusion algorithm is used to perform first-level data fusion on the homogeneous sensor data. Then, based on the improved evidence, the theory performs secondary fusion on the combined heterogeneous sensor data. According to the final processing result and the type of proposition set, we diagnose the current safety status of the drone to achieve an adaptive adjustment of the safety distance threshold. Lastly, actual measurement data is used to verify the mathematical model. The experimental results show that the mathematical model can accurately identify the safety status of the drone and adaptively adjust the safety distance according to the diagnosis result and surrounding environment information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control Systems for Electric Drives)
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Open AccessArticle
On-Off Control of Range Extender in Extended-Range Electric Vehicle using Bird Swarm Intelligence
Electronics 2019, 8(11), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8111223 - 26 Oct 2019
Abstract
The bird swarm algorithm (BSA) is a bio-inspired evolution approach to solving optimization problems. It is derived from the foraging, defense, and flying behavior of bird swarm. This paper proposed a novel version of BSA, named as BSAII. In this version, the spatial [...] Read more.
The bird swarm algorithm (BSA) is a bio-inspired evolution approach to solving optimization problems. It is derived from the foraging, defense, and flying behavior of bird swarm. This paper proposed a novel version of BSA, named as BSAII. In this version, the spatial distance from the center of the bird swarm instead of fitness function value is used to stand for their intimacy of relationship. We examined the performance of two different representations of defense behavior for BSA algorithms, and compared their experimental results with those of other bio-inspired algorithms. It is evident from the statistical and graphical results highlighted that the BSAII outperforms other algorithms on most of instances, in terms of convergence rate and accuracy of optimal solution. Besides the BSAII was applied to the energy management of extended-range electric vehicles (E-REV). The problem is modified as a constrained global optimal control problem, so as to reduce engine burden and exhaust emissions. According to the experimental results of two cases for the new European driving cycle (NEDC), it is found that turning off the engine ahead of time can effectively reduce its uptime on the premise of completing target distance. It also indicates that the BSAII is suitable for solving such constrained optimization problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control Systems for Electric Drives)
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Open AccessArticle
Robust Current Predictive Control-Based Equivalent Input Disturbance Approach for PMSM Drive
Electronics 2019, 8(9), 1034; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8091034 - 15 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The implementation and experimental validation of current control strategy based on predictive control and equivalent input disturbance approach is discussed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) control system in the paper. First, to realize the current decoupling control, the deadbeat predictive current control [...] Read more.
The implementation and experimental validation of current control strategy based on predictive control and equivalent input disturbance approach is discussed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) control system in the paper. First, to realize the current decoupling control, the deadbeat predictive current control technique is adopted in the current loop of PMSM. Indeed, it is well known that the traditional deadbeat current control cannot completely reject the disturbance and realize the zero error current tracking control. Then, according to the model uncertainties and the parameter variations in the motor, an equivalent input disturbance approach is introduced to estimate the lump disturbance in the system, which will be used in the feed-forward compensation. Thus, a compound current controller is designed, and the proposed algorithm reduces the tracking error caused by the disturbance; the robustness of the drive system is improved effectively. Finally, simulation and experiment are accomplished on the control prototype, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed current control algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Control Systems for Electric Drives)
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