Special Issue "Recent Advances in Array Antenna and Array Signal Processing"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 April 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Daniele Pinchera
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
DIEI - University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino, Italy
Interests: antenna array design, MIMO systems, radiowave propagation and non-conventional antennas

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antenna arrays are one of the key features of all modern communication and industrial systems employing RF, microwave, and mm-wave frequencies.

The challenges faced by modern and future communication systems require devices capable of dynamically manipulating the electromagnetic field. The best and most flexible way of realizing these devices is by means of antenna arrays.

Just as an example, the short coming ITC technologies, like 5G and IoT communications, will make a massive use of antenna arrays to satisfy the requirement of thousands of contemporaneously connected devices. Beside the more recent applications, we cannot neglect the importance of arrays and relative signal processing for more "traditional" applications, like radar, satellite communications, astronomical observation.

For all these reasons, the research on arrays, from the first studies in the middle of the last century, has never stopped, and array-related topics are now particularly hot.

The main aim of this Special Issue is to seek high-quality submissions that highlight emerging applications of arrays, addressing recent breakthroughs in the development of array antennas and array signal processing.

The topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Antenna array synthesis
  • Smart and adaptive arrays
  • Active arrays
  • Reflectarrays
  • Sparse arrays
  • Arrays for IoT
  • Arrays for 5G communications
  • Reconfigurable arrays
  • Antenna Array measurements
  • Antenna Array diagnosis
  • Antenna Array optimization
  • Arrays for satellite communications
  • Arrays for astronomical applications
  • Arrays for biomedical applications
  • MIMO and Massive MIMO arrays
  • Beam forming networks
  • Beam forming techniques
  • Target identification and DoA estimation

Dr. Daniele Pinchera
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Design of Novel Nested Arrays Based on the Concept of Sum-Difference Coarray
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010115 - 07 Jan 2020
Abstract
Nested arrays have recently attracted considerable attention in the field of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation owing to the hole-free property of their virtual arrays. However, such virtual arrays are confined to difference coarrays as only spatial information of the received signals is [...] Read more.
Nested arrays have recently attracted considerable attention in the field of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation owing to the hole-free property of their virtual arrays. However, such virtual arrays are confined to difference coarrays as only spatial information of the received signals is exploited. By exploiting the spatial and temporal information jointly, four kinds of novel nested arrays based on the sum-difference coarray (SDCA) concept are proposed. To increase the degrees of freedom (DOFs) of SDCA, a modified translational nested array (MTNA) is introduced first. Then, by analyzing the relationship among sensors in MTNA, we give the specific positions of redundant sensors and remove them later. Finally, we derive the closed-form expressions for the proposed arrays as well as their SDCAs. Meanwhile, different index sets corresponding to the proposed arrays are also designed for their use in obtaining the desirable SDCAs. Moreover, the properties regarding DOFs of SDCAs and physical apertures for the proposed arrays are analyzed, which prove that both the DOFs and physical apertures are improved. Simulation results are provided to verify the superiority of the proposed arrays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Array Antenna and Array Signal Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Tri-polarized Sparse Array Design for Mutual Coupling Reduction in Direction Finding and Polarization Estimation
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121557 - 17 Dec 2019
Abstract
Multi-polarized antenna arrays have the ability to provide both the direction and polarization information of the incident signals, which is important in radar, sonar, wireless communication, remote sensing, and so on. In this paper, a diversely polarized linear array of sparsely located but [...] Read more.
Multi-polarized antenna arrays have the ability to provide both the direction and polarization information of the incident signals, which is important in radar, sonar, wireless communication, remote sensing, and so on. In this paper, a diversely polarized linear array of sparsely located but identically oriented tri-polarized vector antennas (VAs) is designed for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) and polarization parameters of the incident signals in the presence of antenna mutual coupling (MC). In order to reduce the inter-VA MC, a new type of sparse array geometry is proposed, wherein the minimum inter-VA spacing is constrained to be no less than one signal wavelength. Considering the intra-VA MC effect, a full-wave electromagnetic simulation is introduced to fit the manifold vector of an isolated VA. Based on the sparse VA array, a polarimetric subspace scheme is proposed for DOA and polarization estimation. When the knowledge about the intra-VA MC is a priori unavailable, an algebraic polarimetric blind scheme is also provided for DOA estimation. Computer simulations and real-world experiments (using an S-band 24-channel tri-polarized array system) validate the efficacy of the designed array geometry along with the parameter estimation methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Array Antenna and Array Signal Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Grid Reconfiguration Method for Off-Grid DOA Estimation
Electronics 2019, 8(11), 1209; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8111209 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Off-grid algorithms for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation have become attractive because of their advantages in resolution and efficiency over conventional ones. In this paper, we propose a grid reconfiguration direction of arrival (GRDOA) estimation method based on sparse Bayesian learning. Unlike other [...] Read more.
Off-grid algorithms for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation have become attractive because of their advantages in resolution and efficiency over conventional ones. In this paper, we propose a grid reconfiguration direction of arrival (GRDOA) estimation method based on sparse Bayesian learning. Unlike other off-grid methods, the grid points of GRDOA are treated as dynamic parameters. The number and position of the grid points are varied iteratively via a root method and a fission process. Then, the grid gets reconfigured through some criteria. By iteratively updating the reconfigured grid, DOAs are estimated completely. Since GRDOA has fewer grid points, it has better computational efficiency than the previous methods. Moreover, GRDOA can achieve better resolution and relatively higher accuracy. Numerical simulation results validate the effectiveness of GRDOA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Array Antenna and Array Signal Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Bias Correction to Antenna Frequency Response for Wideband Polarimetric Phased Array Radar
Electronics 2019, 8(10), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8101075 - 23 Sep 2019
Abstract
The frequency response of wideband polarimetric phased array radar antenna biases polarization measurement. A bias correction method named the iterative frequency division (IFD) algorithm is proposed in this paper to eliminate the effect of frequency response of the antenna system. The method is [...] Read more.
The frequency response of wideband polarimetric phased array radar antenna biases polarization measurement. A bias correction method named the iterative frequency division (IFD) algorithm is proposed in this paper to eliminate the effect of frequency response of the antenna system. The method is built on a new measurement bias model in which the effects of frequency response on the backscattering covariance matrix are analyzed. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a wideband microstrip patch array element is designed. Simulation results show that the biases of differential reflectivity ( Z D R ) and linear depolarization ratio ( L D R ) can be decreased to less than 0.1 dB and 40 dB even for wide beam direction. The proposed method maintains a favorable polarization measurement accuracy for wideband polarimetric phased array radar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Array Antenna and Array Signal Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
3D Multi-Beam and Null Synthesis by Phase-Only Control for 5G Antenna Arrays
Electronics 2019, 8(6), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8060656 - 11 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper presents an iterative algorithm for the synthesis of the three-dimensional (3D) radiation pattern generated by an antenna array of arbitrary geometry. The algorithm is conceived to operate in fifth-generation (5G) millimeter-wave scenarios, thus enabling the support of multi-user mobile streaming and [...] Read more.
This paper presents an iterative algorithm for the synthesis of the three-dimensional (3D) radiation pattern generated by an antenna array of arbitrary geometry. The algorithm is conceived to operate in fifth-generation (5G) millimeter-wave scenarios, thus enabling the support of multi-user mobile streaming and massive peer-to-peer communications, which require the possibility to synthesize 3D patterns with wide null regions and multiple main beams. Moreover, the proposed solution adopts a phase-only control approach to reduce the complexity of the feeding network and is characterized by a low computational cost, thanks to the closed-form expressions derived to estimate the phase of each element at the generic iteration. These expressions are obtained from the minimization of a weighted cost function that includes all the necessary constraints. To finally check its versatility in a 5G environment, the developed method is validated by numerical examples involving planar and conformal arrays, considering desired patterns with different numbers of main beams and nulls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Array Antenna and Array Signal Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Joint Space and Time Processing for Unknown Mutual Coupling Blind Calibration and Mixed Sources Identification Using Uniform Circular Array
Electronics 2019, 8(5), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050525 - 10 May 2019
Abstract
In classification and localization of mixed far-field and near-field sources, the unknown mutual coupling degrades the performance of most high-resolution algorithms. In practice, the assumption of an ideal receiving sensor array is rarely satisfied. This paper proposes an effective algorithm of mixed sources [...] Read more.
In classification and localization of mixed far-field and near-field sources, the unknown mutual coupling degrades the performance of most high-resolution algorithms. In practice, the assumption of an ideal receiving sensor array is rarely satisfied. This paper proposes an effective algorithm of mixed sources identification using uniform circular array under unknown mutual coupling. Firstly, according to rank reduction and joint space–time processing, the directions of arrival of far-field sources is estimated directly without mutual coupling elimination. Addition, the joint space–time processing can improve the estimation results in the case of low signal noise ratio of incoming signal sources and small number of snapshots. Then, these estimates are adopted to reconstruct the mutual coupling matrix. Finally, both direction and range parameters of near-field sources are obtained through spatial search after mutual coupling effects and far-field components elimination. The proposed algorithm is described in detail, and its behavior is illustrated by numerical examples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Array Antenna and Array Signal Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
A Circularly Polarized Antenna Array with Gain Enhancement for Long-Range UHF RFID Systems
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040400 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
A 2 × 2 circularly polarized (CP) sequential rotation microstrip patch antenna array with high gain for long-range ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) communication is proposed in this paper. In order to meet the operational frequency band requirement of 840–960 MHz [...] Read more.
A 2 × 2 circularly polarized (CP) sequential rotation microstrip patch antenna array with high gain for long-range ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio frequency identification (RFID) communication is proposed in this paper. In order to meet the operational frequency band requirement of 840–960 MHz and, at the same time, achieve enhanced broadside gain, a two-level sequential rotation structure is developed. Series power divider is used as the basic element of the feed network that is implemented with the substrate-integrated coaxial line technology for minimizing radiation losses. The manufactured prototype exhibits a peak gain of 12.5 dBic at 900 MHz and an axial ratio (AR) bandwidth (AR ≤ 3 dB) of 18.2% from 828 to 994 MHz. In comparison with the state-of-the-art, the proposed antenna shows an excellent gain/size trade-off. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Array Antenna and Array Signal Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
On Spatial Smoothing for DOA Estimation of 2D Coherently Distributed Sources with Double Parallel Linear Arrays
Electronics 2019, 8(3), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8030354 - 23 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Considering coherently-distributed (CD) sources are correlated with each other, a two-dimensional (2D) coherent CD source model is proposed according to the characteristics of an underwater acoustic channel. Under the assumption of small angular spreads, rotational invariance relationships within and between subarrays of double [...] Read more.
Considering coherently-distributed (CD) sources are correlated with each other, a two-dimensional (2D) coherent CD source model is proposed according to the characteristics of an underwater acoustic channel. Under the assumption of small angular spreads, rotational invariance relationships within and between subarrays of double parallel linear arrays are derived. As the covariance matrix of spatial smoothing obtained from receive vectors expressed by rotational invariance relationships is proven to be full rank, decoherence of the 2D coherent CD source is proposed by spatial smoothing of the double parallel linear arrays. A propagator method base on spatial smoothing (SS-PM) and estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) base on spatial smoothing (SS-ESPRIT) method established by covariance matrix of spatial smoothing are proposed. The proposed methods do not require peak-searching, angles matching and information of deterministic angular signal distribution function. Simulations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Array Antenna and Array Signal Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Compressed Sensing-Based DOA Estimation with Antenna Phase Errors
Electronics 2019, 8(3), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8030294 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
In array signal processing, the direction of arrivals (DOAs) of the received signals are estimated by measuring the relative phases among antennas; hence, the estimation performance is reduced by the inconsistency among antennas. In this paper, the DOA estimation problem of the uniform [...] Read more.
In array signal processing, the direction of arrivals (DOAs) of the received signals are estimated by measuring the relative phases among antennas; hence, the estimation performance is reduced by the inconsistency among antennas. In this paper, the DOA estimation problem of the uniform linear array (ULA) is investigated in the scenario with phase errors among the antennas, and a diagonal matrix composed of phase errors is used to formulate the system model. Then, by using the compressed sensing (CS) theory, we convert the DOA estimation problem into a sparse reconstruction problem. A novel reconstruction method is proposed to estimate both the DOA and the unknown phase errors, iteratively. The phase errors are calculated by a gradient descent method with the theoretical expressions. Simulation results show that the proposed method is cost-efficient and outperforms state-of-the-art methods regarding the DOA estimation with unknown phase errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Array Antenna and Array Signal Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
Joint Estimation of Doppler Stretch and Time Delay of Wideband Echoes for LFM Pulse Radar Based on Sigmoid-FRFT Transform under the Impulsive Noise Environment
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020121 - 23 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To overcome the limitation of performance degradation of existing methods based on fractional Fourier transform in impulsive noise, and fractional lower-order statistics based method dependence on a priori knowledge of the noise, a novel Sigmoid fractional Fourier transform (Sigmoid-FRFT) is presented in this [...] Read more.
To overcome the limitation of performance degradation of existing methods based on fractional Fourier transform in impulsive noise, and fractional lower-order statistics based method dependence on a priori knowledge of the noise, a novel Sigmoid fractional Fourier transform (Sigmoid-FRFT) is presented in this paper. This novel approach is then used to estimate the Doppler stretch and time delay. Furthermore, the properties of the Sigmoid transform, robustness and boundedness of the Sigmoid-FRFT to the S α S noise, and the computation complexity of the Sigmoid-FRFT method are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Simulation results and theoretical analysis are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the forgoing method. It is shown that the proposed method not only can effectively suppress impulsive noise interference but also does not need a priori knowledge of the noise, with higher estimation accuracy and lower computational complexity in impulsive noise environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Array Antenna and Array Signal Processing)
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