Broadband Antennas and Antenna Arrays

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 16 December 2024 | Viewed by 15533

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
Interests: 3D printed antenna; satellite communication; microwave communication; antenna design
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Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Gwangju 61452, Republic of Korea
Interests: metasurface design; mmWave antennas; rain attenuation; antenna design and wave propagation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Electrical & Data Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
Interests: antenna design and wave propagation; microwave and millimeter wave communication; engineering electromagnetics; metasurface
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent technological advancements in 5G/B5G/6G have attracted significant interest in the efficient utilization of the frequency spectrum. The growing demand of radio traffic has resulted in congestion of necessary bandwidth in a range of defined frequencies. The innovative design of broadband antennas and antenna arrays could be a crucial aspect to address the need for appropriate frequency bandwidth whose parameters and characteristics remains similar over a wide frequency band. In this Special Issue, we are focusing on the application and design of antenna prototypes that could address the growing concern of lightweight, less complex, and affordable antenna structures.

The topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • 5G/B5G/6G technologies;
  • Use of artificial intelligence in the design of antenna and antenna array prototypes;
  • Application of broadband antennas to study rain attenuation behavior in terrestrial, microwave, and satellite communication;
  • Applicability of International Telecommunication Union (ITU) rules and regulation for effective frequency spectrum utilization;
  • Realization of antenna structures through machine learning and deep learning;
  • Three-dimensional (3D) printed antenna prototypes and design of antenna array;
  • Material characterization for the design of broadband antenna and antenna array;
  • Phenomenon of beam steering through parallel plates and lens design;
  • Utilization of metal plating on 3D-printed surfaces;
  • Design of simplified array feed and its application for broadband antenna structures;
  • Effect of polarization on the design of broadband antenna and antenna arrays.

Dr. Sujan Shrestha
Dr. Dong-You Choi
Prof. Dr. Karu P. Esselle
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 20804 KiB  
Article
A Low Profile Wideband Linear to Circular Polarization Converter Metasurface with Wide Axial Ratio and High Ellipticity
by Babar Hayat, Jinling Zhang, Abdul Majeed, Muhammad Ishfaq, Adil Khan and Shabeer Ahmad
Electronics 2024, 13(2), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics13020352 - 14 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
This paper introduces an ultra-wideband (UWB) reflective metasurface that exhibits the characteristics of a linear to circular (LTC) polarization conversion. The LTC polarization conversion is an orthotropic pattern comprising two equal axes, v and u, which are mutually orthogonal. Additionally, it possesses [...] Read more.
This paper introduces an ultra-wideband (UWB) reflective metasurface that exhibits the characteristics of a linear to circular (LTC) polarization conversion. The LTC polarization conversion is an orthotropic pattern comprising two equal axes, v and u, which are mutually orthogonal. Additionally, it possesses a 45° rotation with respect to the y-axis which extends vertically. The observed unit cell of the metasurface resembles a basic dipole shape. The converter has the capability to transform LP (linear polarized) waves into CP (circular polarized) waves within the frequency range 15.41–25.23 GHz. The band that contains its 3dB axial ratio lies within 15.41–25.23 GHz, which corresponds to an axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of 49.1%, and the resulting circular polarized wave is specifically a right-hand circular polarization (RHCP). Additionally, an LTC polarization conversion ratio (PCR) of over 98% is achieved within the frequency range between 15 and 24 GHz. A thorough theoretical investigation was performed to discover the underlying mechanism of the LTC polarization conversion. The phase difference Δφμν among the reflection coefficients of both the v- as well as the u-polarized incidences is approximately ±90° that is accurately predictive of the AR of the reflected wave. This study highlights that the reflective metasurfaces can be used as an efficient LTC polarization conversion when the Δφμν approaches ±90°. The performance of the proposed metasurface enables versatile applications, especially in antenna design and polarization devices, through LTC polarization conversion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Broadband Antennas and Antenna Arrays)
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10 pages, 17890 KiB  
Communication
A Wideband Low-Profile Dual-Polarized Antenna Based on a Metasurface
by Rui Wu, Shuai Cao, Yuan Liu and Shuting Cai
Electronics 2023, 12(23), 4739; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12234739 - 22 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
A wideband, low-profile, dual-polarized antenna using a metasurface (MS) is proposed in this paper. This design consists of a pair of crossed dipoles, an MS, a metal cavity and two baluns. The proposed MS acts as an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC), which is [...] Read more.
A wideband, low-profile, dual-polarized antenna using a metasurface (MS) is proposed in this paper. This design consists of a pair of crossed dipoles, an MS, a metal cavity and two baluns. The proposed MS acts as an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC), which is designed for the ±90° reflection-phase bandwidth of 1.4–2.9 GHz. Compared with the 0.25λ0 profile of the traditional crossed dipoles, the profile is reduced to 0.15λ0 by using the in-phase reflection characteristics of the MS, which realizes the utilization of space. The measured results show that the antenna has a 10 dB return loss of 68.2% with isolation of more than 30 dB (1.45–2.95 GHz). The realized gain is 9 dBi with ±1 dBi variation, especially exceeding 10 dBi from 2.1 to 2.8 GHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Broadband Antennas and Antenna Arrays)
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21 pages, 1487 KiB  
Article
Suppressing Sidelobes in Metasurface-Based Antennas Using a Cross-Entropy Method Variant and Full Wave Electromagnetic Simulations
by Khushboo Singh and Karu Esselle
Electronics 2023, 12(20), 4229; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12204229 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Managing sidelobe levels (SLLs) in metasurface-driven beam-steering antennas poses a significant challenge due to intrinsic factors leading to grating lobes. Our proposed method employs an equivalent model to efficiently optimize large periodic metasurfaces. This model predicts complete metasurface performance, accounting for mutual coupling [...] Read more.
Managing sidelobe levels (SLLs) in metasurface-driven beam-steering antennas poses a significant challenge due to intrinsic factors leading to grating lobes. Our proposed method employs an equivalent model to efficiently optimize large periodic metasurfaces. This model predicts complete metasurface performance, accounting for mutual coupling between patches. We introduce an evolutionary optimization algorithm based on the cross-entropy (CE) method to enhance PGM-based beam-steering antennas and suppress sidelobes. Two strategies are employed: the first is to optimize the patch dimensions for a sidelobe-free pattern, and the second is to maintain the PGM dimensions while optimizing the feed array amplitudes. Both strategies effectively suppress sidelobes, offering insights into the CE method’s applicability and effectiveness for CPU-intensive electromagnetic optimization challenges. The proposed CE method variant retains its simplicity while improving monitoring capabilities, addressing this limitation. Smaller generations yield better improvements per evaluation. The uniqueness of the proposed optimization strategy lies in its utilization of an equivalent 1D metasurface model for optimization that not only considers the mutual coupling between identical unit cells along the y-direction within a complete metasurface but also takes into account the distinct cells along the x-direction. Moreover, the 1D metasurface model incorporates the influence of edge effects along the x-direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Broadband Antennas and Antenna Arrays)
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15 pages, 2310 KiB  
Communication
Design and Performance Evaluation of a Compact Frequency-Reconfigurable Coplanar-Waveguide-Fed Slotted Patch Antenna for Multi-Band Wireless Communication
by Ashfaq Ahmad, Geun Ok Lee and Dong-you Choi
Electronics 2023, 12(18), 3889; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12183889 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
A miniaturized and low-profile planar antenna is a crucial part of any wireless communication system. To cover additional narrowband services and to reduce system complexity, antennas in portable devices should offer several operating bands. In this paper, we propose a coplanar-waveguide-fed (CPW-fed), flexible, [...] Read more.
A miniaturized and low-profile planar antenna is a crucial part of any wireless communication system. To cover additional narrowband services and to reduce system complexity, antennas in portable devices should offer several operating bands. In this paper, we propose a coplanar-waveguide-fed (CPW-fed), flexible, and compact slotted patch frequency reconfigurable antenna with a compact size of 20 × 24 mm2. The designed antenna employs a low-cost Rogers 5880 substrate with a thickness of 0.127 mm. This choice of substrate ensures cost-effectiveness while preserving the desired performance of the antenna. The antenna radiates through five distinct frequency bands, including 5.58–6.25 GHz, 6.05–8.81 GHz, 8.79–9.7 GHz, 9.7–10.22 GHz, and 10.48–15 GHz, depending on the switch on/off condition, thereby enabling the antenna to span a broader range of frequencies for WLAN, C-UWB, sub-6 GHz, and X-band communications. The designed antenna is fabricated and tested in both the on and off states. The measured results closely match the simulated outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Broadband Antennas and Antenna Arrays)
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8 pages, 2642 KiB  
Communication
Microstrip to Slot-Line-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna with Radiation Pattern Diversity for X-Band Application
by Jiwan Ghimire, Daud Khan and Dong-You Choi
Electronics 2023, 12(17), 3672; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12173672 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
This paper proposes a planar wideband microstrip feedline to a slot-line-based patch antenna for high-frequency pattern diversity applications. The antenna consists of two adjacent rectangular patches separated by the ground slots, with a directive patch slot along the edge of the substrate. A [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a planar wideband microstrip feedline to a slot-line-based patch antenna for high-frequency pattern diversity applications. The antenna consists of two adjacent rectangular patches separated by the ground slots, with a directive patch slot along the edge of the substrate. A compact common feedline-to-slot configuration is used to miniaturize the antenna. The antenna is designed in stages, starting with an in-phase feedline, followed by a slot line structure, with two radiating patches on top and a director on the side. This creates radiation diversity with directive radiation patterns. The antenna was fabricated and analyzed inside a far-field anechoic chamber. The experimental results validate the return loss, gain, and radiation performance. The measured results of the antenna within a frequency range of 8.5 to 11 GHz show good agreement with the simulation. The antenna has a maximum gain of 9.2 dBi and has the potential to be beneficial for beam steering and X-band applications due to its low profile, broad bandwidth, high gain, and good directivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Broadband Antennas and Antenna Arrays)
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16 pages, 9467 KiB  
Article
An Ultra-Wideband Integrated Filtering Antenna with Improved Band-Edge Selectivity Using Multimode Resonator
by Meng Zhang, Peng Lei, Ce Zhang, Zhengyu Zou, Jiaqing Yang, Changzhi Yin, Xiaochuan Wang, Wenzhong Lu and Wen Lei
Electronics 2023, 12(15), 3264; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12153264 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1050
Abstract
In this paper, a novel design of ultra-wideband (UWB) filtering antenna integrated with the multimode resonator (MMR) bandpass filter is proposed, aiming to enhance band-edge selectivity. At the beginning, a MMR bandpass filter is modified and studied. Based on the classic MMR filter, [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel design of ultra-wideband (UWB) filtering antenna integrated with the multimode resonator (MMR) bandpass filter is proposed, aiming to enhance band-edge selectivity. At the beginning, a MMR bandpass filter is modified and studied. Based on the classic MMR filter, the proposed filter folds the microstrip transmission line to reduce its size while retaining the original filtering performance. Moreover, an open stub and short stub are added to the proposed filter to obtain a transmission of zero. Then, the folded filter with stubs and a UWB bow-tie antenna are integrated together to form a filtering antenna. The open stub and short stub in the MMR structure enhance the antenna’s upper and lower band-edge selectivity, respectively. Series of parameters are studied to analyze their influences on the frequency selection range and band-edge characteristics. Compared with the original UWB dipole antenna, such an integrated approach brings many benefits. Firstly, the UWB filter not only broadens the bandwidth of the device, but also improves band-edge selectivity, which can eliminate the unwanted passband near the operating frequencies. Secondly, the integrated system reduces the size and cost of the devices, which is very important in the miniaturization of wireless systems. In this research, the reflection coefficient (S11) of integrated filtering antenna is lower than −10 dB between 2.92 and 11.51 GHz, and it has a fractional bandwidth of 119%. The measured shape factor is 1.027 (very close to 1), which proves that this design has a better band-edge selectivity. Simultaneously, good radiation characteristics are also attained, with a maximum realized gain of 6 dBi. Theoretical simulation results are similar to the experimental results. The measurement results of the manufactured device effectively validate that its performances have reached the simulation design requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Broadband Antennas and Antenna Arrays)
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14 pages, 5607 KiB  
Communication
A Metalens Design for On- and Off-Center Focusing with Amorphous Silicon Hydrogenated (a-Si:H)-Based 1D Array in Visible Spectrum
by Jawad Ali, Ashfaq Ahmad and Dong-you Choi
Electronics 2023, 12(13), 2953; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12132953 - 5 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
The use of optical systems in medical imaging, computer electronics, large-scale industries, and space exploration is common. The performance of these devices is closely related to the compactness and fast responses of lenses that are used in these optical systems. Typical lenses suffer [...] Read more.
The use of optical systems in medical imaging, computer electronics, large-scale industries, and space exploration is common. The performance of these devices is closely related to the compactness and fast responses of lenses that are used in these optical systems. Typical lenses suffer from several key issues, including limited efficiency, significant size, and the presence of diffraction-induced distortions that compromise their overall performance. Herein these limitations are addressed by designing and simulating an ultra-thin compact metalens also known as a flat lens using a dielectric metasurface. A 1D array of 31 nano-cylinders is placed on a glass substrate that is utilized for focusing the incident wave both on and off center in the focal plane using simulations. The nano-cylinders are comprised of amorphous silicon hydrogenated (a-Si:H), which has a varying radius in a 1D configuration. Amorphous silicon hydrogenated (a-Si:H) nano-cylinders are utilized for the manipulation of the phase of the incident beam working at a frequency of 474 THz. Three metalenses are introduced with focal lengths of 7.46 μm, 10 μm, and 12.99 μm, each having a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.7, 0.6, and 0.5, respectively. The designed single-array metalens showed a transmission efficiency of 73%. The nano-cylinders obtained a full 0–360 phase control that is beneficial in focusing the beam at the center and beyond the center. Symmetric focusing is obtained in the case of off-center focusing on both sides of the optical axis. The design and simulations of the metalens are performed using finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Broadband Antennas and Antenna Arrays)
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11 pages, 8507 KiB  
Communication
Low-Profile Wideband Dual-Polarized Patch Antenna Based on Differential-Paired Multi-Mode Arms
by Yuanchun Li, Lijuan Wei, Kaixu Wang, Hanzhen Cai and Zihao Chen
Electronics 2023, 12(12), 2604; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12122604 - 9 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1688
Abstract
This paper presents a low-profile wideband, dual-polarized patch antenna using differential-paired, multi-mode arms. By employing the arrow-shaped, differential-paired arms, three modes of them are excited simultaneously, leading to a broad bandwidth. The shorting pins are uniquely inserted at the wings of the arms [...] Read more.
This paper presents a low-profile wideband, dual-polarized patch antenna using differential-paired, multi-mode arms. By employing the arrow-shaped, differential-paired arms, three modes of them are excited simultaneously, leading to a broad bandwidth. The shorting pins are uniquely inserted at the wings of the arms to obtain stable radiation patterns. Then, two pairs of arms are structured like the dipoles and a dual-polarized antenna is designed. In addition, by employing coplanar coupling feeding structures, a good wideband impedance matching is also achieved without increasing the height. For demonstration, a wideband dual-polarized patch antenna is designed and measured. Benefitting from the advantages of the multi-mode patch and symmetrical structure as a dipole antenna, the proposed dual-polarized antenna operates between 2.10–3.95 GHz, possessing a 10-dB impedance bandwidth of 61%, a profile of 0.1λ0, an average gain of 7.31 dBi, and stable radiation patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Broadband Antennas and Antenna Arrays)
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16 pages, 7698 KiB  
Article
Circuit Modelling of Broadband Antenna Using Vector Fitting and Foster Form Approaches for IoT Applications
by Fatima Ez-zaki, Khaoula Ait Belaid, Sarosh Ahmad, Hassan Belahrach, Abdelilah Ghammaz, Ahmed Jamal Abdullah Al-Gburi and Naser Ojaroudi Parchin
Electronics 2022, 11(22), 3724; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11223724 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2684
Abstract
Computation of the broadband antenna impedance behavior requires the wideband lumped equivalent circuit. This work aims to provide a comprehensive study of broadband antenna equivalent circuit models over broad frequency ranges for Internet of Things (IoT) applications using multiple approaches. The first approach [...] Read more.
Computation of the broadband antenna impedance behavior requires the wideband lumped equivalent circuit. This work aims to provide a comprehensive study of broadband antenna equivalent circuit models over broad frequency ranges for Internet of Things (IoT) applications using multiple approaches. The first approach is a Foster approximation, which is based on the antenna-simulated scattering parameters and impedance data. The second concerns a vector-fitting fitting approximation, which is based on the antenna-simulated impedance/admittance data. The studied antenna is modeled based on the radiating element’s geometry and the multifractal slots, in addition to the DGS (Defected Ground Plane) effects. Applying these techniques, wideband lumped equivalent circuits of the antenna have been computed which are in good agreement with measurement data. These models could be useful for the enhancement of the performance of a broadband antenna and its systematic design as well as offering the advantage of saving computation time for full-wave simulations and facilitating the solution of problems that have both an electromagnetic part as well as a circuit part. For further analysis, the Gaussian pulse has been generated to drive a time-domain analysis of the current and power response waveforms antenna behavior under load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Broadband Antennas and Antenna Arrays)
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17 pages, 2860 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Low Sidelobe Pattern with Enhanced Axial Radiation for Sparse Conformal Arrays Based on MCDE Algorithm
by Ning Zhang, Zhenghui Xue, Pei Zheng, Lu Gao and Jiaqi Liu
Electronics 2022, 11(22), 3679; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11223679 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
A hybrid optimization method for the synthesis of a sparse conformal array with the verification of a truncated cone antenna array is proposed in this manuscript. This array synthesis is studied aiming at enhancing axial radiation and reducing the peak sidelobe level (PSLL) [...] Read more.
A hybrid optimization method for the synthesis of a sparse conformal array with the verification of a truncated cone antenna array is proposed in this manuscript. This array synthesis is studied aiming at enhancing axial radiation and reducing the peak sidelobe level (PSLL) by figuring out the optimal antenna element arrangement and corresponding feeding scheme. A multi-agent composite differential evolution (MCDE) algorithm is established by integrating a multi-agent system (MAS) with a differential evolution (DE) algorithm. In addition, a hybrid strategy method and a time-varying weighting factor are added to the mutation operator to accelerate convergence. Two examples of 64-element and 900-element truncated cone antenna arrays were synthesized. After forming a sparse antenna array out of the original full array, the number of antennas was decreased to 80% and 56.8%, respectively. The results show that the main beam of the sparse conformal antenna array is accurately fixed to the axial direction with the PSLL less than −20 dB at both the φ = 0° and φ = 90° planes, which proves the effectiveness of this method in conformal sparse array synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Broadband Antennas and Antenna Arrays)
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