Special Issue "Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Issa Tamer Elfergani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Telecomunicações, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: Reconfigurable/tuneable Antennas, MIMO antenna designs for wireless communication systems, UWB antenna with fixed and tuneable notch, Beam steering antenna, Harmonics Rejection Antenna Techniques, Balanced and Unbalanced Antenna, Mmwave Antenna Array for 5G, Dielectric Resonators (DR) Antennas, High Q RF MEMS bandpass filter design for mobile handset and wireless communication applications, Power amplifier designs
Prof. Dr. Raed A. Abd-Alhameed
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, University of Bradford, BD7 1DP Bradford, UK
Interests: energy-efficient front-end design; radio frequency; energy harvesting; communications systems; 5G communications; sensor design; localisation-based services; signal processing; optimisation process; MIMO system design; health hazards; propagations, antennas and electromagnetic computational techniques
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Abubakar Sadiq Hussaini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, American University of Nigeria, Yola
Interests: Providing solutions for growing technology and integration challenges from Radio Frequency front-end perspective including environmentally friendly Power Amplifiers, RF MEMS Filters, Wideband Antennas, and Millimeter Wave Antenna for 5G Applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

5G will support significantly faster mobile broadband speeds, low latency and reliable communications, as well as enabling the full potential of the Internet of Things (IoT). This will open up the possibility for new services such as tactile communications, smart manufacturing and cities, in addition to enhanced broadband connectivity. Pivotal to 5G is the use of the millimeter wave band, which will support a network of small cells enabling hotspot zones of high capacity and area efficiency. The forthcoming 5G system will truly be a mobile multimedia communication platform that constitutes a converged networking arena that not only includes legacy heterogeneous mobile networks, but advanced radio interfaces and the possibility to operate at mm wave frequencies to capitalise on the large swathe of available bandwidth. This will set in place extensive design requirements that even build on the latest 5G roll-out in the sub 6GHz band.   

Future emerging handsets and base stations will require antenna technology that is multimode in nature, energy efficient, and above all able to operate on the mm wave band in synergy with legacy 4G and sub-6GHz 5G. Antennas should be compact in nature, but with engineering requirements that include increased power, larger bandwidth, higher gain, and insensitivity to the hand-held effect of human users. This requires very innovative solutions in antenna design, which can operate in single and MIMO/Array configuration.

This Special Issue aims to bring together academic and industrial researchers to identify and discuss technical challenges and new results related to the design of 5G antennas.

Specific Topics

We invite researchers to contribute original research articles as well as review articles that seek to address the issues of antenna design for future emerging heterogeneous 5G applications. Submissions can focus on the research concept or applied research in topics including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Antenna design techniques and measurement for 5G systems
  • Multiple antennas for advanced 5G transceivers
  • Multiband 5G antenna
  • 5G Dielectric Resonator antennas
  • Antennas on flexible substrates for medical applications
  • Wearable and implantable antennas
  • RFID antennas
  • Antennas for wireless power transmission and harvesting
  • Beamforming antenna designs
  • Reconfigurable antennas and devices
  • Mutual coupling and isolation techniques between antenna elements
  • Antennas integration in/on vehicles
  • UWB antennas
  • Phased array antennas

Submissions should be of high quality for an international journal, and should not be submitted or published elsewhere. However, the extended versions of conference papers that show significant improvement (minimal of over 35%) can be considered for review in this Special Issue.  In addition, we welcome review papers covering the subjects of this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Issa Tamer Elfergani
Prof. Dr. Raed Abd-Alhameed
Prof. Dr. Abubakar Sadiq Hussaini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 5G system
  • MIMO
  • Array antenna
  • Mmwave
  • Flexible Substrates
  • Wearables
  • Energy Efficient
  • Compact Antenna
  • RF MEMS
  • Reconfigurablity

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Theoretical Study of the Input Impedance and Electromagnetic Field Distribution of a Dipole Antenna Printed on an Electrical/Magnetic Uniaxial Anisotropic Substrate
Electronics 2021, 10(9), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10091050 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 206
Abstract
The present work considers the investigation of the effects of both electrical and magnetic uniaxial anisotropies on the input impedance, resonant length, and fields distribution of a dipole printed on an anisotropic grounded substrate. In this study, the associated integral equation, based on [...] Read more.
The present work considers the investigation of the effects of both electrical and magnetic uniaxial anisotropies on the input impedance, resonant length, and fields distribution of a dipole printed on an anisotropic grounded substrate. In this study, the associated integral equation, based on the derivation of the Green’s functions in the spectral domain, is numerically solved employing the method of moments. In order to validate the computing method and the evaluated calculation code, numerical results are compared with available data in the literature treating particular cases of electrical uniaxial anisotropy; reasonable agreements are reported. Novel results of the magnetic uniaxial anisotropy effects on the input impedance and the evaluated electromagnetic field are presented and discussed. This work will serve as a stepping stone for further works for a better understanding of the electromagnetic field behavior in complex anisotropic and bi-anisotropic media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Infinity Shell Shaped MIMO Antenna Array for mm-Wave 5G Applications
Electronics 2021, 10(2), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10020165 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 660
Abstract
In this paper, a novel single layer Multiple Input–Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna for Fifth-Generation (5G) 28 GHz frequency band applications is proposed and investigated. The proposed MIMO antenna operates in the Ka-band, which is the most desirable frequency band for 5G mm-wave communication. [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel single layer Multiple Input–Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna for Fifth-Generation (5G) 28 GHz frequency band applications is proposed and investigated. The proposed MIMO antenna operates in the Ka-band, which is the most desirable frequency band for 5G mm-wave communication. The dielectric material is a Rogers-5880 with a relative permittivity, thickness and loss tangent of 2.2, 0.787 mm and 0.0009, respectively, in the proposed antenna design. The proposed MIMO configuration antenna element consists of triplet circular shaped rings surrounded by an infinity-shaped shell. The simulated gain achieved by the proposed design is 6.1 dBi, while the measured gain is 5.5 dBi. Furthermore, the measured and simulated antenna efficiency is 90% and 92%, respectively. One of the MIMO performance metrics—i.e., the Envelope Correlation Coefficient (ECC)—is also analyzed and found to be less than 0.16 for the entire operating bandwidth. The proposed MIMO design operates efficiently with a low ECC, better efficiency and a satisfactory gain, showing that the proposed design is a potential candidate for mm-wave communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Compact Rectifier Circuit Design for Harvesting GSM/900 Ambient Energy
Electronics 2020, 9(10), 1614; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9101614 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
In this paper, a compact rectifier, capable of harvesting ambient radio frequency (RF) power is proposed. The total size of the rectifier is 45.4 mm × 7.8 mm × 1.6 mm, designed on FR-4 substrate using a single-stage voltage multiplier at 900 MHz. [...] Read more.
In this paper, a compact rectifier, capable of harvesting ambient radio frequency (RF) power is proposed. The total size of the rectifier is 45.4 mm × 7.8 mm × 1.6 mm, designed on FR-4 substrate using a single-stage voltage multiplier at 900 MHz. GSM/900 is among the favorable RF Energy Harvesting (RFEH) energy sources that span over a wide range with minimal path loss and high input power. The proposed RFEH rectifier achieves measured and simulated RF-to-dc (RF to direct current) power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 43.6% and 44.3% for 0 dBm input power, respectively. Additionally, the rectifier attained 3.1 V DC output voltage across 2 kΩ load terminal for 14 dBm and is capable of sensing low input power at −20 dBm. The work presents a compact rectifier to harvest RF energy at 900 MHz, making it a good candidate for low powered wireless communication systems as compares to the other state of the art rectifier. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation Improvement in UWB-MIMO Antenna System Using Slotted Stub
Electronics 2020, 9(10), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9101582 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scheme refers to the technology where more than one antenna is used for transmitting and receiving the information packets. It enhances the channel capacity without more power. The available space in the modern compact devices is limited and MIMO antenna [...] Read more.
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scheme refers to the technology where more than one antenna is used for transmitting and receiving the information packets. It enhances the channel capacity without more power. The available space in the modern compact devices is limited and MIMO antenna elements need to be placed closely. The closely spaced antennas undergo an undesirable coupling, which deteriorates the antenna parameters. In this paper, an ultra wide-band (UWB) MIMO antenna system with an improved isolation is presented. The system has a wide bandwidth range from 2–13.7 GHz. The antenna elements are closely placed with an edge to edge distance of 3 mm. In addition to the UWB attribute of the system, the mutual coupling between the antennas is reduced by using slotted stub. The isolation is improved and is below 20 dB within the whole operating range. By introducing the decoupling network, the key performance parameters of the antenna are not affected. The system is designed on an inexpensive and easily available FR-4 substrate. To better understand the working of the proposed system, the equivalent circuit model is also presented. To model the proposed system accurately, different radiating modes and inter-mode coupling is considered and modeled. The EM model, circuit model, and the measured results are in good agreement. Different key performance parameters of the system and the antenna element such as envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), diversity gain, channel capcity loss (CCL) gain, radiation patterns, surface currents, and scattering parameters are presented. State-of-the-art comparison with the recent literature shows that the proposed antenna has minimal dimensions, a large bandwidth, an adequate gain value and a high isolation. It is worth noticeable that the proposed antenna has high isolation even the patches has low edge-to-edge gap (3 mm). Based on its good performance and compact dimensions, the proposed antenna is a suitable choice for high throughput compact UWB transceivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Asymmetric Patch Reflectarray Antenna with Ground Ring Slots for 5G Communication Systems
Electronics 2020, 9(9), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9091450 - 05 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
The narrow bandwidth and low gain performances of a reflectarray are generally improved at the cost of high design complexity, which is not a good sign for high-frequency operation. A dual resonance asymmetric patch reflectarray antenna with a single layer is proposed in [...] Read more.
The narrow bandwidth and low gain performances of a reflectarray are generally improved at the cost of high design complexity, which is not a good sign for high-frequency operation. A dual resonance asymmetric patch reflectarray antenna with a single layer is proposed in this work for 5G communication at 26 GHz. The asymmetric patch is developed from a square patch by tilting its one vertical side by a carefully optimized inclination angle. A progressive phase range of 650° is acquired by embedding a circular ring slot in the ground plane of the proposed element for gain improvement. A 332-element, center feed reflectarray is designed and tested, where its high cross polarization is suppressed by mirroring the orientation of asymmetric patches on its surface. The asymmetric patch reflectarray offers a 3 dB gain bandwidth of 3 GHz, which is 4.6% wider than the square patch reflectarray. A maximum measured gain of 24.4 dB has been achieved with an additional feature of dual linear polarization. Simple design with wide bandwidth and high-gain of asymmetric patch reflectarray make it suitable to be used in 5G communications at high frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Modified U-Shaped Resonator as Decoupling Structure in MIMO Antenna
Electronics 2020, 9(8), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9081321 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
This paper presents an isolation enhancement of two closely packed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system using a modified U-shaped resonator. The modified U-shaped resonator is placed between two closely packed radiating elements resonating at 5.4 GHz with an edge to edge separation distance [...] Read more.
This paper presents an isolation enhancement of two closely packed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system using a modified U-shaped resonator. The modified U-shaped resonator is placed between two closely packed radiating elements resonating at 5.4 GHz with an edge to edge separation distance of 5.82 mm (λ/10). Through careful adjustment of parametric modelling, the isolation level of −23 dB among the densely packed elements is achieved. The coupling behaviour of the MIMO elements is analysed by accurately designing the equivalent circuit model in each step. The antenna performance is realized in the presence and absence of decoupling structure, and the results shows negligible effects on the antenna performance apart from mutual coupling. The simple assembly of the proposed modified U-shaped isolating structure makes it useful for several linked applications. The proposed decoupling structure is compact in nature, suppress the undesirable coupling generated by surface wave and nearby fields, and is easy to fabricate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
A New and Compact Wide-Band Microstrip Filter-Antenna Design for 2.4 GHz ISM Band and 4G Applications
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071084 - 02 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1272
Abstract
A new and compact four-pole wide-band planar filter-antenna design is proposed in this article. The effect of the dielectric material type on the characteristics of the design is also investigated and presented. The filter-antenna structure is formed by a fourth-order planar band-pass filter [...] Read more.
A new and compact four-pole wide-band planar filter-antenna design is proposed in this article. The effect of the dielectric material type on the characteristics of the design is also investigated and presented. The filter-antenna structure is formed by a fourth-order planar band-pass filter (BPF) cascaded with a monopole microstrip antenna. The designed filter-antenna operates at a centre frequency of 2.4 GHz and has a relatively wide-band impedance bandwidth of about 1.22 GHz and a fractional bandwidth (FBW) of about 50%. The effects of three different types of substrate material, which are Rogers RT5880, Rogers RO3003, and FR-4, are investigated and presented using the same configuration. The filter-antenna design is simulated and optimised using computer simulation technology (CST) software and is fabricated and measured using a Rogers RT5880 substrate with a height (h) of 0.81 mm, a dielectric constant of 2.2, and a loss tangent of 0.0009. The structure is printed on a compact size of 0.32 λ0 × 0.30 λ0, where λ0 is the free-space wavelength at the centre frequency. A good agreement is obtained between the simulation and measurement performance. The designed filter-antenna with the achieved performance can find different applications for 2.4 GHz ISM band and 4G wireless communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
A Survey on Reconfigurable Microstrip Filter–Antenna Integration: Recent Developments and Challenges
Electronics 2020, 9(8), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9081249 - 04 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Reconfigurable and tunable radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) components have become exciting topics for many researchers and design engineers in recent years. Reconfigurable microstrip filter–antenna combinations have been studied in the literature to handle multifunctional tasks for wireless communication systems. Using such [...] Read more.
Reconfigurable and tunable radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) components have become exciting topics for many researchers and design engineers in recent years. Reconfigurable microstrip filter–antenna combinations have been studied in the literature to handle multifunctional tasks for wireless communication systems. Using such devices can reduce the need for many RF components and minimize the cost of the whole wireless system, since the changes in the performance of these applications are achieved using electronic tuning techniques. However, with the rapid development of current fourth-generation (4G) and fifth-generation (5G) applications, compact and reconfigurable structures with a wide tuning range are in high demand. However, meeting these requirements comes with some challenges, namely the increased design complexity and system size. Accordingly, this paper aims to discuss these challenges and review the recent developments in the design techniques used for reconfigurable filters and antennas, as well as their integration. Various designs for different applications are studied and investigated in terms of their geometrical structures and operational performance. This paper begins with an introduction to microstrip filters, antennas, and filtering antennas (filtennas). Then, performance comparisons between the key and essential structures for these aspects are presented and discussed. Furthermore, a comparison between several RF reconfiguration techniques, current challenges, and future developments is presented and discussed in this review. Among several reconfigurable structures, the most efficient designs with the best attractive features are addressed and highlighted in this paper to improve the performance of RF and MW front end systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks)
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