Multiphysics Simulation and Optimization of Electrical Energy Systems

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Systems & Control Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2022) | Viewed by 12307

Special Issue Editors

Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Divisions of VEAS and Fluid Dynamics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden
Interests: electric vehicles; renewable energy systems; multiphysics simulation and optimization; li-ion batteries; electrochemical energy conversion
WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
Interests: component sizing; batteries; systems modelling; powertrain modelling; supervisory control; powertrain usage cases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Algoritmi Research Centre, Department of Industrial Electronics, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: power electronics converters; electric mobility; renewable energy sources; digital control techniques; smart grids
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Electrical energy systems have faced a paradigm shift in recent years towards zero-carbon systems made up of a group of sub-systems, where the interactions between the length scales, domains, and components is challenging and of the utmost importance. The multiphysics modeling approach is categorized as an interdisciplinary field of research which comprises diverse science and engineering disciplines to account for multiple physical models or concurrent physical phenomena within a larger system.

To deal with the existing research challenges, original studies, advanced modeling methods, and implementation techniques can be developed to efficiently execute the multiphysics and multiscale approaches in the modeling frameworks of the electrical energy systems. In consequence, this Special Issue aims to cover the studies in this field with emphasis on the electric mobility applications (road, heavy-duty, and off-road vehicles) and renewable energy systems (photovoltaic and wind). For instance, in the battery or fuel-cell-powered systems, encapsulating the physico-chemical, electrical, and thermal domains is crucial to accurately and robustly capture the underlying phenomena that occur under the real world operation of the system. The computationally efficient multiphysics models can afterwards be integrated with the optimization techniques to develop comprehensive and reliable component sizing or optimal control frameworks at the system level. Thus, researchers are invited to submit their articles to this Special Issue and contribute their models, methodologies, reviews, and studies in this area.


Dr. Majid Astaneh
Dr. Andrew McGordon
Prof. Dr. Vítor Monteiro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electric/hybrid vehicles (road, heavy-duty and off-road)
  • Renewable energy systems
  • Multiphysiscs simulation and optimization
  • Battery storage
  • Supercapacitors
  • Fuel cells
  • Optimal control
  • Battery management systems
  • Power electronics converters
  • Powertrain modeling
  • Component sizing
  • Smart grids
  • Hybrid ac/dc power grids
  • Sustainable power electronics applications
  • Charging and traction systems for electric mobility applications
  • Power quality
  • Load-shift systems

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

26 pages, 9607 KiB  
Article
Linear Voltage Stability Indicator (LVSI) for Optimal Placement of SVC Devices to Improve the Voltage Stability Margin in Transmission Systems
Electronics 2023, 12(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12010043 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
This study presents a procedure for placing static var compensators (SVC) in an EPS using the fuzzy c-means clustering technique. For this purpose, the optimal power flow (OPF) is initially quantified to obtain the sensitivity array of the system based on the Jacobian [...] Read more.
This study presents a procedure for placing static var compensators (SVC) in an EPS using the fuzzy c-means clustering technique. For this purpose, the optimal power flow (OPF) is initially quantified to obtain the sensitivity array of the system based on the Jacobian of the system. Then, the attenuation and electrical distance matrices are estimated. Subsequently, the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is used with the initially estimated cluster identification criterion to obtain the voltage control areas (VCAs). On the other hand, the criterion of minimizing the installation costs of the SVCs is used in conjunction with the linear voltage stability index (LVSI) for the ideal arrangement of the compensators. This is applied to each VCA created. The technique described is applied to the 14-node and 30-node schemes to check their effectiveness. Additionally, the results obtained are compared with the Power Factory software and with similar studies. Finally, the proposed technique proves to be effective for the creation of VCAs and for the optimal placement of SVC equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphysics Simulation and Optimization of Electrical Energy Systems)
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17 pages, 8688 KiB  
Article
Extended Simplified Electro-Mechanical Model of a Variable-Speed Wind Turbine for Grid Integration Studies: Emulation and Validation on a Microgrid Lab
Electronics 2022, 11(23), 3945; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11233945 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1395
Abstract
The energy transition towards renewable energies is crucial for the sustainable development of a society based on hydrocarbons. The current level of penetration and growth of wind energy in electric power systems is evident and many researchers have presented new methods for simulating [...] Read more.
The energy transition towards renewable energies is crucial for the sustainable development of a society based on hydrocarbons. The current level of penetration and growth of wind energy in electric power systems is evident and many researchers have presented new methods for simulating and representing the electrical and mechanical characteristics of variable-speed wind turbines. However, complete mathematical models developed and implemented, for example, in MATLAB/Simulink® software, require significant computational efforts that could make grid studies impractical when its scale tends to increase. To contribute to facing this issue, this paper proposes an extended simplified model for a variable-speed wind turbine that considers the dynamic behavior of its mechanical system and includes an approximate representation of the power electronic converter. This approach broadens the scope of studies related to grid frequency control and power quality (fast-frequency response, primary frequency control, and voltage control, among others), considerably reducing the computational burden. Several validations of the proposed simplified model are presented, including comparisons with a doubly fed induction generator-based wind turbine model (phasor type) from the MATLAB/Simulink® library, and laboratory experiments under controlled conditions. The results show a good fit of the proposed simplified model to the MATLAB/Simulink® model, with minimal delays about 3% of the wind turbine inertia constant. Moreover, with the proposal, the computational time is reduced by up to 80% compared to a detailed model. This time reduction is achieved without penalizing the numerical accuracy and the estimation quality of the real behavior of the variable-speed wind turbine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphysics Simulation and Optimization of Electrical Energy Systems)
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20 pages, 6924 KiB  
Article
Research and Application of MPPT Control Strategy Based on Improved Slime Mold Algorithm in Shaded Conditions
Electronics 2022, 11(14), 2122; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11142122 - 06 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
A PV maximum power tracking strategy for shaded conditions, based on an improved slime mold algorithm, is proposed in this research. To verify the superiority of the proposed algorithm, four bionomics algorithms—particle swarm optimization (PSO), tuna swarm optimization (TSO), squirrel search algorithm (SSA), [...] Read more.
A PV maximum power tracking strategy for shaded conditions, based on an improved slime mold algorithm, is proposed in this research. To verify the superiority of the proposed algorithm, four bionomics algorithms—particle swarm optimization (PSO), tuna swarm optimization (TSO), squirrel search algorithm (SSA), and black widow spider algorithm (BWO)—were compared. The output parameter of the five control algorithms was summarized and analyzed. The adaptability of the algorithms was proven by setting different shading conditions. The simulation results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm possessed short response time, good tracking effect and fewer fluctuations. Eventually, the different algorithms were verified in the HIL + RCP physical platform. The experimental outcomes showed that the improved slime mold algorithm possessed the best tracking effect, with fewer power fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphysics Simulation and Optimization of Electrical Energy Systems)
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21 pages, 8217 KiB  
Article
Techno-Economic and Environmental Assessment of the Hybrid Energy System Considering Electric and Thermal Loads
Electronics 2021, 10(24), 3136; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10243136 - 16 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2133
Abstract
Optimal sizing of hybrid energy systems has been considerably investigated in previous studies. Nevertheless, most studies only focused on providing AC electric loads by renewable energy sources (RESs) and energy storage systems (ESSs). In this paper, a hybrid energy system, including photovoltaic (PV) [...] Read more.
Optimal sizing of hybrid energy systems has been considerably investigated in previous studies. Nevertheless, most studies only focused on providing AC electric loads by renewable energy sources (RESs) and energy storage systems (ESSs). In this paper, a hybrid energy system, including photovoltaic (PV) system, ESS, fuel cell (FC), natural gas (NG) boiler, thermal load controller (TLC), and converter is optimized for supplying different load demands. Three scenarios are introduced to investigate the feasibility of the energy system. Environmental aspects of each system are analyzed, as there are NG-consuming sources in the system structure. A sensitivity analysis is conducted on the influential parameters of the system, such as inflation rate and interest rate. Simulation results show that the proposed hybrid energy system is economically and technically feasible. The net present cost (NPC) and cost of energy (COE) of the system are obtained at $230,223 and $0.0409, respectively. The results indicate that the TLC plays a key role in the optimal operation of the PV system and the reduction in greenhouse gas emission productions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphysics Simulation and Optimization of Electrical Energy Systems)
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22 pages, 10504 KiB  
Article
A Multiphysics System-to-Cell Framework to Assess the Impact of Operating Conditions of Standalone PV Systems on Lithium-Ion Battery Lifetime
Electronics 2021, 10(21), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10212582 - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1926
Abstract
This paper proposes a multiphysics simulation structure for predicting Li-ion batteries’ useful life by consolidating battery cell electrochemical and thermal-aging models into the electrical domain of PV-battery standalone systems. This model can consider the effect of operating conditions at the system level, such [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a multiphysics simulation structure for predicting Li-ion batteries’ useful life by consolidating battery cell electrochemical and thermal-aging models into the electrical domain of PV-battery standalone systems. This model can consider the effect of operating conditions at the system level, such as charge/discharge patterns and energy management strategies, to evaluate battery capacity fade at the cell level. The proposed model is validated using experimental observations with a RRMSE of 1.1%. Results show that the operating conditions of the battery bank affect its lifetime significantly. A wide range of 2.7 to 12.5 years of battery lifetime is predicted by applying the model to different case studies. In addition, the model predicts that managing the maximum cell state of charge level can enhance the battery bank lifetime by 60%. The developed model is a generic multiscale decision-making framework to investigate the effect of operating conditions on battery service life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphysics Simulation and Optimization of Electrical Energy Systems)
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22 pages, 8012 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Energy Management of a Micro-Grid Considering Stochastic Nature of Load and Renewable Energy Resources
Electronics 2021, 10(4), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10040403 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 2895
Abstract
Optimal inclusion of a photovoltaic system and wind energy resources in electrical grids is a strenuous task due to the continuous variation of their output powers and stochastic nature. Thus, it is mandatory to consider the variations of the Renewable energy resources (RERs) [...] Read more.
Optimal inclusion of a photovoltaic system and wind energy resources in electrical grids is a strenuous task due to the continuous variation of their output powers and stochastic nature. Thus, it is mandatory to consider the variations of the Renewable energy resources (RERs) for efficient energy management in the electric system. The aim of the paper is to solve the energy management of a micro-grid (MG) connected to the main power system considering the variations of load demand, photovoltaic (PV), and wind turbine (WT) under deterministic and probabilistic conditions. The energy management problem is solved using an efficient algorithm, namely equilibrium optimizer (EO), for a multi-objective function which includes cost minimization, voltage profile improvement, and voltage stability improvement. The simulation results reveal that the optimal installation of a grid-connected PV unit and WT can considerably reduce the total cost and enhance system performance. In addition to that, EO is superior to both whale optimization algorithm (WOA) and sine cosine algorithm (SCA) in terms of the reported objective function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphysics Simulation and Optimization of Electrical Energy Systems)
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