Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks (Volume II)

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 8138

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Instituto de Telecomunicações, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: reconfigurable/tuneable antennas; MIMO antenna designs for wireless communication systems; UWB antenna with fixed and tuneable notch; beam steering antenna; harmonics rejection antenna techniques; balanced and unbalanced antenna; mm-wave antenna array for 5G; Dielectric Resonators (DR) antennas; high Q RF MEMS bandpass filter design for mobile handset and wireless communication applications; power amplifier designs
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Guest Editor
School of Engineering, American University of Nigeria, Yola 640230, Nigeria
Interests: providing solutions for growing technology and integration challenges from radio frequency front-end perspective including environmentally friendly power amplifiers, RF MEMS filters, wideband antennas, and millimeter wave antenna for 5G applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Technology, University of Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000, Algeria
Interests: dielectric resonator antennas; MIMO antennas; mmWave antennas; magnetic materials; complex material components in the microwaves; optical domains

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Guest Editor
Instituto de Telecomunicações, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: radio resource management; digital signal processing; cross-layer design; system level simulation methodologies; cooperative communications; energy-efficiency; 5G communications; antennas and electromagnetic computational techniques
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK
Interests: energy-efficient front-end design; radio frequency; energy harvesting; communications systems; 5G communications; sensor design; localisation-based services; signal processing; optimisation process; MIMO system design; health hazards; propagations, antennas and electromagnetic computational techniques
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

At present, 5G technology is advancing rapidly, and with such advancements, challenges arise. From taking advantage of multi-path signals to achieve fast download speeds with wide coverage to more effective testing in anechoic chambers, engineers need to be aware of the latest developments carrying 5G forward.

Progressively, wireless technology evolved from 1G to 4G; the frequency steps were primarily evolutionary, and no large technology change or discontinuity was required. The changes required for the antenna were evolutionary, and antenna technology migrated from external to internal forms. Band requirements changed from single-band to dual-band, multi-band to multi-antenna; and antenna diversity changed to multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) implementations. However, 5G implementations provide for up to a tenfold increase in frequencies for some applications.

This is a dramatic change from previous technologies, which will provide significant challenges as well as new opportunities. For example, beam forming and beam steering (using antenna arrays) will be possible, given that individual antennas can be much smaller at higher frequencies. At these high frequencies, the wavelength (lambda) is around 1 cm. Thus, the devices are multi-lambda platforms, which means that the position of the antenna itself has become much more critical, replacing the integration aspect key in previous technologies. These more complex aspects of 5G development also make it critical to evaluate multiple implementations in order to optimally identify and adjust trade-offs.

This Special Issue aims to bring together academic and industrial researchers to identify and discuss technical challenges, complex aspects and new results related to the design and performances of 5G antennas.

Prof. Dr. Issa Tamer Elfergani
Prof. Dr. Abubakar Sadiq Hussaini 
Prof. Dr. Chemseddine Zebiri
Prof. Dr. Jonathan Rodriguez 
Prof. Dr. Raed A. Abd-Alhameed
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • 5G system
  • MIMO
  • array antenna
  • mmwave
  • flexible substrates
  • wearables
  • energy efficient
  • compact antenna
  • RF MEMS
  • reconfigurablity

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 3005 KiB  
Article
An Inline V-Band WR-15 Transition Using Antipodal Dipole Antenna as RF Energy Launcher @ 60 GHz for Satellite Applications
by Atul Varshney, Vipul Sharma, Issa Elfergani, Chemseddine Zebiri, Zoran Vujicic and Jonathan Rodriguez
Electronics 2022, 11(23), 3860; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11233860 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
This article demonstrates the design and development of WR-15 transition using an antipodal microstrip dipole antenna at a frequency of 60 GHz for space applications. An inline microstrip line to rectangular waveguide (MS-to-RWG) transition is proposed for the V-band (50–75 GHz) functioning. The [...] Read more.
This article demonstrates the design and development of WR-15 transition using an antipodal microstrip dipole antenna at a frequency of 60 GHz for space applications. An inline microstrip line to rectangular waveguide (MS-to-RWG) transition is proposed for the V-band (50–75 GHz) functioning. The RF energy is coupled and launched through an antipodal dipole microstrip antenna. Impedance matching and mode matching between the MS line and dipole are achieved by a quarter wave impedance transformer. This results in the better performance of transitions in terms of insertion loss (IL > −0.50 dB) and return loss (RL < −10 dB) for a 40.76% relative bandwidth from 55.57 GHz to 65.76 GHz. The lowest values of IL and RL at 60 GHz are −0.09 dB and −32.05 dB, respectively. A 50 μm thick double-sided etched InP substrate material is used for microstrip antipodal dipole antenna design. A back-to-back designed transition has IL > −0.70 dB and RL < −10 dB from 54.29 GHz to 64.07 GHz. The inline transition design is simple in structure, easy to fabricate, robust, compact, and economic; occupies less space because the transition size is exactly equal to the WR-15 length; and is prepared using an InP substrate with high permittivity of 12.4 and thickness of 50 μm. Thus, the devices have the lowest insertion loss value and lowest return loss (RL) value, of <−31 dB, as compared to earlier designs in the literature. Therefore, the proposed design has the lowest radiation loss (because of thickness) and highest transmission (about 97% power). Easy impedance matching using only a single-step quarter-wave transformer between the antipodal dipole antenna and 50 Ω microstrip line (avoiding the multi-sections’ demand and microstrip line’s tedious complexity) is needed. Since, when the InP dielectric substrate is inserted in WR-15, the waveguide becomes a dielectric-filled waveguide (DFWG), and its characteristics impedance reduces to 143 Ω from 505 Ω at an operating frequency of 60 GHz. In the proposed transition, no ridge waveguide or waveguide back-short is utilized in WR-15. The microstrip line did not contain any via, fence, window, screw, galvanic structure, post, etc. Hence, the transition is suitable for high-data-rate 5G communications, satellite remote sensing, missile navigation, MIC/MMIC circuits’ characterization, and mm-wave applications. The electrical equivalent model of the proposed design has been generated and validated using an RF circuit simulator and was found to have excellent matching. Full article
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21 pages, 10516 KiB  
Article
Near Field Sensing Applications with Tunable Beam Millimeter Wave Antenna Sensors in an All-in-One Chip Design
by Ming-An Chung, Chia-Wei Lin and Wei-Jen Lo
Electronics 2022, 11(14), 2231; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11142231 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
In this paper, a single-band beam control antenna is designed with a parallel coupler to realize a microstrip patch antenna passive wireless sensor in the form of a chip. It has a phase shift characteristic of the antenna radiation direction in the positive [...] Read more.
In this paper, a single-band beam control antenna is designed with a parallel coupler to realize a microstrip patch antenna passive wireless sensor in the form of a chip. It has a phase shift characteristic of the antenna radiation direction in the positive and negative directions. The antenna includes an orthogonal direction coupler design with a 90° parallel coupler in phase using a special structure that allows the whole chip area to be miniaturized while allowing the main beam angle to have a directivity function. The coupler is designed for the 28 GHz millimeter wave band. After feeding the patch antenna at the output port of the coupler and simultaneously feeding the excitation at the input port, the beam phase changes to +45° and +135° with a phase difference of 90°. The designed antenna size is 1160 μm × 790 μm, and the overall IC size is 1.2 mm × 1.2 mm. The power density simulation shows that the maximum power density is only 0.00797 W/kg for a 1 cm2 human sampling area, which means that the antenna sensor is suitable for use on human surfaces. Full article
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31 pages, 129717 KiB  
Article
Antenna Systems in Medical Masks: Applications for 5G FR1 and Wi-Fi 7 Wireless Systems
by Ming-An Chung, Ming-Chang Lee and Cheng-Wei Hsiao
Electronics 2022, 11(13), 1983; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11131983 - 24 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1531
Abstract
This paper proposes a small antenna system (47 mm × 8 mm × 0.2 mm) to be used in a medical mask. The medical mask is composed of a frame and shield. The frame is made of polycarbonate (PC), and the shield is [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a small antenna system (47 mm × 8 mm × 0.2 mm) to be used in a medical mask. The medical mask is composed of a frame and shield. The frame is made of polycarbonate (PC), and the shield is made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The author sets two groups of antennas on the upper side of the frame and sets two other groups of antennas on the sides facing away from the face of the shield. The substrates of the four antennas are all FR4 (εr = 4.4, tanδ = 0.02), so the first antenna type is a combination of PC and FR4, and the second antenna type is a combination of PET and FR4. The antenna system has three working frequency bands, in which the reflection coefficient is lower than −10 dB after actual measurement, and its working frequency bandwidth is 2.38–2.62 GHz, 3.38–3.74 GHz, and 5.14–8 GHz, respectively. It can be effectively used in 5G FR1 and Wi-Fi 7 frequency bands and can easily be combined with medical masks of different materials. This antenna system can use Wi-Fi 7 for wireless transmission indoors and use the 5G FR1 frequency band for wireless transmission outdoors, achieving seamless transmission capabilities. Full article
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16 pages, 8108 KiB  
Article
Inverted-L Shaped Wideband MIMO Antenna for Millimeter-Wave 5G Applications
by Amit Patel, Alpesh Vala, Arpan Desai, Issa Elfergani, Hiren Mewada, Keyur Mahant, Chemseddine Zebiri, Dharmendra Chauhan and Jonathan Rodriguez
Electronics 2022, 11(9), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11091387 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
Interconnected three-element and four-element wideband MIMO antennas have been proposed for millimeter-wave 5G applications by performing numerical computations and carrying out experimental measurements. The antenna structure is realized using Rogers 5880 substrate (εr = 2.2, tan δ = 0.0009), where the radiating [...] Read more.
Interconnected three-element and four-element wideband MIMO antennas have been proposed for millimeter-wave 5G applications by performing numerical computations and carrying out experimental measurements. The antenna structure is realized using Rogers 5880 substrate (εr = 2.2, tan δ = 0.0009), where the radiating element has the shape of an inverted L with a partial ground. The unit element is carefully designed and positioned (by orthogonally rotating the elements) to form three-element (case 1) and four-element (case 2) MIMO antennas. The interconnected ground for both cases is ascertained to increase the practical utilization of the resonator. The proposed MIMO antenna size is (0.95λ × 3λ) for case 1 and (2.01λ × 1.95λ) for case 2 (at the lowest functional frequency). Both the designs give an impedance bandwidth of approximately 26–40 GHz (43%). Moreover, they achieve greater than 15 dB isolation and more than 6 dBi gain with an ECC value lower than 0.02, which meets the MIMO diversity performance thus making the three-element and four-element MIMO antennas the best choice for millimeter-wave 5G applications. Full article
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