Special Issue "Advances of Augmented and Mixed Reality in Education"

A special issue of Education Sciences (ISSN 2227-7102).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Maria Meletiou-Mavrotheris
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Education Sciences, European University Cyprus, Engomi, Nicosia 1516, Cyprus; ICT-Enhanced Education Laboratory
Interests: mathematics education, statistics education, technology-enhanced STEM education, systemic reform in STEM education, teacher professional development, parent education, augmented and mixed reality in education
Dr. Konstantinos Katzis
Website
Guest Editor
Computer Science & Engineering, European University Cyprus, Engomi, Nicosia 1516, Cyprus; ICT-Enhanced Education Laboratory, Centre of Excellence in Risk and Decision Sciences (CERIDES)
Interests: engineering education, cognitive radio devices, augmented and mixed reality in education, IoT for healthcare, vocational education, defining future 5G networks and network flying platforms
Dr. Christos Dimopoulos
Website
Guest Editor
Computer Science & Engineering, European University Cyprus, Engomi, Nicosia 1516, Cyprus; ICT-Enhanced Education Laboratory, Centre of Excellence in Risk and Decision Sciences (CERIDES)
Interests: engineering education, augmented and mixed reality in education and industrial training, IoT in education and industrial training, vocational education, decision support systems in industrial environments, artificial intelligence methodologies
Ms. Lasica Ilona-Elefteryja
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Education Sciences, European University Cyprus, Engomi, Nicosia 1516, Cyprus; ICT-Enhanced Education Laboratory, Centre of Excellence in Risk and Decision Sciences (CERIDES)
Interests: technology-enhanced STEM education, augmented and mixed reality in education, IoT in education, teacher professional development, adult education

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Technological advances have provided the opportunity to create entirely new learning environments, significantly increasing the range and sophistication of possible teaching and learning activities. The current Special Issue focuses on the educational applications of Augmented Reality (AR) and Mixed Reality (MR). AR/MR applications are emerging technologies in the Immersive Learning Landscape that take advantage of technological innovations in hardware and software for both non-mobile and mobile devices, such as AR gears, AR glasses, and sensors. They have been gaining growing interest among educational researchers and practitioners in recent years, and are expected to enter mainstream adoption in educational settings in the very near future. The affordances offered by AR/MR technologies could move education to a new era by revolutionizing how people of all ages obtain new knowledge and skills, and interact with each other and with their environment.

AR/MR applications usually include AR interactive books and objects modelling emerging from educational objects such as worksheets, notebooks, and AR cards. Recently, museums and/or exhibitions (art, science, etc.) of educational interest have included AR/MR experiences to bring their exhibits to life and to engage visitors, including students, in discovering and learning additional information about what they see. These kinds of applications advance inquiry-based learning, as users can retrieve additional information on the content they are interested in and interact with 3D models through actions such as rotation and customization.  AR/MR gaming and skills training are also expected to be widely exploited within education in the near future, while explaining abstract and difficult concepts could be also enhanced through AR/MR applications. There are also some location-based AR/MR educational applications, enhancing the interaction between students and real mobile learning environments. These applications could be used in wider contexts, including “learning out of the classroom”, providing students with on-the-spot information and additional knowledge. Another application of AR/MR is that of laboratories, which constitute a critical part of scientific fields of study.

Despite the increased interest in AR/MR devices as learning tools, the amount of available primary research studies on their integration into educational settings is still relatively small due to the novelty of these technologies. This Special Issue of Education Sciences will fill an important gap in the research literature by compiling a collection of conceptual and research papers investigating the infiltration AR/MR into teaching and learning practices and experiences. The issue will collect incisive contributions from scholars worldwide, which examine critical issues around AR/MR integration in formal and/or informal educational settings. Recommended topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Pedagogical models, learning theories, and educational methodologies for AR/MR integration
  • Professional development programs for teaching with AR/MR devices
  • Design and development of AR/ MR learning environments and educational applications
  • Game-based AR/MR learning environments
  • Communities of augmented teachers and learners
  • AR/MR learning contexts and domains: formal (K-12, higher education, continuing education), informal, and non-formal (vocational education, work-based learning), open and distance education
  • Learner mobility and transitions across formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts afforded by AR/MR technologies
  • Testing, assessment, and quality issues of AR/MR learning experiences
  • Real-time student monitoring and assessment
  • User acceptance of AR/MR learning applications (teachers, students, and parents)
  • Infrastructure, administrative, and organizational issues regarding AR/MR for teaching and learning
  • Privacy and security issues regarding AR/MR in education
  • Copyright and fair use of AR/MR educational applications
  • AR/MR enhanced learning for all: issues of equity, accessibility, and diversity.

The articles should report on original, cutting edge empirical studies, which will demonstrate validated practical experiences related to the design, development, and educational application of AR/MR technologies. Articles presenting interim results from innovative, ongoing projects will also be included. Conceptual essays contributing to future research and theory—building by presenting reflective or theoretical analyses, epistemological studies, integrative and critical literature reviews, or forecasting of emerging learning technologies and tendencies—are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Maria Meletiou-Mavrotheris
Dr. Konstantinos Katzis
Dr. Christos Dimopoulos
Ms. Lasica Ilona-Elefteryja
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Education Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Augmented Reality (AR) in education
  • Mixed Reality (MR) in education
  • Mobile and wearable AR/MR
  • AR/ MR educational applications
  • AR/MR applications in STEM education
  • AR/MR application in vocational education
  • Collaborative, interactive, AR/MR learning environments
  • Augmented reading
  • Enlivened classroom
  • Enlivened laboratories
  • ICT/ IoT integration
  • Educational innovation in STEM
  • Emerging pedagogical approaches
  • Problem-based learning
  • Inquiry-based learning
  • Project-based learning
  • Adaptive learning
  • Situated learning
  • Interdisciplinarity in STEM
  • Teacher professional development on AR/MR technologies
  • Design/ development of educational AR/MR applications
  • Teachers’ / students’ / parents’ acceptance of AR/MR applications in education

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Teacher Training for ‘Augmented Reading’: The Living Book Approach and Initial Results
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10050144 - 21 May 2020
Abstract
Living Book—Augmenting Reading for Life, a three-year EU-funded Erasmus + project (September 2016–August 2019), exploited the affordances of augmented reality (AR) and other emerging technologies in order to address the underachievement of European youth in reading skills. The program developed an innovative approach [...] Read more.
Living Book—Augmenting Reading for Life, a three-year EU-funded Erasmus + project (September 2016–August 2019), exploited the affordances of augmented reality (AR) and other emerging technologies in order to address the underachievement of European youth in reading skills. The program developed an innovative approach that empowers teachers from upper primary and lower secondary schools (ages 9–15) to ‘augment’ students’ reading experiences through combining offline activities promoting reading literacy with online experiences of books’ ‘virtual augmentation’ and with social dynamics. Various professional learning activities were designed within the project, aimed at strengthening European teachers’ profile and competences in effectively integrating the Living Book approach into their classroom activities, and in dealing with diversified groups of learners, particularly pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds. Teachers also received training in how to involve parents, and particularly those from disadvantaged and/or migrant backgrounds, in proreading activities to back the overall Living Book strategy at home. The current article provides an overview of the main phases of the Living Book project implementation, and of the program’s key activities and outputs. It also outlines the content and structure of the ‘Augmented Teacher’ and ‘Augmented Parent-Trainer’ training courses developed within the project. Finally, it reports on the main insights gained from the pilot testing of the courses and the follow-up classroom experimentation that took place in the project partner countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Augmented and Mixed Reality in Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Augmented Reality in Lower Secondary Education: A Teacher Professional Development Program in Cyprus and Greece
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10040121 - 24 Apr 2020
Abstract
The current article provides an overview of a Teacher Professional Development (TPD) program that has been designed, pilot tested, and implemented to investigate the impact of augmented reality (AR) on: (a) Teachers’ level of technology (AR) acceptance, adoption of inquiry-based instructional approaches, and [...] Read more.
The current article provides an overview of a Teacher Professional Development (TPD) program that has been designed, pilot tested, and implemented to investigate the impact of augmented reality (AR) on: (a) Teachers’ level of technology (AR) acceptance, adoption of inquiry-based instructional approaches, and confidence towards teaching twentieth-first century skills in STEM-related courses; and (b) students’ potential enhancement of specific twentieth-first century skills and motivation and interest during a STEM- (science, technology, engineering, mathematics)-related course supported with AR. This article focuses on the teachers’ points of view concerning the impact of their STEM-related interventions on their students’ motivation and learning, as well as the factors that influence the teachers’ technology acceptance. The TPD program has been implemented in Cyprus and Greece with twenty-five lower secondary school teachers (20 in Cyprus and 5 in Greece). The research methodology applied is Educational Design Research (EDR), including an initial phase of the TPD program and a second (improved) phase. The data collection tools consisted of questionnaires, interviews, and observation of classroom interventions. Initial findings and their implications for teaching and future research are discussed, indicating the potential benefits and challenges surrounding the integration of AR within the educational process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Augmented and Mixed Reality in Education)
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Open AccessArticle
“Helping Nemo!”—Using Augmented Reality and Alternate Reality Games in the Context of Universal Design for Learning
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10040095 - 02 Apr 2020
Abstract
This article reports on the main experiences gained from a teaching intervention which utilised the alternate reality game ‘Helping Nemo’ in an augmented reality environment for formative assessment. The purpose of the study was to explore the ways in which the affordances arising [...] Read more.
This article reports on the main experiences gained from a teaching intervention which utilised the alternate reality game ‘Helping Nemo’ in an augmented reality environment for formative assessment. The purpose of the study was to explore the ways in which the affordances arising from the combination of alternate reality games and augmented reality, situated in the context of Universal Design for Learning, might facilitate students’ learning amongst the aspects of engagement, participation, and response to students’ variability. The study took place in a public primary school located in a rural area of Cyprus. A second-grade class consisting of 24 students aged 7–8 years old was selected to comprise the sample. A qualitative research approach was adopted. The data collection methods included classroom observations and focus groups with the students. Findings gained from the teaching intervention suggest that the creation of a multimodal environment that draws on the principles of Universal Design for Learning and combines the affordances of alternate reality games and augmented reality for formative assessment contributes towards higher levels of engagement and participation in learning of all students, including bilingual students, students with learning disabilities, and students who are currently disengaged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Augmented and Mixed Reality in Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Augmented Reality Application Areas for Pilot Education: An Exploratory Study
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10040086 - 25 Mar 2020
Abstract
The goal of carrying out this work was to identify potential application areas for augmented reality (AR) in pilot education by addressing gender preferences. Like the field of engineering, the aviation industry is dominated by men. Because the aviation industry forecasts a high [...] Read more.
The goal of carrying out this work was to identify potential application areas for augmented reality (AR) in pilot education by addressing gender preferences. Like the field of engineering, the aviation industry is dominated by men. Because the aviation industry forecasts a high demand for pilots, it is highly desirable to address gender diversity and improve teaching methods in pilot education. In this study, potential application areas for AR-supported pilot training were investigated by conducting a survey with 60 pilots and flight instructors (including 12 women). Typical AR use cases were presented in videos, and the pilots reported their preferences regarding similar or other AR applications used in different parts of the flight training program. AR navigation was the use case that was most frequently preferred by both female and male pilots. The majority of pilots agreed that AR could potentially be used in theoretical instruction, pre-flight aircraft inspection, and procedure training. In addition, both gender groups showed similar preferences for various gaming concepts that make learning more interesting and engaging, such as receiving positive feedback. However, a higher percentage of women than men reported that achieving a target or receiving points to successfully finish a task and answering questions during the game were satisfying. Including a story in the game to attract attention was preferred by a higher percentage of men than women. The results of this study can be used to design AR educational concepts that support gender diversity in pilot education and other technical domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Augmented and Mixed Reality in Education)
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Open AccessArticle
How Should Chemistry Educators Respond to the Next Generation of Technology Change?
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10020034 - 11 Feb 2020
Abstract
Chemical educators are facing a new generation of instructional technologies that impact classroom teaching. New technologies, like smartphones, cloud computing and artificial intelligence take learning beyond the classroom; 3D printing, virtual reality, and augmented reality provide new ways to teach the virtualization skills [...] Read more.
Chemical educators are facing a new generation of instructional technologies that impact classroom teaching. New technologies, like smartphones, cloud computing and artificial intelligence take learning beyond the classroom; 3D printing, virtual reality, and augmented reality provide new ways to teach the virtualization skills that are important for chemists. These technologies cause students to become more isolated, so students may not develop the social skills that they will need for today’s workplace. Individualized learning may be beneficial to many students, but it will create challenges for faculty. Although this article focuses on chemistry education, it should be apparent that a similar argument could be made for other sciences, like physics and biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Augmented and Mixed Reality in Education)
Open AccessArticle
Augmented Reality in Higher Education: An Evaluation Program in Initial Teacher Training
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10020026 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
One of the emerging technologies that have sparked greater interest in pedagogical contexts is augmented reality. This paper aims to assess the impact, practices and attitudes that are generated from augmented reality in the initial training of future teachers, and the presence of [...] Read more.
One of the emerging technologies that have sparked greater interest in pedagogical contexts is augmented reality. This paper aims to assess the impact, practices and attitudes that are generated from augmented reality in the initial training of future teachers, and the presence of these practices in a university training context. The study was carried out with 87 trainee primary teachers. Information was obtained by applying the Wilcoxon test. The qualitative data obtained in open questions were also triangulated. It is emphasized that students do not habitually use this resource at the university, and that with these practices there is sometimes a certain amount of distraction, and even of time being wasted. From the data analyzed, we also highlight that once the availability of resources, class planning and initial teacher training are overcome, augmented reality provides benefits and advantages centered on pedagogies that allow for greater enthusiasm on the part of the students, with significant advantages in creativity, innovation, participation, and especially in the motivation of participants. Coinciding with recent research, our results underline the need for initial training so as to be able to design and apply practices with augmented reality in teaching, and to take advantage of the aforementioned benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Augmented and Mixed Reality in Education)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
What Is the Effect of Using Mobile Augmented Reality in K12 Inquiry-Based Learning?
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10040094 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A systematic review of the potential of implementing augmented reality (AR) in inquiry-based learning was conducted. We considered the purposes, potential advantages, application characteristics and the effects of using AR in inquiry-based learning. The findings reveal that AR, in the context of inquiry-based [...] Read more.
A systematic review of the potential of implementing augmented reality (AR) in inquiry-based learning was conducted. We considered the purposes, potential advantages, application characteristics and the effects of using AR in inquiry-based learning. The findings reveal that AR, in the context of inquiry-based learning, is mostly implemented successfully to achieve cognitive and, less often, motivational and emotional learning goals. The AR solutions have mainly been applied in the Conceptualization phase and less in the Investigation phase. The affordances of AR in the Orientation, Conclusion and Discussion phases need to be applied in further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Augmented and Mixed Reality in Education)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Active Learning Augmented Reality for STEAM Education—A Case Study
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10080198 - 04 Aug 2020
Abstract
Immersive technologies are rapidly transforming the field of education. Amongst them, Augmented Reality (AR) has shown promise as a resource, particularly for education in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM). There are, however, few teachers deploying this new medium in the classroom [...] Read more.
Immersive technologies are rapidly transforming the field of education. Amongst them, Augmented Reality (AR) has shown promise as a resource, particularly for education in Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM). There are, however, few teachers deploying this new medium in the classroom directly, and, consequently, only a few, elect students benefit from the AR-enriched offers. Curricula are already overloaded, and schools generally lack developmental resources, thus leaving no room for experimentation. This situation is further aggravated by the too few educational applications available with sufficient learning content. In this article, we investigate the method of Active Learning for the teaching of STEAM subjects, using a format where students are tasked with building an AR application as part of their learning. We evaluate the applicability of the Active Learning for STEAM subjects with a qualitative, case study approach, applying the workshop format as an extracurricular activity in our work with students from a range of secondary schools in Oxford. We discuss how the format works, so it can be embedded into regular curricula, not just as an extracurricular activity, also providing an overview on the involved teaching units and rationale. All teams in our preview audience of the case study succeeded in building working applications, several of impressive complexity. Students found that the lessons were enjoyable and AR technology can enhance their learning experience. The Active Learning method served as a catalyst for students’ skills development, with the case study providing evidence of learning to code, working with a physics simulation engine, ray-tracing, and geometry, learning how to manage teams and interact with other students/instructors, and engineering a working prototype of a game. We consequentially argue that combining the STEM subjects and the arts, using the proposed Active Learning format, is able to provide a more holistic and engaging education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Augmented and Mixed Reality in Education)
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