Diagnostic Sensors

A topical collection in Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This collection belongs to the section "Point-of-Care Diagnostics and Devices".

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Editors


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Guest Editor
Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona IMB-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain
Interests: optoelectronics, optical sensors; biosensors; MEMS; microfabrication technologies
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Collection Editor
Department of Information Engineering, University of Pisa, Via Girolamo Caruso, 16, 56122 Pisa, PI, Italy
Interests: custom electronic instrumentation; wearable devices; miniaturized smart sensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Collection Editor
School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
Interests: electroanalysis; drug monitoring; in vivo sensing; aptamers; electrochemical biosensors; implantable sensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sensors are essential elements in the healthcare system, where it is necessary to report on key parameters associated with the development, progression, and treatment of specific pathologies. However, as evidenced by the current COVID-19 crisis, many advances are still necessary to meet the needs of a connected, changing, and demanding society. Sensors are now facing important challenges regarding sensitivity and selectivity, response time, simplicity, cost, portability, automation, robustness, and cost, most of them impossible to attain with current technologies and systems. This Topic Collection will highlight the most recent advances in sensor development for the next generation of diagnostic systems, including the following:

  • Sensor design and fabrication protocols/technologies
  • New transduction methods
  • Sensors miniaturization and (bio)functionalization strategies
  • Sensors integration in the following:
    • Microanalytical platforms
    • Wearables
    • Microfluidic architectures
    • Electronic components for control of measurement, signal processing, data transmission, powering, etc.

This is a collection of top quality papers published free of charge in open access form by the Editorial Board Members, or those invited by the editorial office and the Editor-in-Chief. The papers should be long research papers (or review papers) with a full and detailed summary of the author's work so far.

Dr. Xavier Muñoz-Berbel
Dr. Michele Dei
Dr. Miguel A. Pellitero
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021, 2020

12 pages, 2302 KiB  
Protocol
Low-Cost Point-of-Care Monitoring of ALT and AST Is Promising for Faster Decision Making and Diagnosis of Acute Liver Injury
by Raja Chinnappan, Tanveer Ahmad Mir, Suliman Alsalameh, Tariq Makhzoum, Alaa Alzhrani, Khaled Al-Kattan and Ahmed Yaqinuddin
Diagnostics 2023, 13(18), 2967; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13182967 - 16 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2341
Abstract
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are important liver enzymes in clinical settings. Their levels are known to be elevated in individuals with underlying liver diseases and those consuming hepatotoxic drugs. Serum ALT and AST levels are crucial for diagnosing and assessing [...] Read more.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are important liver enzymes in clinical settings. Their levels are known to be elevated in individuals with underlying liver diseases and those consuming hepatotoxic drugs. Serum ALT and AST levels are crucial for diagnosing and assessing liver diseases. Serum ALT is considered the most reliable and specific candidate as a disease biomarker for liver diseases. ALT and AST levels are routinely analyzed in high-risk individuals for the bioanalysis of both liver function and complications associated with drug-induced liver injury. Typically, ALT and AST require blood sampling, serum separation, and testing. Traditional methods require expensive or sophisticated equipment and trained specialists, which is often time-consuming. Therefore, developing countries have limited or no access to these methods. To address the above issues, we hypothesize that low-cost biosensing methods (paper-based assays) can be applied to the analysis of ALT and AST levels in biological fluids. The paper-based biodetection technique can semi-quantitatively measure ALT and AST from capillary finger sticks, and it will pave the way for the development of an inexpensive and rapid alternative method for the early detection and diagnosis of liver diseases. This method is expected to significantly reduce the economic burden and aid routine clinical analysis in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The development of low-cost testing platforms and their diagnostic utility will be extremely beneficial in helping millions of patients with liver disorders. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021, 2020

14 pages, 888 KiB  
Review
Design of Gold Nanoparticle Vertical Flow Assays for Point-of-Care Testing
by Rongwei Lei, David Wang, Hufsa Arain and Chandra Mohan
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051107 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3050
Abstract
Vertical flow assays (VFAs) or flow-through assays have emerged as an alternate type of paper-based assay due to their faster detection time, larger sample volume capacity, and significantly higher multiplexing capabilities. They have been successfully employed to detect several different targets (polysaccharides, protein, [...] Read more.
Vertical flow assays (VFAs) or flow-through assays have emerged as an alternate type of paper-based assay due to their faster detection time, larger sample volume capacity, and significantly higher multiplexing capabilities. They have been successfully employed to detect several different targets (polysaccharides, protein, and nucleic acids), although in a limited number of samples (serum, whole blood, plasma) compared to the more commonly known lateral flow assays (LFAs). The operation of a VFA relies mainly on gravity, coupled with capillary action or external force to help the sample flow through layers of stacked pads. With recent developments in this field, multiple layers of pads and signal readers have been optimized for more user-friendly operation, and VFAs have achieved a lower limit of detection for various analytes than the gold-standard methods. Thus, compared to the more widely used LFA, the VFA demonstrates certain advantages and is becoming an increasingly popular platform for obtaining qualitative and quantitative results in low-resource settings. Considering the wide application of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in VFAs, we will mostly discuss (1) the design of GNP-based VFA along with its associated advantages/disadvantages, (2) fabrication and optimization of GNP-based VFAs for applications, and (3) the future outlook of flow-based assays for point-of-care testing (POCT) diagnostics. Full article
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10 pages, 23046 KiB  
Article
Commercially Available Heart Rate Monitor Repurposed for Automatic Arrhythmia Detection with Snapshot Electrocardiographic Capability: A Pilot Validation
by Chiara Martini, Bernardo Di Maria, Claudio Reverberi, Domenico Tuttolomondo and Nicola Gaibazzi
Diagnostics 2022, 12(3), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12030712 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
The usefulness of opportunistic arrhythmia screening strategies, using an electrocardiogram (ECG) or other methods for random “snapshot” assessments is limited by the unexpected and occasional nature of arrhythmias, leading to a high rate of missed diagnosis. We have previously validated a cardiac monitoring [...] Read more.
The usefulness of opportunistic arrhythmia screening strategies, using an electrocardiogram (ECG) or other methods for random “snapshot” assessments is limited by the unexpected and occasional nature of arrhythmias, leading to a high rate of missed diagnosis. We have previously validated a cardiac monitoring system for AF detection pairing simple consumer-grade Bluetooth low-energy (BLE) heart rate (HR) sensors with a smartphone application (RITMIA™, Heart Sentinel srl, Italy). In the current study, we test a significant upgrade to the above-mentioned system, thanks to the technical capability of new HR sensors to run algorithms on the sensor itself and to acquire, and store on-board, single-lead ECG strips. We have reprogrammed an HR monitor intended for sports use (Movensense HR+) to run our proprietary RITMIA algorithm code in real-time, based on RR analysis, so that if any type of arrhythmia is detected, it triggers a brief retrospective recording of a single-lead ECG, providing tracings of the specific arrhythmia for later consultation. We report the initial data on the behavior, feasibility, and high diagnostic accuracy of this ultra-low weight customized device for standalone automatic arrhythmia detection and ECG recording, when several types of arrhythmias were simulated under different baseline conditions. Conclusions: The customized device was capable of detecting all types of simulated arrhythmias and correctly triggered a visually interpretable ECG tracing. Future human studies are needed to address real-life accuracy of this device. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2020

22 pages, 2019 KiB  
Review
Host-Pathogen Adhesion as the Basis of Innovative Diagnostics for Emerging Pathogens
by Alex van Belkum, Carina Almeida, Benjamin Bardiaux, Sarah V. Barrass, Sarah J. Butcher, Tuğçe Çaykara, Sounak Chowdhury, Rucha Datar, Ian Eastwood, Adrian Goldman, Manisha Goyal, Lotta Happonen, Nadia Izadi-Pruneyre, Theis Jacobsen, Pirjo H. Johnson, Volkhard A. J. Kempf, Andreas Kiessling, Juan Leva Bueno, Anchal Malik, Johan Malmström, Ina Meuskens, Paul A. Milner, Michael Nilges, Nicole Pamme, Sally A. Peyman, Ligia R. Rodrigues, Pablo Rodriguez-Mateos, Maria G. Sande, Carla Joana Silva, Aleksandra Cecylia Stasiak, Thilo Stehle, Arno Thibau, Diana J. Vaca and Dirk Linkeadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Diagnostics 2021, 11(7), 1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11071259 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5662
Abstract
Infectious diseases are an existential health threat, potentiated by emerging and re-emerging viruses and increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance. Targeted treatment of infectious diseases requires precision diagnostics, especially in cases where broad-range therapeutics such as antibiotics fail. There is thus an increasing need for [...] Read more.
Infectious diseases are an existential health threat, potentiated by emerging and re-emerging viruses and increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance. Targeted treatment of infectious diseases requires precision diagnostics, especially in cases where broad-range therapeutics such as antibiotics fail. There is thus an increasing need for new approaches to develop sensitive and specific in vitro diagnostic (IVD) tests. Basic science and translational research are needed to identify key microbial molecules as diagnostic targets, to identify relevant host counterparts, and to use this knowledge in developing or improving IVD. In this regard, an overlooked feature is the capacity of pathogens to adhere specifically to host cells and tissues. The molecular entities relevant for pathogen–surface interaction are the so-called adhesins. Adhesins vary from protein compounds to (poly-)saccharides or lipid structures that interact with eukaryotic host cell matrix molecules and receptors. Such interactions co-define the specificity and sensitivity of a diagnostic test. Currently, adhesin-receptor binding is typically used in the pre-analytical phase of IVD tests, focusing on pathogen enrichment. Further exploration of adhesin–ligand interaction, supported by present high-throughput “omics” technologies, might stimulate a new generation of broadly applicable pathogen detection and characterization tools. This review describes recent results of novel structure-defining technologies allowing for detailed molecular analysis of adhesins, their receptors and complexes. Since the host ligands evolve slowly, the corresponding adhesin interaction is under selective pressure to maintain a constant receptor binding domain. IVD should exploit such conserved binding sites and, in particular, use the human ligand to enrich the pathogen. We provide an inventory of methods based on adhesion factors and pathogen attachment mechanisms, which can also be of relevance to currently emerging pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Full article
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13 pages, 2939 KiB  
Review
Smartphone-Enabled Personalized Diagnostics: Current Status and Future Prospects
by Karla Jaimes Merazzo, Joseba Totoricaguena-Gorriño, Eduardo Fernández-Martín, F. Javier del Campo and Eva Baldrich
Diagnostics 2021, 11(6), 1067; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11061067 - 9 Jun 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5289
Abstract
Smartphones are becoming increasingly versatile thanks to the wide variety of sensor and actuator systems packed in them. Mobile devices today go well beyond their original purpose as communication devices, and this enables important new applications, ranging from augmented reality to the Internet [...] Read more.
Smartphones are becoming increasingly versatile thanks to the wide variety of sensor and actuator systems packed in them. Mobile devices today go well beyond their original purpose as communication devices, and this enables important new applications, ranging from augmented reality to the Internet of Things. Personalized diagnostics is one of the areas where mobile devices can have the greatest impact. Hitherto, the camera and communication abilities of these devices have been barely exploited for point of care (POC) purposes. This short review covers the recent evolution of mobile devices in the area of POC diagnostics and puts forward some ideas that may facilitate the development of more advanced applications and devices in the area of personalized diagnostics. With this purpose, the potential exploitation of wireless power and actuation of sensors and biosensors using near field communication (NFC), the use of the screen as a light source for actuation and spectroscopic analysis, using the haptic module to enhance mass transport in micro volumes, and the use of magnetic sensors are discussed. Full article
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33 pages, 1910 KiB  
Review
Electrochemical Aptasensors: Current Status and Future Perspectives
by Abd-Elgawad Radi and Maha Ragaa Abd-Ellatief
Diagnostics 2021, 11(1), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11010104 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 4992
Abstract
This article reviews the progress of diversity of electrochemical aptasensor for target analytes detection. The immobilization strategies of aptamers on an electrode surface are addressed. The aptasensors are also introduced in compliance with the assay platforms. Many electrochemical aptasensors are nearly identical to [...] Read more.
This article reviews the progress of diversity of electrochemical aptasensor for target analytes detection. The immobilization strategies of aptamers on an electrode surface are addressed. The aptasensors are also introduced in compliance with the assay platforms. Many electrochemical aptasensors are nearly identical to conventional immunochemical approaches, sandwich and competition assays using electroactive signaling moieties. Others are “signal-on” and “sign-off” aptasensors credited to the target binding-induced conformational change of aptamers. Label-free aptasensors are also highlighted. Furthermore, the aptasensors applied for clinically important biomarkers are emphasized. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021

12 pages, 2038 KiB  
Article
Ultrasensitive Label-Free Detection of Unamplified Multidrug-Resistance Bacteria Genes with a Bimodal Waveguide Interferometric Biosensor
by Jesús Maldonado, Ana Belén González-Guerrero, Adrián Fernández-Gavela, Juan José González-López and Laura M. Lechuga
Diagnostics 2020, 10(10), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10100845 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3328
Abstract
Infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria are becoming a major healthcare emergence with millions of reported cases every year and an increasing incidence of deaths. An advanced diagnostic platform able to directly detect and identify antimicrobial resistance in a faster way than conventional techniques could [...] Read more.
Infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria are becoming a major healthcare emergence with millions of reported cases every year and an increasing incidence of deaths. An advanced diagnostic platform able to directly detect and identify antimicrobial resistance in a faster way than conventional techniques could help in the adoption of early and accurate therapeutic interventions, limiting the actual negative impact on patient outcomes. With this objective, we have developed a new biosensor methodology using an ultrasensitive nanophotonic bimodal waveguide interferometer (BiMW), which allows a rapid and direct detection, without amplification, of two prevalent and clinically relevant Gram-negative antimicrobial resistance encoding sequences: the extended-spectrum betalactamase-encoding gene blaCTX-M-15 and the carbapenemase-encoding gene blaNDM-5 We demonstrate the extreme sensitivity and specificity of our biosensor methodology for the detection of both gene sequences. Our results show that the BiMW biosensor can be employed as an ultrasensitive (attomolar level) and specific diagnostic tool for rapidly (less than 30 min) identifying drug resistance. The BiMW nanobiosensor holds great promise as a powerful tool for the control and management of healthcare-associated infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Full article
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