Special Issue "Ultrasound Imaging in Medicine 2019"

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Imaging".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Michael Bachmann Nielsen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Fax: +45 3545 2058
Interests: diagnostic radiology; cancer imaging; medical ultrasound; Doppler techniques; CT-scanning; medical presentations; musculoskeletal imaging
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ultrasound examinations are performed within almost all medical specialties and are of paramount value in clinical medicine and as research tools. Diagnostic ultrasound as well as ultrasound guidance for biopsy, drainage and tumor ablation has become an integral part of the clinical setting. The last ten years have seen an increase in new ultrasound techniques like contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), elastography techniques, 3D ultrasound, image fusion with ultrasound and methods for flow visualization like vector Doppler. On the technical aspect also transducer technology has evolved tremendously. This special issue invites submission of both original and review papers, technical as well as clinical papers within all aspects of ultrasound imaging.

Prof. Dr. Michael Bachmann Nielsen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 3D ultrasound
  • blood flow velocity; ultrasonography
  • contrast enhanced ultrasound
  • elasticity imaging; ultrasonography
  • endoscopic ultrasound
  • ultrasonography
  • ultrasonography; interventional

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Classification of Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors Using H-Scan Ultrasound Imaging
Diagnostics 2019, 9(4), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9040182 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. Ultrasound imaging has been widely used in the detection and diagnosis of breast tumors. However, due to factors such as limited spatial resolution and speckle noise, classification of benign and malignant [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. Ultrasound imaging has been widely used in the detection and diagnosis of breast tumors. However, due to factors such as limited spatial resolution and speckle noise, classification of benign and malignant breast tumors using conventional B-mode ultrasound still remains a challenging task. H-scan is a new ultrasound technique that images the relative size of acoustic scatterers. However, the feasibility of H-scan ultrasound imaging in the classification of benign and malignant breast tumors has not been investigated. In this paper, we proposed a new method based on H-scan ultrasound imaging to classify benign and malignant breast tumors. Backscattered ultrasound radiofrequency signals of 100 breast tumors were used (48 benign and 52 malignant cases). H-scan ultrasound images were constructed with the radiofrequency signals by matched filtering using Gaussian-weighted Hermite polynomials. Experimental results showed that benign breast tumors had more red components, while malignant breast tumors had more blue components in H-scan ultrasound images. There were significant differences between the RGB channels of H-scan ultrasound images of benign and malignant breast tumors. We conclude H-scan ultrasound imaging can be used as a new method for classifying benign and malignant breast tumors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound Imaging in Medicine 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Muscle Stiffness in Infants with Congenital Muscular Torticollis
Diagnostics 2019, 9(4), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9040158 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) results from unilateral shortening of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle, usually associated with a fibrotic mass. Although CMT may resolve with physical therapy, some cases persist, resulting in long-term musculoskeletal problems. It is therefore helpful to be able to monitor [...] Read more.
Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) results from unilateral shortening of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle, usually associated with a fibrotic mass. Although CMT may resolve with physical therapy, some cases persist, resulting in long-term musculoskeletal problems. It is therefore helpful to be able to monitor and predict the outcomes of physical therapy. Shear-wave velocity (SWV) determined by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography can provide a quantitative measure of muscle stiffness. We therefore measured SCM SWV in 22 infants with unilateral CMT before and after 3 months of physical therapy and evaluated the relationships between SWV and SCM thickness and various clinical features, including cervical range of motion (ROM). SWV was initially higher and the ROM was smaller in affected muscles before physical therapy. SWV decreased significantly (2.33 ± 0.47 to 1.56 ± 0.63 m/s, p < 0.001), indicating reduced stiffness, and muscle thickness also decreased after physical therapy (15.64 ± 5.24 to 11.36 ± 5.71 mm, p < 0.001), both in line with increased neck ROM of rotation (64.77 ± 18.87 to 87.27 ± 6.31°, p < 0.001) and lateral flexion (37.50 ± 11.31 to 53.64 ± 9.41°, p < 0.001). However, the improved ROM more closely reflected the changes in SWV than in muscle thickness. These results suggest that a change in SWV detected by ARFI elastography could help to predict improvements in clinical outcomes, such as stiffness-related loss of motion, in patients with CMT undergoing physical therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound Imaging in Medicine 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Measurement of Oral Epithelial Thickness by Optical Coherence Tomography
Diagnostics 2019, 9(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9030090 - 06 Aug 2019
Abstract
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time, in-situ, non-invasive imaging device that is able to perform a cross-sectional evaluation of tissue microstructure based on the specific intensity of back-scattered and reflected light. The aim of the present study was to define normal values [...] Read more.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time, in-situ, non-invasive imaging device that is able to perform a cross-sectional evaluation of tissue microstructure based on the specific intensity of back-scattered and reflected light. The aim of the present study was to define normal values of epithelial thickness within the oral cavity. OCT measurements of epithelial thickness were performed in 28 healthy patients at six different locations within the oral cavity. Image analysis was performed using Image J 1.52 software. The healthy epithelium has a mean thickness of 335.59 ± 150.73 µm. According to its location within the oral cavity, the epithelium showed highest values in the region of the buccal mucosa (659.79 µm) and the thinnest one was observed in the mouth’s floor (100.07 µm). OCT has been shown to be useful for the evaluation of oral mucosa in vivo and in real time. Our study provides reference values for the epithelial thickness of multiple sites within the oral cavity. Knowledge of the thickness values of healthy mucosa is, therefore, of fundamental importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound Imaging in Medicine 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Small Bowel Obstruction
Diagnostics 2019, 9(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9030088 - 06 Aug 2019
Abstract
Introduction: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common presentation to the Emergency Department (ED). This study aimed to analyze the accuracy of ultrasound (US) in diagnosing and staging SBO. Objectives: The main object of this study was to analyze the accuracy of ultrasound [...] Read more.
Introduction: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common presentation to the Emergency Department (ED). This study aimed to analyze the accuracy of ultrasound (US) in diagnosing and staging SBO. Objectives: The main object of this study was to analyze the accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosing and staging SBO compared to CT. Methods: Retrospectively, stable patients with an ultrasonographic diagnosis of SBO who underwent abdominal CT immediately after US and before receiving naso-intestinal decompression, were included. US criteria for the diagnosis of SBO were related to morphological and functional findings. US diagnosis of obstruction was made if fluid-filled dilated small bowel loops were detected, peristalsis was abnormal and parietal abnormalities were present. Morphologic and functional sonographic findings were assigned to three categories: simple SBO, compensated SBO and decompensated SBO. US findings were compared with the results of CT examinations: Morphologic CT findings (divided into loop, vascular, mesenteric and peritoneal signs) allowed the classification of SBO in simple, decompensated and complicated. Results: US diagnostic accuracy rates in relation to CT results were calculated: ultrasound compared to CT imaging, had a sensitivity of 92.31% (95% CI, 74.87% to 99.05%) and a specificity of 94.12% (95% CI, 71.31% to 99.85%) in the diagnosis of SBO. Conclusions: This study, similarly to the existing literature, suggests that ultrasound is highly accurate in the diagnosis of SBO, and that the most valuable sonographic signs are the presence of dilated bowel loops ad abnormal peristalsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound Imaging in Medicine 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Four Virtual-Reality Simulators for Diagnostic Abdominal Ultrasound Training in Radiology
Diagnostics 2019, 9(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9020050 - 06 May 2019
Abstract
Ultrasound exams need skilled examiners, and simulation-based training could provide standardized and safe skill training. This study aims to give an overview of different types of virtual-reality simulators for use in abdominal diagnostic ultrasound training in radiology. Fifteen specialized radiologists and radiological residents [...] Read more.
Ultrasound exams need skilled examiners, and simulation-based training could provide standardized and safe skill training. This study aims to give an overview of different types of virtual-reality simulators for use in abdominal diagnostic ultrasound training in radiology. Fifteen specialized radiologists and radiological residents were presented with two similar cases on four different simulators for abdominal ultrasound training. A feedback sheet for each individual simulator and for an overall comparison was filled out by all participants. All means of scores were compared, and simulators were ranked from least to most favorable. One simulator was ranked most favorable in seven out of nine questions, but none of the mean scores had statistically significant differences. All simulators were recommended for training radiologists, and all simulators were perceived to benefit trainees more than experienced ultra-sonographers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound Imaging in Medicine 2019)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Hand-Held Ultrasound Devices Compared with High-End Ultrasound Systems: A Systematic Review
Diagnostics 2019, 9(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9020061 - 15 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this study was to review the scientific literature available on the comparison of hand-held ultrasound devices with high-end systems for abdominal and pleural applications. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane were searched following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to review the scientific literature available on the comparison of hand-held ultrasound devices with high-end systems for abdominal and pleural applications. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane were searched following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Original research describing hand-held ultrasound devices compared with high-end systems was included and assessed using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS)-2. The search was limited to articles published since 1 January 2012. A total of 2486 articles were found and screened by title and abstract. A total of 16 articles were chosen for final review. All of the included articles showed good overall agreement between hand-held and high-end ultrasound systems. Strong correlations were found when evaluating ascites, hydronephrosis, pleural cavities, in detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms and for use with obstetric and gynaecological patients. Other articles found good agreement for cholelithiasis and for determining the best site for paracentesis. QUADAS-2 analysis suggested few risks of bias and almost no concerns regarding applicability. For distinct clinical questions, hand-held devices may be a valuable supplement to physical examination. However, evidence is inadequate, and more research is needed on the abdominal and pleural use of hand-held ultrasound with more standardised comparisons, using only blinded reviewers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound Imaging in Medicine 2019)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Ultrasound-Guided Needle Aspiration of Peritonsillar Abscesses: Utility of Transoral Pharyngeal Ultrasonography
Diagnostics 2019, 9(4), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9040141 - 05 Oct 2019
Abstract
A peritonsillar abscess is a common deep infection that is usually related to acute tonsillitis. Needle aspiration is often performed for diagnosis and treatment, but several complications, including puncture of the carotid artery, may occur, even when performed by properly trained physicians. The [...] Read more.
A peritonsillar abscess is a common deep infection that is usually related to acute tonsillitis. Needle aspiration is often performed for diagnosis and treatment, but several complications, including puncture of the carotid artery, may occur, even when performed by properly trained physicians. The utility of transoral pharyngeal ultrasonography (TOPU) equipped with a biopsy adaptor for safe and full aspiration is presented. A 19-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a peritonsillar abscess. TOPU showed the abscess and a branch of the carotid artery, and an otolaryngologist performed puncture through the biopsy adaptor with the aid of the ultrasound image. Needle aspiration was accomplished by avoiding arterial puncture and monitoring the shrinkage of the abscess. TOPU-guided needle aspiration is useful in the safe drainage of peritonsillar abscesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound Imaging in Medicine 2019)
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Open AccessCase Report
A Multinodular Mass of Abdominal Splenosis: Case Report of Uncommon Images of a Rare Disease
Diagnostics 2019, 9(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9030111 - 04 Sep 2019
Abstract
Splenosis is a rare disease which typically forms single or multiple round masses. A 45-year-old male was referred for investigation of an abdominal mass. He had a history of splenic injury from a traffic accident at age 19. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a [...] Read more.
Splenosis is a rare disease which typically forms single or multiple round masses. A 45-year-old male was referred for investigation of an abdominal mass. He had a history of splenic injury from a traffic accident at age 19. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a well-enhanced, multi-nodular mass lesion, 3.5 cm in size, located below the stomach. An endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) for the mass was inconclusive. A surgery was performed, and pathology of the resected mass confirmed splenosis. Clinicians must bear in mind the possibility of occurrence of splenosis after splenic trauma and its image variations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasound Imaging in Medicine 2019)
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