Special Issue "Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Healthcare"

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Point-of-Care Diagnostics and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Chao-Min Cheng
Website
Guest Editor
National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-chu, Taiwan
Interests: diagnostic devices; medical devices; translational medicine
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With recent technological advances in multiple research fields such as materials science, micro-/nano-technology, cellular and molecular biology, bioengineering and the environment, much attention is shifting toward the development of new detection tools that not only address needs for high sensitivity and specificity but fulfil economic, environmental, and rapid point-of-care needs for groups and individuals with constrained resources and, possibly, limited training. Miniaturized fluidics-based platforms that precisely manipulate tiny body fluid volumes can be used for medical, healthcare or even environmental (e.g., heavy metal detection) diagnosis in a rapid and accurate manner. These new detection technologies are potentially applicable to different healthcare or environmental issues, since they are disposable, inexpensive, portable, and easy to use for the detection of human diseases or environmental issues—especially when they are manufactured based on low-cost materials, such as paper. The topics in this Special Issue would cover point-of-care detection devices, microfluidic or paper-based detection devices, new materials for making detection devices, and others (please directly discuss with the Guest Editor).

Dr. Chao-Min Cheng
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • point-of-care diagnostic devices
  • paper-based diagnostic devices
  • lateral flow immunoassays

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Integration of Mobile Devices and Point-Of-Care Diagnostic Devices—The Case of C-Reactive Protein Diagnosis
Diagnostics 2019, 9(4), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9040181 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In recent years, the misuse and overuse of antibiotics has promoted antibiotic resistance, which has now become a global public health concern [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Healthcare)
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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Paper-Based Detection Device for Alzheimer’s Disease—Detecting β-amyloid Peptides (1–42) in Human Plasma
Diagnostics 2020, 10(5), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10050272 - 30 Apr 2020
Abstract
The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is frequently missed or delayed in clinical practice. To remedy this situation, we developed a screening, paper-based (P-ELISA) platform to detect β-amyloid peptide 1–42 (Aβ42) and provide rapid results using a small volume, easily accessible plasma sample [...] Read more.
The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is frequently missed or delayed in clinical practice. To remedy this situation, we developed a screening, paper-based (P-ELISA) platform to detect β-amyloid peptide 1–42 (Aβ42) and provide rapid results using a small volume, easily accessible plasma sample instead of cerebrospinal fluid. The protocol outlined herein only requires 3 μL of sample per well and a short operating time (i.e., only 90 min). The detection limit of Aβ42 is 63.04 pg/mL in a buffer system. This P-ELISA-based approach can be used for early, preclinical stage AD screening, including screening for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD. It may also be used for treatment and stage monitoring purposes. The implementation of this approach may provide tremendous impact for an afflicted population and may well prompt additional and expanded efforts in both academic and commercial communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Assessment of Burn Depth by Paper-Based ELISA for the Detection of Angiogenin in Burn Blister Fluid—A Proof of Concept
Diagnostics 2020, 10(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10030127 - 27 Feb 2020
Abstract
Rapid assessment of burn depth is important for burn wound management. Superficial partial-thickness burn (SPTB) wounds heal without scars, but deep partial-thickness burn (DPTB) wounds require a longer healing time and have a higher risk of scar formation. We previously found that DPTB [...] Read more.
Rapid assessment of burn depth is important for burn wound management. Superficial partial-thickness burn (SPTB) wounds heal without scars, but deep partial-thickness burn (DPTB) wounds require a longer healing time and have a higher risk of scar formation. We previously found that DPTB blister fluid displayed a higher angiogenin level than SPTB blister fluid by conventional ELISA. In this study, we developed a paper-based ELISA (P-ELISA) technique for rapid assessment of angiogenin concentration in burn blister fluid. We collected six samples of SPTB blister fluid, six samples of DPTB blister fluid, and seven normal healthy serum samples for analysis. We again chose ELISA to measure and compare angiogenin levels across all of our samples, but we developed a P-ELISA tool and compared sample results from that tool to the results from conventional ELISA. As with conventional ELISA, DPTB blister fluid displayed higher angiogenin levels than SPTB in P-ELISA. Furthermore, our P-ELISA results showed a moderate correlation with conventional ELISA results. This new diagnostic technique facilitates rapid and convenient assessment of burn depth by evaluating a key molecule in burn blister fluid. It presents a novel and easy-to-learn approach that may be suitable for clinically determining burn depth with diagnostic precision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Requirements Analysis and Specification for a Molecular Tumor Board Platform Based on cBioPortal
Diagnostics 2020, 10(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10020093 - 10 Feb 2020
Abstract
Clinicians in molecular tumor boards (MTB) are confronted with a growing amount of genetic high-throughput sequencing data. Today, at German university hospitals, these data are usually handled in complex spreadsheets from which clinicians have to obtain the necessary information. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Clinicians in molecular tumor boards (MTB) are confronted with a growing amount of genetic high-throughput sequencing data. Today, at German university hospitals, these data are usually handled in complex spreadsheets from which clinicians have to obtain the necessary information. The aim of this work was to gather a comprehensive list of requirements to be met by cBioPortal to support processes in MTBs according to clinical needs. Therefore, oncology experts at nine German university hospitals were surveyed in two rounds of interviews. To generate an interview guideline a scoping review was conducted. For visual support in the second round, screenshot mockups illustrating the requirements from the first round were created. Requirements that cBioPortal already meets were skipped during the second round. In the end, 24 requirements with sometimes several conceivable options were identified and 54 screenshot mockups were created. Some of the identified requirements have already been suggested to the community by other users or are currently being implemented in cBioPortal. This shows, that the results are in line with the needs expressed by various disciplines. According to our findings, cBioPortal has the potential to significantly improve the processes and analyses of an MTB after the implementation of the identified requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Percussion Entropy Analysis of Synchronized ECG and PPG Signals as a Prognostic Indicator for Future Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects
Diagnostics 2020, 10(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10010032 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common chronic complications of diabetes. It has become an essential public health crisis, especially for care in the home. Synchronized electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals were obtained from healthy non-diabetic (n = [...] Read more.
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common chronic complications of diabetes. It has become an essential public health crisis, especially for care in the home. Synchronized electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals were obtained from healthy non-diabetic (n = 37) and diabetic (n = 85) subjects without peripheral neuropathy, recruited from the diabetic outpatient clinic. The conventional parameters, including low-/high-frequency power ratio (LHR), small-scale multiscale entropy index (MEISS), large-scale multiscale entropy index (MEILS), electrocardiogram-based pulse wave velocity (PWVmean), and percussion entropy index (PEI), were computed as baseline and were then followed for six years after the initial PEI measurement. Three new diabetic subgroups with different PEI values were identified for the goodness-of-fit test and Cox proportional Hazards model for relative risks analysis. Finally, Cox regression analysis showed that the PEI value was significantly and independently associated with the risk of developing DPN after adjustment for some traditional risk factors for diabetes (relative risks = 4.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.87 to 6.31, p = 0.015). These findings suggest that the PEI is an important risk parameter for new-onset DPN as a result of a chronic complication of diabetes and, thus, a smaller PEI value can provide valid information that may help identify type 2 diabetic patients at a greater risk of future DPN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Blood Ketone Bodies and Breath Acetone Analysis and Their Correlations in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Diagnostics 2019, 9(4), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9040224 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Analysis of volatile organic compounds in the breath for disease detection and monitoring has gained momentum and clinical significance due to its rapid test results and non-invasiveness, especially for diabetes mellitus (DM). Studies have suggested that breath gases, including acetone, may be related [...] Read more.
Analysis of volatile organic compounds in the breath for disease detection and monitoring has gained momentum and clinical significance due to its rapid test results and non-invasiveness, especially for diabetes mellitus (DM). Studies have suggested that breath gases, including acetone, may be related to simultaneous blood glucose (BG) and blood ketone levels in adults with types 2 and 1 diabetes. Detecting altered concentrations of ketones in the breath, blood and urine may be crucial for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus. This study assesses the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes monitoring in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Human breath samples were collected in Tedlar™ bags and analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS). The measurements were compared with capillary BG and blood ketone levels (β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 30 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 28 control volunteers. Ketone bodies of diabetic subjects showed a significant increase when compared to the control subjects; however, the ketone levels were was controlled in both diabetic and non-diabetic volunteers. Worthy of note, a statistically significant relationship was found between breath acetone and blood acetoacetate (R = 0.89) and between breath acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (R = 0.82). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Two Potential Clinical Applications of Origami-Based Paper Devices
Diagnostics 2019, 9(4), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9040203 - 26 Nov 2019
Abstract
Detecting small amounts of analyte in clinical practice is challenging because of deficiencies in specimen sample availability and unsuitable sampling environments that prevent reliable sampling. Paper-based analytical devices (PADs) have successfully been used to detect ultralow amounts of analyte, and origami-based PADs (O-PADs) [...] Read more.
Detecting small amounts of analyte in clinical practice is challenging because of deficiencies in specimen sample availability and unsuitable sampling environments that prevent reliable sampling. Paper-based analytical devices (PADs) have successfully been used to detect ultralow amounts of analyte, and origami-based PADs (O-PADs) offer advantages that may boost the overall potential of PADs in general. In this study, we investigated two potential clinical applications for O-PADs. The first O-PAD we investigated was an origami-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system designed to detect different concentrations of rabbit IgG. This device was designed with four wing structures, each of which acted as a reagent loading zone for pre-loading ELISA reagents, and a central test sample loading zone. Because this device has a low limit of detection (LOD), it may be suitable for detecting IgG levels in tears from patients with a suspected viral infection (such as herpes simplex virus (HSV)). The second O-PAD we investigated was designed to detect paraquat levels to determine potential poisoning. To use this device, we sequentially folded each of two separate reagent zones, one preloaded with NaOH and one preloaded with ascorbic acid (AA), over the central test zone, and added 8 µL of sample that then flowed through each reagent zone and onto the central test zone. The device was then unfolded to read the results on the test zone. The three folded layers of paper provided a moist environment not achievable with conventional paper-based ELISA. Both O-PADs were convenient to use because reagents were preloaded, and results could be observed and analyzed with image analysis software. O-PADs expand the testing capacity of simpler PADs while leveraging their characteristic advantages of convenience, cost, and ease of use, particularly for point-of-care diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Procalcitonin Assays on KRYPTOR and LIAISON® XL Analyzers
Diagnostics 2019, 9(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9030094 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Our laboratory performs procalcitonin (PCT) assays on a Brahms KRYPTOR analyzer with the Brahms PCT sensitive Kryptor kit. In this study, we wanted to compare the assays obtained in this way with the ones performed on the LIAISON® XL. From January to [...] Read more.
Our laboratory performs procalcitonin (PCT) assays on a Brahms KRYPTOR analyzer with the Brahms PCT sensitive Kryptor kit. In this study, we wanted to compare the assays obtained in this way with the ones performed on the LIAISON® XL. From January to May 2017, 171 samples were analyzed, of which 65 from female patients (age: 22–98 years) and 106 from male patients (age: 16–97 years). The PCT determination was performed using the LIAISON® XL and KRYPTOR analyzers, by chemiluminescence (Chemiluminescence immunoassay—CLIA) (LIAISON® BRAHMS PCT® II GEN) and immunofluorescence (Brahms PCT sensitive Kryptor) assay, respectively. For the LIAISON® BRAHMS PCT® II GEN, 52% of the results were placed between 0.0 and 0.5 ng/mL, 18% between 0.5 and 2.0 ng/mL, and 30% between 2.0 and 100 ng/mL; the mean was 4.09 ng/mL, the median 0.456 ng/mL, the maximum value 97.2 ng/mL, and the minimum value 0.02 ng/mL. For the Brahms PCT sensitive Kryptor, 55% of the results were positioned between 0.0 and 0.5 ng/mL, 21% between 0.5 and 2.0 ng/mL, and 24% between 2.0 and 100 ng/mL; the mean was 3.72 ng/mL, the median 0.39 ng/mL, the maximum value 103 ng/mL, and the minimum value 0.01 ng/mL. The mean of the results obtained with the two methods showed no significant differences (3.717 for Kryptor and 4.094 for LIAISON®). PCT assay with Brahms reagents, both on the Kryptor and LIAISON®XL platforms, offers excellent performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Healthcare)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Capillary-Driven Flow Microfluidics Combined with Smartphone Detection: An Emerging Tool for Point-of-Care Diagnostics
Diagnostics 2020, 10(8), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10080509 - 22 Jul 2020
Abstract
Point-of-care (POC) or near-patient testing allows clinicians to accurately achieve real-time diagnostic results performed at or near to the patient site. The outlook of POC devices is to provide quicker analyses that can lead to well-informed clinical decisions and hence improve the health [...] Read more.
Point-of-care (POC) or near-patient testing allows clinicians to accurately achieve real-time diagnostic results performed at or near to the patient site. The outlook of POC devices is to provide quicker analyses that can lead to well-informed clinical decisions and hence improve the health of patients at the point-of-need. Microfluidics plays an important role in the development of POC devices. However, requirements of handling expertise, pumping systems and complex fluidic controls make the technology unaffordable to the current healthcare systems in the world. In recent years, capillary-driven flow microfluidics has emerged as an attractive microfluidic-based technology to overcome these limitations by offering robust, cost-effective and simple-to-operate devices. The internal wall of the microchannels can be pre-coated with reagents, and by merely dipping the device into the patient sample, the sample can be loaded into the microchannel driven by capillary forces and can be detected via handheld or smartphone-based detectors. The capabilities of capillary-driven flow devices have not been fully exploited in developing POC diagnostics, especially for antimicrobial resistance studies in clinical settings. The purpose of this review is to open up this field of microfluidics to the ever-expanding microfluidic-based scientific community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Healthcare)
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Open AccessReview
Viscoelastic Hemostatic Assays: Moving from the Laboratory to the Site of Care—A Review of Established and Emerging Technologies
Diagnostics 2020, 10(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10020118 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Viscoelastic-based techniques to evaluate whole blood hemostasis have advanced substantially since they were first developed over 70 years ago but are still based upon the techniques first described by Dr. Hellmut Hartert in 1948. Today, the use of thromboelastography, the method of testing [...] Read more.
Viscoelastic-based techniques to evaluate whole blood hemostasis have advanced substantially since they were first developed over 70 years ago but are still based upon the techniques first described by Dr. Hellmut Hartert in 1948. Today, the use of thromboelastography, the method of testing viscoelastic properties of blood coagulation, has moved out of the research laboratory and is now more widespread, used commonly during surgery, in emergency departments, intensive care units, and in labor wards. Thromboelastography is currently a rapidly growing field of technological advancement and is attracting significant investment. This review will first describe the history of the viscoelastic testing and the established first-generation devices, which were developed for use within the laboratory. This review will then describe the next-generation hemostasis monitoring devices, which were developed for use at the site of care for an expanding range of clinical applications. This review will then move on to experimental technologies, which promise to make viscoelastic testing more readily available in a wider range of clinical environments in the endeavor to improve patient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Healthcare)
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Open AccessReview
Role of pH Value in Clinically Relevant Diagnosis
Diagnostics 2020, 10(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10020107 - 16 Feb 2020
Abstract
As a highly influential physiological factor, pH may be leveraged as a tool to diagnose physiological state. It may be especially suitable for diagnosing and assessing skin structure and wound status. Multiple innovative and elegant smart wound dressings combined with either pH sensors [...] Read more.
As a highly influential physiological factor, pH may be leveraged as a tool to diagnose physiological state. It may be especially suitable for diagnosing and assessing skin structure and wound status. Multiple innovative and elegant smart wound dressings combined with either pH sensors or drug control-released carriers have been extensively studied. Increasing our understanding of the role of pH value in clinically relevant diagnostics should assist clinicians and improve personal health management in the home. In this review, we summarized a number of articles and discussed the role of pH on the skin surface as well as the factors that influence skin pH and pH-relevant skin diseases, but also the relationship of skin pH to the wound healing process, including its influence on the activity of proteases, bacterial enterotoxin, and some antibacterial agents. A great number of papers discussing physiological pH value have been published in recent decades, far too many to be included in this review. Here, we have focused on the impact of pH on wounds and skin with an emphasis on clinically relevant diagnosis toward effective treatment. We have also summarized the differences in skin structure and wound care between adults and infants, noting that infants have fragile skin and poor skin barriers, which makes them more vulnerable to skin damage and compels particular care, especially for wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Healthcare)
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