Optical Diagnostics and Monitoring of Human Diseases

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 13918

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Laser Molecular Imaging and Machine Learning, Tomsk State University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
Interests: biophotonics; machine learning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Optics and Biophotonics, Saratov State University, 410012 Saratov, Russia
Interests: biomedical optics; diagnostics; laser treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optical techniques and laser diagnostics are becoming integral elements in engineering and medical instrumentation. Written by leading experts from academic groups and laboratories, this Special Issue provides an international perspective on both existing applications and cutting-edge research. With a focus on advanced biophotonics applications, the Special Issue discusses the application of techniques such as tissue and liquid optical biopsy, breathomics, laser Doppler velocimetry, particle image velocimetry, planar laser-induced fluorescence and machine learning. In addition, the Special Issue explores laser diagnostic techniques used in the biomedical field and reviews novel research on the use of fiber-optic sensor techniques for structural integrity and physical condition monitoring.

Diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart disease, and premature death are complications of obesity that are often associated with excess abdominal fat.

More recently, the successful application of optical diagnostic technologies based on light scattering spectroscopy has been demonstrated for the minimally invasive detection of precancerous and early cancerous changes in various organs. Optical spectroscopic techniques have shown promising results in the diagnosis of diseases at the cellular scale. They do not require tissue removal, can be performed in vivo and allow for real-time diagnosis. While fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy are most effective in revealing the molecular properties of tissue, light scattering spectroscopy is capable of characterizing the structural properties of tissue at the cellular and subcellular scale.

Please note this special issue is prepared following the conference Saratov Fall Meeting 2022 (SFM'22).
https://sfmconference.org/

Dr. Yury Kistenev
Dr. Irina Yu. Yanina
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biophotonics
  • tissue optical biopsy
  • liquid optical biopsy
  • breathomics
  • machine learning

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 5118 KiB  
Article
Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of the Oral Mucosa: In Vivo Experimental Validation of the Precancerous Lesions Early Detection Possibility
by Alexander V. Kolpakov, Anastasia A. Moshkova, Ekaterina V. Melikhova, Diana Yu. Sokolova, Natalia P. Muravskaya, Andrey V. Samorodov, Nina O. Kopaneva, Galina I. Lukina, Marina Ya. Abramova, Veta G. Mamatsashvili and Vadim V. Parshkov
Diagnostics 2023, 13(9), 1633; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13091633 - 05 May 2023
Viewed by 2012
Abstract
This article is devoted to the experimental validation of the possibility of early detection of precancerous lesions in the oral mucosa in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the wavelength range from 360 to 1000 nm. During the study, a sample of 119 [...] Read more.
This article is devoted to the experimental validation of the possibility of early detection of precancerous lesions in the oral mucosa in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the wavelength range from 360 to 1000 nm. During the study, a sample of 119 patients with precancerous lesions has been collected and analyzed. As a result of the analysis, the most informative wavelength ranges were determined, in which the maximum differences in the backscattering spectra of lesions and intact tissues were observed, methods for automatic classification of backscattering spectra of the oral mucosa were studied, sensitivity and specificity values, achievable using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for detecting hyperkeratosis on the tongue ventrolateral mucosa surface and buccal mucosa, were evaluated. As a result of preliminary experimental studies in vivo, the possibility of automatic detection of precancerous lesions of the oral mucosa surface using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the wavelength range from 500 to 900 nm with an accuracy of at least 75 percent has been shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics and Monitoring of Human Diseases)
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14 pages, 3136 KiB  
Article
Joint Methodology Based on Optical Densitometry and Dynamic Light Scattering for Liver Function Assessment
by Elina Karseeva, Ilya Kolokolnikov, Ekaterina Medvedeva and Elena Savchenko
Diagnostics 2023, 13(7), 1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13071269 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1398
Abstract
A pressing health problem, both in clinical and socio-economic terms, is the increase in the number of patients with liver damage caused by viral diseases (hepatitis), cancer, toxicological damage, or metabolic disorders. Liver function assessment is a complex task, for which various existing [...] Read more.
A pressing health problem, both in clinical and socio-economic terms, is the increase in the number of patients with liver damage caused by viral diseases (hepatitis), cancer, toxicological damage, or metabolic disorders. Liver function assessment is a complex task, for which various existing diagnostic methods are used. Unfortunately, they all have several limitations which frequently make prompt and accurate diagnosis impossible. The high level of disability and mortality caused by liver diseases makes the development of new liver diagnostic methods very urgent. In this paper, we describe a new joint methodology for studying liver function based on optical densitometry and dynamic light scattering. This will help to diagnose and predict the dynamics of liver function during treatment with greater efficiency, due to including in consideration the individual characteristics of the cardiovascular system and tissue metabolism. In this paper, we present a laboratory model of a combined sensor for optical densitometry and dynamic light scattering. We also developed special software for controlling the sensor and processing the recorded data. Modeling experiments and physical medical studies were carried out to adjust and calibrate the sensor and software. We also assessed the sensor resolution when registering the concentration of dye in the human body and the minimum measured flow rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics and Monitoring of Human Diseases)
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19 pages, 4984 KiB  
Article
Study of Laser Light Scattering Methods in Rapid Viability Assessment of Microorganisms under Antibiotics Exposure for Adaptation in Lab-on-A-Chip Format
by Tatiana M. Zimina, Olga A. Pinchuk, Dmitry I. Kaplun, Lyudmila A. Kraeva and Nikita O. Sitkov
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061130 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1405
Abstract
The antibiotic resistance (ABR) problem is becoming increasingly disturbing and it is important to implement express methods of ABR testing to allow operative antibiotic therapy decisions. The application of laser light scattering (LLS) in microbiological analysis for express ABR testing of microorganisms has [...] Read more.
The antibiotic resistance (ABR) problem is becoming increasingly disturbing and it is important to implement express methods of ABR testing to allow operative antibiotic therapy decisions. The application of laser light scattering (LLS) in microbiological analysis for express ABR testing of microorganisms has been considered. The ways of miniaturization of laser light scattering for creating the bases of their integration into microbiological laboratory-on-a-chip (MLOC) for clinical express diagnostics have been analysed. The advantage of miniaturization in the context of clinical express analysis realization problems are investigated. A system of parallel measuring cells and illumination, enabling simultaneous testing of a group of antibiotics, was tested by splitting a laser beam with a two-dimensional collimator prepared of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide. It has been demonstrated that the application of LLS methods, providing high concentration and mass sensitivity as well as a miniaturization potential, is an effective approach in the development of new generation diagnostic instruments. The studies have demonstrated the ability of methods to register effects of antibiotics on microbiological samples within 10 min. The following microorganisms were used in the study: Escherichia coli M-17, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics and Monitoring of Human Diseases)
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20 pages, 3628 KiB  
Article
Measurement and Modeling of the Optical Properties of Adipose Tissue in the Terahertz Range: Aspects of Disease Diagnosis
by Irina Y. Yanina, Viktor V. Nikolaev, Olga A. Zakharova, Alexei V. Borisov, Konstantin N. Dvoretskiy, Kirill V. Berezin, Vyacheslav I. Kochubey, Yuri V. Kistenev and Valery V. Tuchin
Diagnostics 2022, 12(10), 2395; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12102395 - 01 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
In this paper, the measurement and modeling of optical properties in the terahertz (THz) range of adipose tissue and its components with temperature changes were performed. Spectral measurements were made in the frequency range 0.25–1 THz. The structural models of main triglycerides of [...] Read more.
In this paper, the measurement and modeling of optical properties in the terahertz (THz) range of adipose tissue and its components with temperature changes were performed. Spectral measurements were made in the frequency range 0.25–1 THz. The structural models of main triglycerides of fatty acids are constructed using the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method and the Gaussian03, Revision B.03 program. The optical density (OD) of adipose tissue samples decreases as temperature increases, which can be associated mostly with the dehydration of the sample. Some inclusion of THz wave scattering suppression into the OD decrease can also be expected due to refractive index matching provided by free fatty acids released from adipocytes at thermally induced cell lipolysis. It was shown that the difference between the THz absorption spectra of water and fat makes it possible to estimate the water content in adipose tissue. The proposed model was verified on the basis of molecular modeling and a comparison with experimental data for terahertz spectra of adipose tissue during its heating. Knowing the exact percentage of free and bound water in adipose tissue can help diagnose and monitor diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics and Monitoring of Human Diseases)
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8 pages, 1309 KiB  
Article
Choroidal Thickness in a Hyperopic Pediatric Population
by Vanessa Antonia Gerena Arévalo and Jose Maria Ruiz-Moreno
Diagnostics 2022, 12(10), 2330; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12102330 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Aims: To evaluate the choroidal thickness (CT) in hyperopic and emmetropic children using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional comparative study. Macular choroidal thickness and axial length of 62 eyes from hyperopic pediatric patients were studied. CT was [...] Read more.
Aims: To evaluate the choroidal thickness (CT) in hyperopic and emmetropic children using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional comparative study. Macular choroidal thickness and axial length of 62 eyes from hyperopic pediatric patients were studied. CT was determined at nine different macular locations. The results were compared to 66 eyes of healthy pediatric patients. Results: Study groups were classified as a hyperopic group (SE ≥ 2D) and an emmetropic group (SE < 2D). The hyperopic group have shorter AL than the emmetropic group (p < 0.001). The mean CT is greater in the hyperopic group (p = 0.039), and there are no significant differences between CT and gender (p = 0.389). Study participants were also classified by age (2–5 years old and 6–18 years old), and we observe differences in CT, but these differences are only significant for the 6–18 years old group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: CT in hyperopic pediatric populations is statistically thicker than in healthy pediatric patients. AL and SE have statistically significant correlations with CT values, and those correlations are seen in children in the ocular slow-growing phase (6–18 years old), and not in the early years (2–5 years old). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics and Monitoring of Human Diseases)
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10 pages, 2314 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Accuracy in Measuring the Enamel Thickness of Maxillary Incisors with Optical Coherence Tomography
by Hiroshi Miyagi, Kyosuke Oki, Yoshihiro Tsukiyama, Yasunori Ayukawa and Kiyoshi Koyano
Diagnostics 2022, 12(7), 1634; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12071634 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Although the clinical assessment of enamel thickness is important, hardly any tools exist for accurate measurements. The purpose of this study was to verify the precision of enamel thickness measurements using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Human extracted maxillary central and lateral incisors [...] Read more.
Although the clinical assessment of enamel thickness is important, hardly any tools exist for accurate measurements. The purpose of this study was to verify the precision of enamel thickness measurements using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Human extracted maxillary central and lateral incisors were used as specimens. Twenty-eight sites were measured in each specimen. The optical path length (OPL) at each measurement site was measured on the OCT images, and enamel thickness (e1) was calculated by dividing OPL by the mean refractive index of enamel, 1.63. The specimens were then sectioned, and a light microscope was used to measure enamel thickness (e2). e1 and e2 were then compared. Measurement errors between e1 and e2 for the central and lateral incisors were 0.04 (0.02; 0.06) mm and 0.04 (0.02; 0.07) mm [median value: (25%, 75% percentile)], respectively. No significant differences between measurement sites were noted for measurement errors between e1 and e2. These results demonstrate that OCT can be used for noninvasive, accurate measurements of enamel thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics and Monitoring of Human Diseases)
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14 pages, 3689 KiB  
Article
In Vivo Identification of Skin Photodamage Induced by Fractional CO2 and Picosecond Nd:YAG Lasers with Optical Coherence Tomography
by Chau Yee Ng, Tai-Ang Wang, Hsiang-Chieh Lee, Bo-Huei Huang and Meng-Tsan Tsai
Diagnostics 2022, 12(4), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12040822 - 27 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2815
Abstract
Fractional laser treatment is commonly used for dermatological applications, enabling effective induction of collagen regeneration and significantly reducing recovery time. However, it is challenging to observe laser-induced photodamage beneath the tissue surface in vivo, making the non-invasive evaluation of treatment outcomes difficult. For [...] Read more.
Fractional laser treatment is commonly used for dermatological applications, enabling effective induction of collagen regeneration and significantly reducing recovery time. However, it is challenging to observe laser-induced photodamage beneath the tissue surface in vivo, making the non-invasive evaluation of treatment outcomes difficult. For in vivo real-time study of the photodamage induced by fractional pulsed CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers commonly utilized for clinical therapy, a portable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system was implemented for clinical studies. The photodamage caused by two lasers, including photothermal and photoacoustic effects, was investigated using OCT, together with the correlation between photodamage and exposure energy. Additionally, to investigate the change in the optical properties of tissue due to photodamage, the attenuation coefficients and damaged areas of normal skin and laser-treated skin were estimated for comparison. Finally, the recovery of the exposed skin with both lasers was also compared using OCT. The results show that OCT can be a potential solution for in vivo investigation of laser-induced tissue damage and quantitative evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Diagnostics and Monitoring of Human Diseases)
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