Computed Tomography Imaging in Medical Diagnosis

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Imaging and Theranostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 3220

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Radiology Unit, Buon Consiglio Fatebenefratelli Hospital, 80123 Naples, Italy
Interests: melanoma; sarcoma; thyroid cancer; head and neck cancer; lymphoma; immunotherapy; lung cancer; computed tomography imaging
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Computed tomography (CT) is a diagnostic imaging test used to create detailed images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels. In this Special Issue, we open a discussion on this topic and welcome original articles, reviews, and reports that explore new technologies, emerging service modalities, and ideas on technology adoption and the overall current and future impact of the pandemic on computed tomography practices.

Dr. Fabio Sandomenico
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • computed tomography
  • medical diagnosis
  • imaging
  • internal organs
  • bones
  • soft tissue
  • blood vessels

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 1187 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Value of Four-Dimensional Dynamic Computed Tomography for Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Low Baseline Parathyroid Hormone Levels
by Zaid Al-Difaie, Max H. M. C. Scheepers, Sanne M. E. Engelen, Bastiaan Havekes, Nicole D. Bouvy and Alida A. Postma
Diagnostics 2023, 13(16), 2621; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13162621 - 8 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Low baseline levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with a higher rate of multiglandular disease, lower localization rates of preoperative imaging modalities, and a higher rate of unsuccessful minimally invasive parathyroidectomies. The objective of this study is to assess the diagnostic value [...] Read more.
Low baseline levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with a higher rate of multiglandular disease, lower localization rates of preoperative imaging modalities, and a higher rate of unsuccessful minimally invasive parathyroidectomies. The objective of this study is to assess the diagnostic value of four-dimensional dynamic computed tomography (4D-CT) in localizing primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in patients with low baseline PTH levels, compared to patients with high baseline PTH levels. Patients with pHPT who received a 4D-CT scan as part of their standard diagnostic evaluation were divided into two groups based on the following criteria: (1) preoperative PTH levels less than 100 pg/mL and (2) patients with preoperative PTH levels greater than 100 pg/mL. All patients underwent parathyroidectomy based on 4D-CT findings, with intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring. The lesion-based sensitivity of 4D-CT was 88% in patients with low baseline PTH levels and 94.7% in patients with high baseline PTH levels (p = 0.33). However, the success rate of image-guided resection based on 4D-CT findings was 71.4% in the low baseline PTH group compared to 90.6% in the high baseline PTH group (p = 0.06). Our study demonstrated that 4D-CT has a high lesion-based sensitivity in patients with pHPT and low baseline PTH levels but led to a relatively low rate of successful image-guided resection in patients with low baseline PTH levels. Therefore, it is important to exercise increased caution during 4D-CT-guided surgical exploration of patients with low baseline PTH levels to ensure successful surgical resection of all parathyroid lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computed Tomography Imaging in Medical Diagnosis)
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19 pages, 12493 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Voxel-Wise Quantitative Assessment of Imaging Features in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by Chongfei Huang, Shihong Ying, Meixiang Huang, Chenhui Qiu, Fang Lu, Zhiyi Peng and Dexing Kong
Diagnostics 2023, 13(6), 1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13061170 - 18 Mar 2023
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Abstract
Voxel-wise quantitative assessment of typical characteristics in three-dimensional (3D) multiphase computed tomography (CT) imaging, especially arterial phase hyperenhancement (APHE) and subsequent washout (WO), is crucial for the diagnosis and therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, this process is still missing in practice. Radiologists [...] Read more.
Voxel-wise quantitative assessment of typical characteristics in three-dimensional (3D) multiphase computed tomography (CT) imaging, especially arterial phase hyperenhancement (APHE) and subsequent washout (WO), is crucial for the diagnosis and therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, this process is still missing in practice. Radiologists often visually estimate these features, which limit the diagnostic accuracy due to subjective interpretation and qualitative assessment. Quantitative assessment is one of the solutions to this problem. However, performing voxel-wise assessment in 3D is difficult due to the misalignments between images caused by respiratory and other physiological motions. In this paper, based on the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (v2018), we propose a registration-based quantitative model for the 3D voxel-wise assessment of image characteristics through multiple CT imaging phases. Specifically, we selected three phases from sequential CT imaging phases, i.e., pre-contrast phase (Pre), arterial phase (AP), delayed phase (DP), and then registered Pre and DP images to the AP image to extract and assess the major imaging characteristics. An iterative reweighted local cross-correlation was applied in the proposed registration model to construct the fidelity term for comparison of intensity features across different imaging phases, which is challenging due to their distinct intensity appearance. Experiments on clinical dataset showed that the means of dice similarity coefficient of liver were 98.6% and 98.1%, those of surface distance were 0.38 and 0.54 mm, and those of Hausdorff distance were 4.34 and 6.16 mm, indicating that quantitative estimation can be accomplished with high accuracy. For the classification of APHE, the result obtained by our method was consistent with those acquired by experts. For the WO, the effectiveness of the model was verified in terms of WO volume ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computed Tomography Imaging in Medical Diagnosis)
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Review

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15 pages, 6787 KiB  
Review
Dual-Energy and Photon-Counting Computed Tomography in Vascular Applications—Technical Background and Post-Processing Techniques
by Marcin Stański, Ilona Michałowska, Adam Lemanowicz, Katarzyna Karmelita-Katulska, Przemysław Ratajczak, Agata Sławińska and Zbigniew Serafin
Diagnostics 2024, 14(12), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics14121223 - 11 Jun 2024
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Abstract
The field of computed tomography (CT), which is a basic diagnostic tool in clinical practice, has recently undergone rapid technological advances. These include the evolution of dual-energy CT (DECT) and development of photon-counting computed tomography (PCCT). DECT enables the acquisition of CT images [...] Read more.
The field of computed tomography (CT), which is a basic diagnostic tool in clinical practice, has recently undergone rapid technological advances. These include the evolution of dual-energy CT (DECT) and development of photon-counting computed tomography (PCCT). DECT enables the acquisition of CT images at two different energy spectra, which allows for the differentiation of certain materials, mainly calcium and iodine. PCCT is a recent technology that enables a scanner to quantify the energy of each photon gathered by the detector. This method gives the possibility to decrease the radiation dose and increase the spatial and temporal resolutions of scans. Both of these techniques have found a wide range of applications in radiology, including vascular studies. In this narrative review, the authors present the principles of DECT and PCCT, outline their advantages and drawbacks, and briefly discuss the application of these methods in vascular radiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computed Tomography Imaging in Medical Diagnosis)
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