Recent Advances on Emulsions and Applications: Volume II

A special issue of Colloids and Interfaces (ISSN 2504-5377).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 8525

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Agriaquaculture Nutritional Genomic Center (CGNA), Temuco, Chile
Interests: emulsions science; encapsulation; delivery systems; bioactive compounds; emulsifiers; food science
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Science and Technology, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Interests: nanoemulsions; emulsion-filled gels; emulsifiers; digestion; physical properties of food

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Agriaquaculture Nutritional Genomic Center (CGNA), Temuco, Chile
Interests: essential oils; polymers; food packaging; encapsulation; controlled release

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Emulsion science and technology have been used for a long time to create a wide variety of commercial emulsified products, including food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic products. Moreover, this type of colloidal system has been used as a vehicle for the encapsulation and delivery of different bioactive compounds, such as antioxidants, vitamins, and fragrances. In the last several years, there have been advances in emulsion science to improve the quality and performance of different emulsion-based products using new techniques and structural designs. This new generation of advanced emulsions may lead to products with improved quality and functionality. Therefore, we invite all researchers in the area to contribute to this Special Issue by submitting reviews or original articles. Manuscripts addressing recent advances in the creation of novel emulsion systems are welcome. The development and application of advanced emulsion technologies are considered for this Special Issue. In this context, contributions focused on emulsions stabilized by particle-based emulsifiers (Pickering emulsions), high-internal-phase emulsions, multilayer emulsions, nanoemulsions, multiple emulsions, emulgels, oleogel-based emulsions, bigels, water-in-water emulsions, and novel emulsifiers will be considered. Manuscripts on recent advances in emulsion-based delivery and encapsulation approaches are also welcome.

Dr. César Burgos-Díaz
Dr. Carla Arancibia
Dr. Karla A. Garrido-Miranda
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Colloids and Interfaces is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emulsion science
  • delivery systems
  • nanoemulsions
  • encapsulation
  • emulsion technology
  • emulsion applications
  • emulsion structure
  • advances in emulsion systems
  • emulgels
  • oleogel-based emulsions
  • novel emulsifiers
  • active packaging

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (6 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

18 pages, 3864 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Gastrointestinal Release of Chlorogenic Acid and Curcumin Co-Encapsulated in Double Emulsions with the Outer Interface Stabilized by Cellulose Nanocrystals
by Javier Paredes-Toledo, Javier Herrera, Paulo Díaz-Calderón, Paz Robert and Begoña Giménez
Colloids Interfaces 2024, 8(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids8020024 - 09 Apr 2024
Viewed by 476
Abstract
A Pickering double emulsion (DE) with an outer (O:W2) interface stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (DE-CNC) was designed as a co-delivery systems for chlorogenic acid (CA) and curcumin, then compared with a control DE emulsion with an O:W2 interface stabilized with [...] Read more.
A Pickering double emulsion (DE) with an outer (O:W2) interface stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (DE-CNC) was designed as a co-delivery systems for chlorogenic acid (CA) and curcumin, then compared with a control DE emulsion with an O:W2 interface stabilized with sodium caseinate (DE-NaCas). DE-CNC was more resistant to creaming during storage (6.79%, day 42) and showed higher encapsulation efficiency (EE) of CA (>90%). Conversely, both DEs exhibited similarly high EE for curcumin (>97%). The ζ-potential values were highly negative in both DEs, but tended to be lower in DE-CNC due to the highly negative charge of the CNCs. DE-CNC allowed for a steady release of CA during the oral, gastric, and intestinal phases of digestion, while a total release of CA was already observed in the gastric phase in case of DE-NaCas. The bioaccessibility of CA was similar in both DEs (~57–58%). Curcumin was mainly released in the intestinal phase with both DEs, reaching slightly lower bioaccessibility values with DE-CNC. The use of CNCs as a stabilizer for the outer interface of DEs is a promising strategy to increase the stability and EE of these systems, providing oral co-delivery vehicles capable of releasing significantly bioactive compounds during the intestinal phase of digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Emulsions and Applications: Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2488 KiB  
Article
Theoretical and Experimental Determinations of the Hydrophilic–Lipophilic Balance (HLB) of Representative Oils and Lecithins
by Gary Smejkal, Vera Gross and Alexander Lazarev
Colloids Interfaces 2024, 8(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids8020021 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1191
Abstract
The hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) is a valuable parameter used to determine the relative hydrophobicity of a compound based on its chemical structure. This semi-empirical parameter has been instrumental in formulating oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions using well-characterized ingredients with known HLB values. However, recent [...] Read more.
The hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) is a valuable parameter used to determine the relative hydrophobicity of a compound based on its chemical structure. This semi-empirical parameter has been instrumental in formulating oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions using well-characterized ingredients with known HLB values. However, recent trends toward the use of minimally processed “virgin” oils of therapeutic or nutritional value may render the reported “required HLB” values inaccurate. Minimally processed oils can contain numerous compounds at varying or unknown concentrations, rendering the HLB value incalculable. Factors such as regional source, growing season, and processing method contribute to the variability in oil composition. Furthermore, the solubilization of lipophilic bioactives in oils can significantly alter the HLB of the oil phase in a concentration-dependent manner. This complicates the formulation of emulsions, as the HLB values of both the oil phase and emulsifiers must be closely matched to achieve stable formulations. This study presents a simple and efficient experimental method to determine an HLB value of a complex ingredient without resorting to lengthy Design-of-Experiment (DoE) matrices and trial-and-error approaches. The optimal HLB of a formulation can be determined from a series of experiments in which two well-characterized surfactants of known HLB values are mixed at varying proportions with an unknown oil phase, where the HLB of the oil is considered to match the HLB value of the surfactants combined at the proportion at which nanoemulsions with the smallest, most stable oil droplets are formed. Similarly, when the HLB values of the oil phase and other contributing components are precisely known, the unknown HLB of a complex natural surfactant can be calculated. These calculations assist in formulating emulsions efficiently and effectively by ensuring optimal compatibility among all the components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Emulsions and Applications: Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3696 KiB  
Article
Saturated Micellar Networks: Phase Separation and Nanoemulsification Capacity
by Tatiana G. Slavova, Gergana M. Radulova and Krassimir D. Danov
Colloids Interfaces 2024, 8(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids8010011 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
Different oils can be homogeneously dispersed in the network junctions of the separated bicontinuous micellar phases. Upon dilution, these dispersions spontaneously form nanoemulsions. The possibility of a micellar sponge phase formation in the case of mixtures with three anionic and two zwitterionic surfactants [...] Read more.
Different oils can be homogeneously dispersed in the network junctions of the separated bicontinuous micellar phases. Upon dilution, these dispersions spontaneously form nanoemulsions. The possibility of a micellar sponge phase formation in the case of mixtures with three anionic and two zwitterionic surfactants in the presence of divalent and monovalent salts is studied. The best results are obtained using sodium lauryl ether sulfate with 1 ethylene oxide group (SLES-1EO) and both cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) or N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (DDAO) in the presence of an appropriate small amount of MgCl2 and CaCl2. Bicontinuous micellar phases can be produced also in high-salinity NaCl solutions. The bulk properties of these phases are independent of the concentration of the initial solutions from which they are separated, and their Newtonian viscosities are in the range from 0.3 Pa·s to 0.8 Pa·s. Both 8 wt% CAPB- and DDAO-containing sponge phases engulf up to 10 wt% limonene and spontaneously form nanoemulsion upon dilution with droplet sizes of 110–120 nm. Vitamin E can be homogeneously dispersed only in CAPB-containing saturated micellar network, and upon dilution, these dispersions spontaneously form nanoemulsions with smaller droplet sizes of 66 nm for both 8 diastereomers and 2 diastereomers mixtures of vitamin E. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Emulsions and Applications: Volume II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 2573 KiB  
Article
Improving Foodborne Pathogen Control Using Green Nanosized Emulsions of Plectranthus hadiensis Phytochemicals
by Lucía Carolina Vega-Hernández, Julio César Serrano-Niño, Carlos Arnulfo Velázquez-Carriles, Alma H. Martínez-Preciado, Adriana Cavazos-Garduño and Jorge Manuel Silva-Jara
Colloids Interfaces 2024, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids8010003 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2074
Abstract
Every year, millions of foodborne illnesses with thousands of deaths occur worldwide, which is why controlling foodborne pathogens is sought. In this study, nanoemulsions of phytochemicals extracted from Plectranthus hadiensis var. tomentosus (PHT) were obtained, and their antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities were evaluated. [...] Read more.
Every year, millions of foodborne illnesses with thousands of deaths occur worldwide, which is why controlling foodborne pathogens is sought. In this study, nanoemulsions of phytochemicals extracted from Plectranthus hadiensis var. tomentosus (PHT) were obtained, and their antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities were evaluated. PHT extracts were obtained by maceration, ultrasound, and Naviglio methods, and their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica was determined by the microdilution method. The extract with the highest antimicrobial activity was obtained by Naviglio with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 12.5 and 25 mg/mL, respectively, for all bacterial strains. The nanoemulsion (o/w) made with Tween 40, 5% extract, and 50% ultrasonic amplitude had a globule size of 4.4 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.48, and a surface charge of −0.08 mV and remained stable for 30 days. This nanosystem presented significantly higher antimicrobial and antioxidant activity than the free extract. Thus, the nanoencapsulation of the phytochemicals in the PHT extracts is an alternative to protect and enhance their biological activity against pathogenic microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Emulsions and Applications: Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 8134 KiB  
Article
Increasing the Efficiency of Emulsion Crystallization in Stirred Vessels by Targeted Application of Shear and Surfactant
by Gina Kaysan, Linda Elmlinger and Matthias Kind
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7040068 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Emulsions containing crystalline dispersed phases hold significant importance in pharmaceutical, chemical, and life science industries. The industrial agitation and storage of these emulsions can prompt crystallization effects within the flow field, intersecting with the primary nucleation mechanisms. Notably, contact-mediated nucleation, in which subcooled [...] Read more.
Emulsions containing crystalline dispersed phases hold significant importance in pharmaceutical, chemical, and life science industries. The industrial agitation and storage of these emulsions can prompt crystallization effects within the flow field, intersecting with the primary nucleation mechanisms. Notably, contact-mediated nucleation, in which subcooled droplets crystallize upon contact with a crystalline particle, and shear-induced crystallization due to droplet deformation, are both conceivable phenomena. This study delves into the crystallization processes of emulsions in a 1 L stirred vessel, integrating an ultrasonic probe to monitor droplet crystallization progression. By scrutinizing the influence of the flow field and of the emulsifiers stabilizing the droplets, our investigation unveils the direct impact of enhanced rotational speed on accelerating the crystallization rate, correlating with increased energy input. Furthermore, the concentration of emulsifiers is observed to positively affect the crystallization process. Significantly, this pioneering investigation marks the first evaluation of emulsion crystallization considering the overlapping nucleation mechanisms seen in industrial production of melt emulsions. The findings offer valuable insights for more systematic control strategies in emulsion crystallization processes, promising more efficient and sustainable industrial practices by enabling targeted application of shear and surfactants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Emulsions and Applications: Volume II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 5476 KiB  
Article
Creation of Next-Generation Plant-Based Seafood Using Emulsion Gel Technology: Omega-3-Enriched Sea Foie Gras Analogs
by Kanon Kobata, Zhiyun Zhang and David Julian McClements
Colloids Interfaces 2023, 7(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids7040065 - 01 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
Plant-based seafood analogs are gaining increasing popularity as replacements for traditional fish and other seafood products due to environmental (stock depletion, pollution, and bycatch issues) and health (bioaccumulated toxins, norovirus, and allergies) concerns associated with them. Several companies have launched plant-based fish products, [...] Read more.
Plant-based seafood analogs are gaining increasing popularity as replacements for traditional fish and other seafood products due to environmental (stock depletion, pollution, and bycatch issues) and health (bioaccumulated toxins, norovirus, and allergies) concerns associated with them. Several companies have launched plant-based fish products, but the market still lacks alternatives to shellfish and other sea delicacies. In this study, a plant-based sea foie gras (monkfish liver product) analog was developed using duckweed RuBisCO protein and omega-3-rich flaxseed oil to form emulsion gels. These gels consisted of a high concentration of flaxseed oil droplets dispersed within a gelled RuBisCO protein network. It was hypothesized that the high disperse phase volume fraction of the oil droplets and the heat-set gelation properties of the RuBisCO proteins would enable us to create emulsion gels that mimicked the properties of sea foie gras. A natural pigment (β-carotene) was incorporated into the oil phase of the emulsions to mimic the red-orange color of conventional sea foie gras. The structural, textural, and optical properties of real and plant-based sea foie gras analogs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, dynamic shear rheology, texture profile analysis, and colorimetry. Emulsion gels prepared using 40% flaxseed oil and 10% RuBisCO proteins produced plant-based products that closely simulated the texture and color of the real products. Rheological analysis suggested that the oil droplets acted as active fillers within the protein gels. Our results suggest that emulsion gels may be used to create more sustainable and healthier plant-based seafood products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances on Emulsions and Applications: Volume II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop