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Special Issue "Functional Materials for Building and Pavement Coatings"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Characterization, Deposition and Modification".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2023 | Viewed by 6360

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Nhu H.T. Nguyen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Built Environment, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Australia
Interests: mechanics of pavements and geo-materials; discrete element modelling; constitutive models of engineering materials; numerical analysis; pavement engineering
Dr. Mingjing Fang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China
Interests: pavement materials; transportation geotech

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of coatings is one of the most prominent techniques to improve the durability and performance of pavements and buildings. These structures, under operation, are subjected to various mechanical, chemical and environmental factors. Appropriate design and implementation of coating techniques will limit thermal or icing effects and prevent the entering of chemicals and moisture into the structures, hence extending their life. In addition, surface coating is considered to be an effective method of repairing and maintaining pavement and building surfaces. In the last few decades, new coating materials and technologies have been developed and applied to construction to facilitate different purposes. This Special Issue aims to provide a broad overview and discussion of coating materials and technologies for buildings and pavements.

The topic of interest of this Special Issue includes (and related topics):

  • Building and pavement coating materials and treatments
  • Coating for heat reflection, anti-icing, anti-skid, water impermeability
  • Environmental performances of coating
  • Smart energy coating
  • Characterization of surface coating properties
  • Review and assessment of building and pavement coating
  • Innovative surface design and practice
  • Coating and surface testing

Dr. Nhu H.T. Nguyen
Dr. Mingjing Fang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Effect of Nano-TiO2 on Capillary Water Absorption of Recycled Aggregate Concrete
Coatings 2022, 12(12), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12121833 - 26 Nov 2022
Viewed by 266
Abstract
To improve the durability performance of recycled aggregate concrete in actual use, this paper uses nano-TiO2-modified recycled coarse aggregate to study, through experiments, the effects of nano-TiO2 on the pore distribution of recycled coarse aggregate concrete after freeze–thaw. The capillary-water-absorption [...] Read more.
To improve the durability performance of recycled aggregate concrete in actual use, this paper uses nano-TiO2-modified recycled coarse aggregate to study, through experiments, the effects of nano-TiO2 on the pore distribution of recycled coarse aggregate concrete after freeze–thaw. The capillary-water-absorption law was used as the evaluation index. The recycled coarse aggregate concrete was prepared with different contents of nano-TiO2, and changes in the 24 h capillary water absorption and porosity of the recycled aggregate concrete after freeze–thaw cycles were analysed. With the help of high-resolution image recognition and binary-image-processing technology, the pore distribution of the recycled aggregate concrete before and after freeze–thaw cycles was obtained. Through the analysis of the water-absorption data at different times, the initial capillary-water-absorption rate, S1, is obtained. The capillary water absorption of recycled aggregate concrete is reacted with S1, and the initial capillary-water-absorption prediction model of nano-TiO2 recycled aggregate concrete under freeze–thaw cycles is established. The results show that under the action of freeze–thaw cycles, the capillary water absorption of recycled coarse aggregate concrete increases with the increase in the RCA substitution rate and decreases with the increase in nano-TiO2 content. After 150 freeze–thaw cycles, the cumulative water absorption and porosity of RC25-NT1.2 decreased by 25.52% and 14.57%, respectively, compared with the test block without nanomaterials. It was found that nano-TiO2 has a prominent role in modifying recycled aggregate concrete. Nano-TiO2 can reduce the cumulative water absorption and porosity of recycled aggregate concrete and alleviate the negative impact of the recycled coarse aggregate on capillary water absorption of concrete after freeze–thaw cycles. It was observed by scanning electron microscopy that a large amount of C–S–H gel was produced inside the concrete mixed with nano-TiO2, which bonded the internal pores and cracks to form a dense structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Building and Pavement Coatings)
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Article
A Practical Design Guide for Unbonded Jointed Plain Concrete Roads over Deteriorated HMA Roads: Realistic Traffic Loading
Coatings 2022, 12(12), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12121817 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 312
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the material properties and the thickness of the layers of an unbonded jointed plain concrete pavement design over a deteriorated flexible pavement that lost its service capability. Maximum principal stresses occurring under the concrete pavement should not exceed [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the material properties and the thickness of the layers of an unbonded jointed plain concrete pavement design over a deteriorated flexible pavement that lost its service capability. Maximum principal stresses occurring under the concrete pavement should not exceed the modulus of rupture of the concrete. Three-dimensional finite element analyses using ANSYS (Release 18.1 SAS IP, Inc.) software were carried out with the Taguchi method. The most reliable solution for the pavement design was investigated with whole configuration axle loading that reflects the realistic traffic situation. The stress values under the concrete slab due to the positive temperature gradient neglected in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) method were also investigated. The concrete slabs are exposed to these stresses for longer than the axle loads. Temperature distributions throughout the thickness of the concrete slab were calculated with the bilinear formulas suggested in the study. Axle loadings were applied on both the pavement edge and corner to reflect the most critical loading condition in the pavement design. The critical axle type was found to be 1.2. It was observed that a 0.15 m concrete thickness was appropriate for the concrete class, joint spacing and hot mix asphalt (HMA) elasticity modulus levels used for the 1.22, 1.122, and 1.2 + 111 axle types, but it was not appropriate for the 1.2 axle types. The slab thicknesses calculated with the AASHTO method, and the finite element method were found to be close to each other. It was determined that the concrete thickness significantly affected the maximum principal stress, with a performance statistic (S/N) value of 1692 for the 1.2 axle type. This was followed by the modulus of elasticity of the concrete with an S/N value of 0.356, the modulus of elasticity of the existing flexible pavement with an S/N value of 0.244, and the concrete joint spacing with an S/N value of 0.105. A practical design guide was recommended to extend the service life of a highly deteriorated flexible pavement with the construction of unbonded jointed plain concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Building and Pavement Coatings)
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Article
Freeze and Thaw Effect on Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Modified with Natural Bentonite Clay
Coatings 2022, 12(11), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12111664 - 02 Nov 2022
Viewed by 427
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of freeze and thaw (FT) cycles on the performance of asphalt concrete (AC) mixtures modified by partial replacement of mineral filler of the aggregate with natural bentonite clay (NBC) in order to reduce damage that occurs [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of freeze and thaw (FT) cycles on the performance of asphalt concrete (AC) mixtures modified by partial replacement of mineral filler of the aggregate with natural bentonite clay (NBC) in order to reduce damage that occurs due to rapid FT cycles within the pavement structure. After exposure to FT cycles, AC mixture stability is reduced and becomes lower than minimum requirements, which leads to earlier damage of pavement. In order to enhance the AC mixture’s abilities to sustain severe FT cycles, this study used NBC amounts as a substitute for mineral filler by weight of its portion of the total aggregate: 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Marshall stability, flow, and FT cycles were tested, and interior damage degree was assessed by a nondestructive test called ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV). The results revealed the viability of combining NBC with asphalt mixtures for the purpose of improving the mixtures’ properties, particularly in environments where asphalt pavement is exposed to alternating FT cycles. The results also revealed that replacement of filler with NBC by 5% in AC mixtures reduced the damage caused over 8 continuous weeks of rapid FT cycles by 13%, which, in future applications, would reduce maintenance cost and prolong the pavement’s service life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Building and Pavement Coatings)
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Article
Hybrid Steel Fiber of Rigid Pavements: A 3D Finite Element and Parametric Analysis
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101478 - 06 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 490
Abstract
Rigid pavements have high compressive strength and low flexural strength due to the brittleness of concrete. This leads to the formation of cracks easily under the applied loads of vehicles; therefore, the design of concrete pavements usually leads to an increase in the [...] Read more.
Rigid pavements have high compressive strength and low flexural strength due to the brittleness of concrete. This leads to the formation of cracks easily under the applied loads of vehicles; therefore, the design of concrete pavements usually leads to an increase in the high thicknesses. Hybrid steel fibers are used in concrete to increase flexural strength and minimize crack formation. Using concrete with steel fibers in pavements reduces the required concrete thickness. In recent decades, the application of the finite element method to predict the behavior of rigid pavements has increased. This study investigates the influence of hybrid steel fiber on the behavior of rigid pavements; a finite element modeling approach is used to simulate the case study. Several parameters are entered and investigated in this study, including the proportion mix of hybrid fiber concrete (HFC), which contains 0.2% macro synthetic fibers and 0.68, 0.8, and 0.96% of steel fibers, compressive strengths of 25, 35, and 45 MPa, slab thicknesses of 150, 200, and 250 mm, and the load of the tandem axle at the edge of mid slab on the Winkler foundation. The ATENA software package is used to perform a nonlinear finite element analysis. Thirty-six rigid specimen pavements with dimensions of 3600 × 3600 mm were modeled in this investigation. The results showed that the addition ratio (0.68 + 0.2)% of hybrid fibers is more effective in improving the load bearing capacity with a slab thickness of 150 mm and 25 MPa compressive strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Building and Pavement Coatings)
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Article
Corrosion Fatigue Test and Performance Evaluation of High-Strength Steel Wires Based on the Suspender of a 11-Year-Old Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Arch Bridge
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101475 - 05 Oct 2022
Viewed by 397
Abstract
In this study, based on an actual project, the steel wire in the suspender of a concrete-filled steel tube arch bridge was selected from appropriate samples to perform acetic acid-accelerated salt spray tests, and steel wire samples with different corrosion degrees were obtained. [...] Read more.
In this study, based on an actual project, the steel wire in the suspender of a concrete-filled steel tube arch bridge was selected from appropriate samples to perform acetic acid-accelerated salt spray tests, and steel wire samples with different corrosion degrees were obtained. A laser microscope was used to measure the roughness of the samples, and three corrosion samples were randomly selected from each group for grinding. Fatigue tests were performed on steel wire samples with different degrees of corrosion and polished steel wire samples, and the fatigue fracture was observed and analyzed. The results showed that few cracks on the steel wire surface could be eliminated by grinding, and the fatigue life of the specimens could be increased. Finally, the stress-life-mass loss rate (S-N-η) probability model based on the Weibull distribution was obtained using the measured fatigue data, which can be further referenced in the planning of the inspection of suspender service status, steel wire corrosion protection, and fatigue life prediction, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Building and Pavement Coatings)
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Article
Evaluation Test of NO Degradation by Nano-TiO2 Coatings on Road Pavements under Natural Light
Coatings 2022, 12(8), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12081200 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 639
Abstract
Reducing or degrading nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted by automobile exhausts has diversified ways. This paper presents a solution to degrade NO by Nano-sized titanium dioxide (Nano-TiO2) mixed with coating materials for traffic marking on road pavements. The effect on [...] Read more.
Reducing or degrading nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted by automobile exhausts has diversified ways. This paper presents a solution to degrade NO by Nano-sized titanium dioxide (Nano-TiO2) mixed with coating materials for traffic marking on road pavements. The effect on degradation was evaluated by adopting a simple laboratory test with statistical analysis. During the test, five different contents of Nano-TiO2, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6%, mix with a coating material for pavement marking, followed by an interpretation of the micro mechanism of degradation effect. The results show that the pavement marking coatings mixed with Nano-TiO2 has a good performance on NO degradation. The effect of degradation is increased with increasing the content of Nano-TiO2 particles, however. At the same time, a peak value with about 70% of the maximum removing rate existed when applying 4% Nano-TiO2 due to the agglomeration phenomenon for nanoparticles close to each other for adding more Nano-TiO2. The methods to reduce agglomeration are also suggested, and a routine field test for all potential traffic coating materials is recommended in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Building and Pavement Coatings)
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Article
Experimental Study of Black Cotton Soil Stabilization with Natural Lime and Pozzolans in Pavement Subgrade Construction
Coatings 2022, 12(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12010103 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
This study explores the engineering characteristics of Black cotton soil (BCS) stabilized with natural lime, volcanic ash (VA), and their mixtures. Based on the available literature, the stabilization of VA-BCS is limited. Laboratory tests conducted on stabilized BCS include the Atterbeg limits, the [...] Read more.
This study explores the engineering characteristics of Black cotton soil (BCS) stabilized with natural lime, volcanic ash (VA), and their mixtures. Based on the available literature, the stabilization of VA-BCS is limited. Laboratory tests conducted on stabilized BCS include the Atterbeg limits, the proctor test, the swell percent test, and the California bearing ratio (CBR). The results showed that adding VA and lime greatly improves the engineering characteristics of BCS. BCS stabilized with a mixture of VA and lime showed superior results. Adding 3% lime with 20% VA increased natural CBR values 10.76 times, reduced plasticity by 29%, and reduced swell percent by 88%. Stabilized BCS with 3% lime + 20% VA meets the minimum swell, plasticity, and strength requirements; thus, it can be used as an alternative to cutting and filling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Building and Pavement Coatings)
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Article
Lab-Controlled Experimental Evaluation of Heat-Reflective Coatings by Increasing Surface Albedo for Cool Pavements in Urban Areas
Coatings 2022, 12(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12010007 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
Many studies were conducted to find possible strategies for reducing the urban heat island (UHI) effect during the hot summer months. One of the largest contributors to UHI is the role that paved surfaces play in the warming of urban areas. Solar-reflective cool [...] Read more.
Many studies were conducted to find possible strategies for reducing the urban heat island (UHI) effect during the hot summer months. One of the largest contributors to UHI is the role that paved surfaces play in the warming of urban areas. Solar-reflective cool pavements stay cooler in the sun than traditional pavements. Pavement reflectance can be enhanced by using a reflective surface coating. The use of heat-reflective coatings to combat the effects of pavements on UHI was pre-viously studied but no consistent conclusions were drawn. To find a conclusive solution, this work focuses on the abilities of heat-reflective pavement coatings to reduce UHI in varying weather conditions. Within this context, both concrete and asphalt samples were subject to a series of per-formance tests when applied to a heat-reflective coating, under the influence of normal, windy, and humid conditions. During these tests, the samples were heated with a halogen lamp and the surface temperature profile was measured using an infrared thermal camera. The air temperature was recorded with a thermometer, and the body temperature at multiple depths of the samples was measured using thermocouples. The results from these tests show that the effectiveness of the heat-reflective coating varies under different weather conditions. For instance, the coated samples were about 1 °C cooler for concrete and nearly 5 °C cooler for asphalt, on average. However, this temperature difference was reduced significantly under windy conditions. As such, the findings from this work conclude that the heat-reflective coatings can effectively cool down the pavement by increasing the surface albedo, and thus might be a viable solution to mitigate UHI impacts in the city/urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Building and Pavement Coatings)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Lab-Controlled Experimental Evaluation of Heat-reflective Coatings by Increasing Surface Albedo for Cool Pavements
Authors: Yang Lu; Md Asif Rahman; Nicholas W. Moore; Aidin J. Golrokh
Affiliation: Boise State University
Abstract: Many studies have been conducted to find possible strategies for reducing the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect during hot summer months. One of the largest contributors to UHI is the role that paved surfaces play in the warming of urban areas. Solar reflective cool pavements stay cooler in the sun than traditional pavements. Pavement reflectance can be enhanced by using reflective surface coating. The use of heat-reflective coatings to combat the effects of pavement on UHI have been previously studied, with mixed conclusions. This work focuses on pavement heat-reflective coatings’ ability to reduce UHI in varying weather conditions. To elaborate this, both concrete and asphalt samples are put through a series of tests, including normal conditions, windy conditions, and humid conditions. During these tests, the samples are heated with a halogen lamp and the surface temperature profile is measured using an infrared thermal camera. The air temperature is recorded with a thermometer and the body temperature of the samples is measured at multiple depths using thermocouples. Results show that the effectiveness of the heat-reflective coating varies under different weather conditions, but on average the coated samples were about 1°C cooler for concrete and nearly 5°C cooler for asphalt. However, this temperature difference was reduced significantly for the windy conditions. This work concludes that heat-reflective coatings can effectively approach to cool pavement by increasing surface albedo and could be a viable solution to mitigate UHI effects in cities.

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