Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactive Coatings and Biointerfaces".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2020) | Viewed by 41972

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Interests: biomolecular engineering; vapor-deposition; surface chemistry technique; biomedical coating technology
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Guest Editor
Institute of Biomedicine and Technology, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Shenzhen 518055, China
Interests: biomaterials; nanotechnology; biointerfaces; stem cells
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to submit your work to this Special Issue on "Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications".

In addition to meeting the minimal requirement of biocompatibility, advanced biomaterials have acquired functions, allowing them to directly or indirectly influence specific biological environments. These modifications of biomaterials are generally achieved by establishing an interface layer, i.e., a biointerface coating, to deliver the desired functions. The design of a successful biointerface usually depends on criteria such as controlled presentation of functional biomolecules on the surface, low nonspecific protein adsorption, responsive actions toward external stimuli, multifunctionality, compatibility with micro- to nanofabrication, surface morphology or microstructures, biodegradability, and physical to chemical gradients. Many promising approaches have been realized by existing surface modification technologies based on both physical and chemical methods of rendering fabricated coatings on biomaterials, from basic self-assembly of molecules to top–down construction of bulk materials. Numerous methods exploit a complimentary and/or combinatorial strategy, paving the way to advanced and effective functional coatings for prospective biomaterials.

This Research Topic welcomes discussions related to biointerface coatings, including but not limited to the following:

(1) Molecularly self-assembled coatings;
(2) Surface modifications of coatings;
(3) Layer-by-layer coatings;
(4) Grafted coatings;
(5) Physically adsorbed coatings;
(6) Vapor-deposited coatings
(7) Coatings with chemical activity and/or physical properties;
(8) Innovations of novel coatings for biotechnological applications.

Encouraged forms of submission include original research papers, reviews, and perspective articles.

Prof. Dr. Hsien-Yeh Chen
Prof. Dr. Peng-Yuan Wang
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 209 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications
by Hsien-Yeh Chen and Peng-Yuan Wang
Coatings 2021, 11(4), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11040423 - 06 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
The success of recent material science and applications in biotechnologies should be credited to developments of malleable surface properties, as well as the adaptation of conjugation reactions to the material surface [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

10 pages, 2584 KiB  
Article
Design and Molding of Thyroid Cartilage Prosthesis Based on 3D Printing Technology
by Guoqing Zhang, Junxin Li, Chengguang Zhang and Anmin Wang
Coatings 2022, 12(3), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12030336 - 04 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3182
Abstract
The modeling efficiency, matching, and biocompatibility are key factors affecting the surgical success of a personalized thyroid cartilage prosthesis. We performed three-dimensional reconstruction of a thyroid cartilage prosthesis by combining reverse and forward methods, and then completed the prosthesis design with total or [...] Read more.
The modeling efficiency, matching, and biocompatibility are key factors affecting the surgical success of a personalized thyroid cartilage prosthesis. We performed three-dimensional reconstruction of a thyroid cartilage prosthesis by combining reverse and forward methods, and then completed the prosthesis design with total or partial resection using a parametric modeling method. Direct manufacturing was performed using selective laser melting (SLM) molding equipment and TC4 material. The structure of the completed implant unit was optimized. The results show good modeling effects for the thyroid cartilage prosthesis with either total or partial resection by the parametric modeling method. Good matching performance was achieved, with overlap suspension between the pillars that meets the requirements of SLM manufacturing. Additionally, the use of SLM molding to produce the thyroid cartilage prosthesis resulted in less powder adhesion on the surface and no obvious nodulation between the porous pillars, allowing the direct use of the prothesis after simple post-treatment. Overall, these results should facilitate the direct application of personalized implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications II)
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15 pages, 3382 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Surface Nanostructures Using Chemical Vapor Deposition and Colloidal Self-Assembled Patterns for Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture—A Preliminary Study
by Yung-Chiang Liu, Jhe-Wei Jhang, Kun Liu, Haobo Pan, Hsien-Yeh Chen and Peng-Yuan Wang
Coatings 2022, 12(3), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12030311 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
Surface coatings are critical in biomaterials and biomedical devices. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a well-known technology for the generation of thin films on a surface. However, the granular structures produced using CVD are rare. Recently, we used PPX-C, an excellent insulating material, [...] Read more.
Surface coatings are critical in biomaterials and biomedical devices. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a well-known technology for the generation of thin films on a surface. However, the granular structures produced using CVD are rare. Recently, we used PPX-C, an excellent insulating material, for granular structure coating using CVD. Colloidal self-assembly is also a well-established method to generate granular structures named colloidal self-assembled patterns (cSAPs). In this study, we combined these two technologies to generate hierarchical granular structures and tested the biophysical effect of these hybrid surfaces on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Two CVD-derived granular structures were made using water or glycerin droplets (i.e., CVD or GlyCVD surfaces). Water drops generate porous particles, while glycerin drops generate core–shell particles on the surface. These particles were dispersed randomly on the surface with sizes ranging from 1 to 20 μm. These CVD surfaces were hydrophobic (WCA ~ 80–110 degrees). On the other hand, a binary colloidal crystal (BCC), one type of cSAPs, composed of 5 μm Si and 400 nm carboxylated polystyrene (PSC) particles, had a close-packed structure and a hydrophilic surface (WCA ~ 45 degrees). The hybrid surfaces (i.e., CVD-BCC and GlyCVD-BCC) were smooth (Ra ~ 1.1–1.5 μm) and hydrophilic (WCA ~ 50 degrees), indicating a large surface coverage of BCC dominating the surface property. The hybrid surfaces were expected to be slightly negatively charged due to naturally charged CVD particles and negatively charged BCC particles. Cell adhesion was reduced on the hybrid surfaces, leading to an aggregated cell morphology, without reducing cell activity, compared to the flat control after 5 days. qPCR analysis showed that gene expression of type II collagen (COL2) was highly expressed on the GlyCVD-BCC without chemical induction after 3 and 14 days compared to the flat control. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the potential of combining two technologies to make hybrid structures that can modulate stem cell attachment and differentiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications II)
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15 pages, 11175 KiB  
Article
Guiding Stem Cell Differentiation and Proliferation Activities Based on Nanometer-Thick Functionalized Poly-p-xylylene Coatings
by Chih-Yu Wu, Yu-Chih Chiang, Jane Christy, Abel Po-Hao Huang, Nai-Yun Chang, Wenny, Yu-Chih Chiu, Yen-Ching Yang, Po-Chun Chen, Peng-Yuan Wang and Hsien-Yeh Chen
Coatings 2021, 11(5), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11050582 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 2042
Abstract
Modifications of biomaterials based on the combination of physical, chemical, and biological cues for manipulating stem cell growth are needed for modern regenerative medicine. The exploitation of these sophisticated modifications remains a challenge, including substrate limitation, biocompatibility, and versatile and general cues for [...] Read more.
Modifications of biomaterials based on the combination of physical, chemical, and biological cues for manipulating stem cell growth are needed for modern regenerative medicine. The exploitation of these sophisticated modifications remains a challenge, including substrate limitation, biocompatibility, and versatile and general cues for stem cell activities. In this report, a vapor-phase coating technique based on the functionalization of poly-p-xylylene (PPX) was used to generate a surface modification for use with stem cells in culture. The coating provided the ability for covalent conjugation that immobilized bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), and the modified coating surfaces enabled direct stem cell differentiation and controlled proliferation because of the specific activities. The ligations were realized between the growth factors and the maleimide-modified surface, and the conjugation reactions proceeded with high specificity and rapid kinetics under mild conditions. The conjugation densities were approximately 140 ng·cm−2 for BMP-2 and 155 ng·cm−2 for FGF-2. Guiding the activities of the human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) was achieved by modifying surfaces to promote the hADSC differentiation capacity and proliferation rate. The reported coating system demonstrated biocompatibility, substrate-independent conformity, and stability, and it could provide an effective and versatile interface platform for further use in biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications II)
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12 pages, 3686 KiB  
Article
Vapor-Phase Fabrication of a Maleimide-Functionalized Poly-p-xylylene with a Three-Dimensional Structure
by Shu-Man Hu, Chin-Yun Lee, Yu-Ming Chang, Jia-Qi Xiao, Tatsuya Kusanagi, Ting-Ying Wu, Nai-Yun Chang, Jane Christy, Ya-Ru Chiu, Chao-Wei Huang, Yen-Ching Yang, Yu-Chih Chiang and Hsien-Yeh Chen
Coatings 2021, 11(4), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11040466 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
A vapor-phase process, involving the sublimation of an ice substrate/template and the vapor deposition of a maleimide-functionalized poly-p-xylylene, has been reported to synthesize an advanced porous material, with readily clickable chemical interface properties, to perform a Michael-type addition of a maleimide [...] Read more.
A vapor-phase process, involving the sublimation of an ice substrate/template and the vapor deposition of a maleimide-functionalized poly-p-xylylene, has been reported to synthesize an advanced porous material, with readily clickable chemical interface properties, to perform a Michael-type addition of a maleimide functionality for conjugation with a thiol group. In contrast to the conventional chemical vapor deposition of poly-p-xylylenes on a solid surface that forms thin film coatings, the process reported herein additionally results in deposition on a dynamic and sublimating ice surface (template), rendering the construction of a three-dimensional, porous, maleimide-functionalized poly-p-xylylene. The process seamlessly exploits the refined chemical vapor deposition polymerization from maleimide-substituted [2,2]paracyclophane and ensures the preservation and transformation of the maleimide functionality to the final porous poly-p-xylylene products. The functionalization and production of a porous maleimide-functionalized poly-p-xylylene were completed in a single step, thus avoiding complicated steps or post-functionalization procedures that are commonly seen in conventional approaches to produce functional materials. More importantly, the equipped maleimide functionality provides a rapid and efficient route for click conjugation toward thiol-terminated molecules, and the reaction can be performed under mild conditions at room temperature in a water solution without the need for a catalyst, an initiator, or other energy sources. The introduced vapor-based process enables a straightforward synthesis approach to produce not only a pore-forming structure of a three-dimensional material, but also an in situ-derived maleimide functional group, to conduct a covalent click reaction with thiol-terminal molecules, which are abundant in biological environments. These advanced materials are expected to have a wide variety of new applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications II)
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12 pages, 23750 KiB  
Article
Vapor-Stripping and Encapsulating to Construct Particles with Time-Controlled Asymmetry and Anisotropy
by Ting-Ying Wu, Chendi Gao, Man-Chen Huang, Zhi Zhang, Peng-Yuan Wang, Hsun-Yi Chen, Guosong Chen and Hsien-Yeh Chen
Coatings 2020, 10(12), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10121248 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
An innovative chemical vapor sublimation and deposition (CVSD) process was shown to produce nanoscale anisotropic hybrid materials. Taking advantage of controlled thermodynamic properties and the mass transfer of molecules, this process allowed for water vapor sublimation from an iced template/substrate and stagewise vapor [...] Read more.
An innovative chemical vapor sublimation and deposition (CVSD) process was shown to produce nanoscale anisotropic hybrid materials. Taking advantage of controlled thermodynamic properties and the mass transfer of molecules, this process allowed for water vapor sublimation from an iced template/substrate and stagewise vapor deposition of poly-p-xylylene onto the sublimating ice substrate. In this study, the use of sensitive soybean agglutinin (SBA) protein tubes was demonstrated as an example to prepare the anisotropic hybrid material based on the CVSD process. The rationale of a timing parameter, Δt, was controlled to program the sublimation of the SBA-ice templates and the deposition of poly-p-xylylene during the CVSD process. As a result of this control, a stripping stage occurred, during which SBA tubes were exposed on the particle surface, and a subsequent encapsulation stage enabled the transformation of the ice templates into a nanometer-sized anisotropic hybrid material of poly-p-xylylene as the matrix with encapsulated SBA tubes. The timing parameter Δt and the controlled stripping and encapsulating stages during CVSD represent a straightforward and intriguing mechanism stemming from physical chemistry fundamentals for the fabrication of hybrid materials from sensitive molecules and with predetermined sizes and asymmetrical shapes. A simulation analysis showed consistency with the experimental results and controllability of the timing mechanism with predictable particle sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)
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13 pages, 2991 KiB  
Article
The Bioactive Polypyrrole/Polydopamine Nanowire Coating with Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation Ability with Electrical Stimulation
by Yuan He, Lingfeng Dai, Xiuming Zhang, Yanan Sun, Wei Shi and Dongtao Ge
Coatings 2020, 10(12), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10121189 - 05 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2841
Abstract
Polypyrrole (PPy) is a promising conducting polymer in bone regeneration; however, due to the biological inertia of the PPy surface, it has poor cell affinity and bioactivity. Based on the excellent adhesion capacity, biocompatibility, and bioactivity of polydopamine (PDA), the PDA is used [...] Read more.
Polypyrrole (PPy) is a promising conducting polymer in bone regeneration; however, due to the biological inertia of the PPy surface, it has poor cell affinity and bioactivity. Based on the excellent adhesion capacity, biocompatibility, and bioactivity of polydopamine (PDA), the PDA is used as a functional coating in tissue repair and regeneration. Herein, we used a two-step method to construct a functional conductive coating of polypyrrole/polydopamine (PPy/PDA) nanocomposite for bone regeneration. PPy nanowires (NWs) are used as the morphologic support layer, and a layer of highly bioactive PDA is introduced on the surface of PPy NWs by solution oxidation. By controlling the depositing time of PDA within 5 h, the damage of nano morphology and conductivity of the PPy NWs caused by the coverage of PDA deposition layer can be effectively avoided, and the thin PDA layer also significantly improve the hydrophilicity, adhesion, and biological activity of PPy NWs coating. The PPy/PDA NWs coating performs better biocombaitibility and bioactivity than pure PPy NWs and PDA, and has benefits for the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the surface. In addition, PPy/PDA NWs can significantly promote the osteogenesis of MC3T3-E1 in combination with micro galvanostatic electrical stimulation (ES). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)
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16 pages, 14734 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Behavior and Biological Activity of Micro Arc Oxidation Coatings with Berberine on a Pure Magnesium Surface
by Liting Mu, Zhen Ma, Jingyan Wang, Shidan Yuan and Muqin Li
Coatings 2020, 10(9), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10090837 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
Bone tissue repair materials can cause problems such as inflammation around the implant, slow bone regeneration, and poor repair quality. In order to solve these problems, a coating was prepared by ultrasonic micro-arc oxidation and self-assembly technology on a pure magnesium substrate. We [...] Read more.
Bone tissue repair materials can cause problems such as inflammation around the implant, slow bone regeneration, and poor repair quality. In order to solve these problems, a coating was prepared by ultrasonic micro-arc oxidation and self-assembly technology on a pure magnesium substrate. We studied the effect of berberine on the performance of the ultrasonic micro-arc oxidation/polylactic acid and glycolic acid copolymer/berberine (UMAO/PLGA/BR) coating. The chemical and morphological character of the coating was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion properties were studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a simulated body fluid. The cumulative release of drugs was tested by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicate that different amounts of BR can seal the corrosion channel to different extents. These coatings have a self-corrosion current density (Icorr) at least one order of magnitude lower than the UMAO coatings. When the BR content is 3.0 g/L, the self-corrosion current density of the UMAO/PLGA/BR coatings is the lowest (3.14 × 10−8 A/cm2) and the corrosion resistance is improved. UMAO/PLGA/BR coatings have excellent biological activity, which can effectively solve the clinical problem of rapid degradation of pure magnesium and easy infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)
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24 pages, 5452 KiB  
Article
Icariin/Aspirin Composite Coating on TiO2 Nanotubes Surface Induce Immunomodulatory Effect of Macrophage and Improve Osteoblast Activity
by Aobo Ma, Yapeng You, Bo Chen, Wanmeng Wang, Jialin Liu, Hui Qi, Yunkai Liang, Ying Li and Changyi Li
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040427 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3289
Abstract
Surface coating modification of titanium-based alloys is an efficient way to accelerate early osseointegration in dental implant fields. Icariin (ICA) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has bone activating functions, while aspirin (ASP) is a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with good antipyretic and [...] Read more.
Surface coating modification of titanium-based alloys is an efficient way to accelerate early osseointegration in dental implant fields. Icariin (ICA) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has bone activating functions, while aspirin (ASP) is a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with good antipyretic and analgesic capabilities. Moreover, poly(lactic–co–glycolic acid) (PLGA) has attracted great attention due to its excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. We superimposed an ASP/PLGA coating onto ICA loaded TiO2 nanotubes structure so as to establish an icariin/aspirin composite coating on TiO2 nanotubes surface. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a contact angle test and a drug release test confirmed the successful preparation of the NT–ICA–ASP/PLGA substrate, with a sustained release pattern of both ICA and ASP. Compared to those cultured on the Ti surface, macrophage cells on the NT-ICA-ASP/PLGA substrate displayed decreased M1 proinflammatory and enhanced M2 proregenerative genes and proteins expression, which implied activated immunomodulatory effect. Moreover, when cultured with conditioned medium from macrophages, osteoblast cells on the NT-ICA-ASP/PLGA substrate revealed improved cell proliferation, adhesion and osteogenic genes and proteins expression, compared with those on the Ti surface. The abovementioned results suggest that the established NT-ICA-ASP/PLGA substrate is a promising candidate for functionalized coating material in Ti implant surface modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)
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11 pages, 4427 KiB  
Article
Facile Route of Fabricating Long-Term Microbicidal Silver Nanoparticle Clusters against Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida auris
by Sheeana Gangadoo, Aaron Elbourne, Alexander E. Medvedev, Daniel Cozzolino, Yen B. Truong, Russell J. Crawford, Peng-Yuan Wang, Vi Khanh Truong and James Chapman
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010028 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3419
Abstract
Microbial contamination remains a significant issue for many industrial, commercial, and medical applications. For instance, microbial surface contamination is detrimental to numerous aspects of food production, infection transfer, and even marine applications. As such, intense scientific interest has focused on improving the antimicrobial [...] Read more.
Microbial contamination remains a significant issue for many industrial, commercial, and medical applications. For instance, microbial surface contamination is detrimental to numerous aspects of food production, infection transfer, and even marine applications. As such, intense scientific interest has focused on improving the antimicrobial properties of surface coatings via both chemical and physical routes. However, there is a lack of synthetic coatings that possess long-term microbiocidal performance. In this study, silver nanoparticle cluster coatings were developed on copper surfaces via an ion-exchange and reduction reaction, followed by a silanization step. The durability of the microbiocidal activity for these develped surfaces was tested against pathogenic bacterial and fungal species, specifically Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Candida auris, over periods of 1- and 7-days. It was observed that more than 90% of E. coli and C. auris were found to be non-viable following the extended exposure times. This facile material fabrication presents as a new surface design for the production of durable microbicidal coatings which can be applied to numerous applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)
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12 pages, 2799 KiB  
Article
Proteomic Analysis of Biomaterial Surfaces after Contacting with Body Fluids by MALDI-ToF Mass Spectroscopy
by Makoto Hirohara, Tatsuhiro Maekawa, Evan Angelo Quimada Mondarte, Takashi Nyu, Yoshiki Mizushita and Tomohiro Hayashi
Coatings 2020, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10010012 - 22 Dec 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3840
Abstract
We developed a method to identify proteins adsorbed on solid surfaces from a solution containing a complex mixture of proteins by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight mass (MALDI-ToF mass) spectroscopy. In the method, we performed all procedures of peptide mass fingerprint method [...] Read more.
We developed a method to identify proteins adsorbed on solid surfaces from a solution containing a complex mixture of proteins by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight mass (MALDI-ToF mass) spectroscopy. In the method, we performed all procedures of peptide mass fingerprint method including denaturation, reduction, alkylation, digestion, and spotting of matrix on substrates. The method enabled us to avoid artifacts of pipetting that could induce changes in the composition. We also developed an algorithm to identify the adsorbed proteins. In this work, we demonstrate the identification of proteins adsorbed on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Our results show that the composition of proteins on the SAMs critically depends on the terminal groups of the molecules constituting the SAMs, indicating that the competitive adsorption of protein molecules is largely affected by protein-surface interaction. The method introduced here can provide vital information to clarify the mechanism underlying the responses of cells and tissues to biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)
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16 pages, 5802 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Properties of Strontium–Hardystonite–Gahnite Coating Formed by Atmospheric Plasma Spray
by Duy Quang Pham, Christopher C. Berndt, Ameneh Sadeghpour, Hala Zreiqat, Peng-Yuan Wang and Andrew S. M. Ang
Coatings 2019, 9(11), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110759 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3438
Abstract
In this work, we measured the mechanical properties and tested the cell viability of a bioceramic coating, strontium–hardystonite–gahnite (Sr–HT–G, Sr–Ca2ZnSi2O7–ZnAl2O4), to evaluate potential use of this novel bioceramic for bone regeneration applications. The [...] Read more.
In this work, we measured the mechanical properties and tested the cell viability of a bioceramic coating, strontium–hardystonite–gahnite (Sr–HT–G, Sr–Ca2ZnSi2O7–ZnAl2O4), to evaluate potential use of this novel bioceramic for bone regeneration applications. The evaluation of Sr–HT–G coatings deposited via atmospheric plasma spray (APS) onto Ti–6Al–4V substrates have been contrasted to the properties of the well-known commercial standard coating of hydroxyapatite (HAp: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2). The Sr–HT–G coating exhibited uniform distribution of hardness and elastic moduli across its cross-section; whereas the HAp coating presented large statistical variations of these distributions. The Sr–HT–G coating also revealed higher results of microhardness, nanohardness and elastic moduli than those shown for the HAp coating. The nanoscratch tests for the Sr–HT–G coating presented a low volume of material removal without high plastic deformation, while the HAp coating revealed ploughing behaviour with a large pileup of materials and plastic deformation along the scratch direction. Furthermore, nanoscanning wear tests indicated that Sr–HT–G had a lower wear volume than the HAp coating. The Sr–HT–G coating had slightly higher cell attachment density and spreading area compared to the HAp coating indicating that both coatings have good biocompatibility for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)
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13 pages, 4361 KiB  
Article
One-Step Preparation of Nickel Nanoparticle-Based Magnetic Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Gels
by Jun Li, Kwang-Pill Lee and Anantha Iyengar Gopalan
Coatings 2019, 9(11), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110744 - 09 Nov 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3044
Abstract
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are of great interest due to their unique properties, especially in biomedical applications. MNPs can be incorporated into other matrixes to prepare new functional nanomaterials. In this work, we described a facile, one-step strategy for the synthesis of magnetic poly(vinyl [...] Read more.
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are of great interest due to their unique properties, especially in biomedical applications. MNPs can be incorporated into other matrixes to prepare new functional nanomaterials. In this work, we described a facile, one-step strategy for the synthesis of magnetic poly(vinyl alcohol) (mPVA) gels. In the synthesis, nickel nanoparticles and cross-linked mPVA gels were simultaneously formed. Ni nanoparticles (NPs) were also incorporated into a stimuli-responsive polymer to result in multiresponsive gels. The size of and distribution of the Ni particles within the mPVA gels were controlled by experimental conditions. The mPVA gels were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements, and thermogravimetric analysis. The new mPVA gels are expected to have applications in drug delivery and biotechnology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)
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12 pages, 9707 KiB  
Article
Mangrove Inspired Anti-Corrosion Coatings
by Miaomiao Cui, Peng-Yuan Wang, Zuankai Wang and Bin Wang
Coatings 2019, 9(11), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110725 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3495
Abstract
Marine corrosion accounts for one-third of the total corrosion cost and has been one of the greatest challenges for modern society. Organic coatings are known as the most widely used protective means. An effective control of the transport of corrosive substances is the [...] Read more.
Marine corrosion accounts for one-third of the total corrosion cost and has been one of the greatest challenges for modern society. Organic coatings are known as the most widely used protective means. An effective control of the transport of corrosive substances is the key to the anti-corrosion performance. In nature, the mangrove survives and thrives in marine tidal zones despite high salinity and humidity. We first showed that the mangrove leaves have salt glands that can secrete excessive ions to control the ion transport in and out. Inspired by this, we proposed a design of bio-inspired, anti-corrosion coating that mimics this functional feature, and fabricated the bipolar, hydrophobic coatings by doping ion-selective resins and constructing surface structures, which restrict the transport of corrosive substances and the electrochemical corrosion at the coating/metal interface. Our results show that the bio-inspired coatings effectively block and control the transport of both the Na+ and Cl, and, together with the hydrophobic surface, the coating system exhibits significantly improved anti-corrosion properties, more than a three orders of magnitude decrease in corrosion current density when compared with the control group (epoxy varnish). Therefore, the mangrove-inspired coatings show a promising protective strategy for the ever-demanding corrosion issues plaguing modern industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)
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15 pages, 3767 KiB  
Article
Chemical and Biological Roles of Zinc in a Porous Titanium Dioxide Layer Formed by Micro-Arc Oxidation
by Masaya Shimabukuro, Yusuke Tsutsumi, Kosuke Nozaki, Peng Chen, Risa Yamada, Maki Ashida, Hisashi Doi, Akiko Nagai and Takao Hanawa
Coatings 2019, 9(11), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9110705 - 29 Oct 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3495
Abstract
This study investigated the time transient effect of zinc (Zn) in the porous titanium dioxide formed by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment routinely performed for Zn-containing electrolytes. The aim of our analysis was to understand the changes in both the chemical and biological properties [...] Read more.
This study investigated the time transient effect of zinc (Zn) in the porous titanium dioxide formed by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment routinely performed for Zn-containing electrolytes. The aim of our analysis was to understand the changes in both the chemical and biological properties of Zn in physiological saline. The morphology of the Zn-incorporated MAO surface did not change, and a small amount of Zn ions were released at early stages of incubation in saline. We observed a decrease in Zn concentration in the oxide layer because its release and chemical state (Zn2+ compound to ZnO) changed over time during incubation in saline. In addition, the antibacterial property of the Zn-incorporated MAO surface developed at late periods after the incubation process over a course of 28 days. Furthermore, osteogenic cells were able to proliferate and were calcified on the specimens with Zn. The changes related to Zn in saline had non-toxic effects on the osteogenic cells. In conclusion, the time transient effect of Zn in a porous titanium dioxide layer was beneficial to realize dual functions, namely the antibacterial property and osteogenic cell compatibility. Our study suggests the importance of the chemical state changes of Zn to control its chemical and biological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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19 pages, 2114 KiB  
Review
Materials for Orthopedic Bioimplants: Modulating Degradation and Surface Modification Using Integrated Nanomaterials
by Harbhajan Ahirwar, Yubin Zhou, Chinmaya Mahapatra, Seeram Ramakrishna, Prasoon Kumar and Himansu Sekhar Nanda
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030264 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 7923
Abstract
Significant research and development in the field of biomedical implants has evoked the scope to treat a broad range of orthopedic ailments that include fracture fixation, total bone replacement, joint arthrodesis, dental screws, and others. Importantly, the success of a bioimplant depends not [...] Read more.
Significant research and development in the field of biomedical implants has evoked the scope to treat a broad range of orthopedic ailments that include fracture fixation, total bone replacement, joint arthrodesis, dental screws, and others. Importantly, the success of a bioimplant depends not only upon its bulk properties, but also on its surface properties that influence its interaction with the host tissue. Various approaches of surface modification such as coating of nanomaterial have been employed to enhance antibacterial activities of a bioimplant. The modified surface facilitates directed modulation of the host cellular behavior and grafting of cell-binding peptides, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and growth factors to further improve host acceptance of a bioimplant. These strategies showed promising results in orthopedics, e.g., improved bone repair and regeneration. However, the choice of materials, especially considering their degradation behavior and surface properties, plays a key role in long-term reliability and performance of bioimplants. Metallic biomaterials have evolved largely in terms of their bulk and surface properties including nano-structuring with nanomaterials to meet the requirements of new generation orthopedic bioimplants. In this review, we have discussed metals and metal alloys commonly used for manufacturing different orthopedic bioimplants and the biotic as well as abiotic factors affecting the failure and degradation of those bioimplants. The review also highlights the currently available nanomaterial-based surface modification technologies to augment the function and performance of these metallic bioimplants in a clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)
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