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Open AccessReview

Materials for Orthopedic Bioimplants: Modulating Degradation and Surface Modification Using Integrated Nanomaterials

1
Biomedical Engineering and Technology (BET) Laboratory, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing (IIITDM), Jabalpur-482005, MP, India
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School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan 523808, China
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Marine Medical Research Institute of Guangdong Zhanjiang, Guangdong Zhanjiang Marine Biomedical Research Institute, Zhanjiang 524023, China
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Institute of Biomaterial Science and Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, 14513 Teltow, Germany
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Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117587, Singapore
6
Department of Medical Devices, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research–Ahmadabad, Near Air force Station, Palaj, Gandhinagar-382355, Gujarat, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2020, 10(3), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10030264
Received: 24 January 2020 / Revised: 9 March 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 12 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biointerface Coatings for Biomaterials and Biomedical Applications)
Significant research and development in the field of biomedical implants has evoked the scope to treat a broad range of orthopedic ailments that include fracture fixation, total bone replacement, joint arthrodesis, dental screws, and others. Importantly, the success of a bioimplant depends not only upon its bulk properties, but also on its surface properties that influence its interaction with the host tissue. Various approaches of surface modification such as coating of nanomaterial have been employed to enhance antibacterial activities of a bioimplant. The modified surface facilitates directed modulation of the host cellular behavior and grafting of cell-binding peptides, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and growth factors to further improve host acceptance of a bioimplant. These strategies showed promising results in orthopedics, e.g., improved bone repair and regeneration. However, the choice of materials, especially considering their degradation behavior and surface properties, plays a key role in long-term reliability and performance of bioimplants. Metallic biomaterials have evolved largely in terms of their bulk and surface properties including nano-structuring with nanomaterials to meet the requirements of new generation orthopedic bioimplants. In this review, we have discussed metals and metal alloys commonly used for manufacturing different orthopedic bioimplants and the biotic as well as abiotic factors affecting the failure and degradation of those bioimplants. The review also highlights the currently available nanomaterial-based surface modification technologies to augment the function and performance of these metallic bioimplants in a clinical setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioimplants; orthopedic; metallic biomaterials; degradation; surface modification; coatings; nanomaterials bioimplants; orthopedic; metallic biomaterials; degradation; surface modification; coatings; nanomaterials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahirwar, H.; Zhou, Y.; Mahapatra, C.; Ramakrishna, S.; Kumar, P.; Nanda, H.S. Materials for Orthopedic Bioimplants: Modulating Degradation and Surface Modification Using Integrated Nanomaterials. Coatings 2020, 10, 264.

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