Sports Science for Children

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Pediatric Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2021) | Viewed by 55339

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Escola Superior de Desporto e Lazer de Melgaço, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Melgaço, Portugal
Interests: motor development; motor competence; physical fitness; somatic fitness; child development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
CIPER, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Cruz Quebrada Dafundo, Portugal
Interests: motor development; motor competence; perception and action; child safety; risky play; outdoor play; children's independent mobility

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Childhood it is all about change. Change in growth, maturation, and motor control and learning.

To understand how to seize the opportunities that change offers for the development of children’s motor performance, with a lifelong impact, has long been a goal of sports science researchers.

In this context, science has progressed a great deal in the last several decades. Thanks to the joint efforts of different research areas, we now have a much better understanding of how children’s motor competence can be optimized for sportive performance, and/or for a healthy lifestyle. However, we are also keener to understand the problems and limitations that children, particularly some children, face in their development path. Nature and nurture come together and interact in the most amazing ways to fulfill the sculpting role of each individual motor pathway during childhood.

 The goal of this Special Issue of Children is to highlight recent advances in sports sciences related to this amazing period of childhood. The intended scope of the Special Issue is broad enough to accommodate different areas of expertise and research, as long as they share this common interest in advancing our knowledge on the mechanisms, pathways, and correlates of motor behavior during childhood.

 We welcome reviews and original research papers, as well as manuscripts identifying gaps in knowledge. We also encourage submissions that explore social and cultural factors, clinical experiences, pedagogical approaches, and methodological essays on the theme.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Luis Paulo Rodrigues
Prof. Dr. Rita Cordovil
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Children
  • Motor behavior
  • Motor competence
  • Physical fitness
  • Physical activity
  • Growth
  • Maturation
  • Motor performance
  • Motor learning
  • Sports pedagogy
  • Health
  • Active lifestyles

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 637 KiB  
Article
Relationship between the Affordances for Motor Behavior of Schoolchildren (AMBS) and Motor Competence Assessment (MCA) in Brazilian Children
by Fábio Saraiva Flôres, Luis Paulo Rodrigues and Rita Cordovil
Children 2021, 8(8), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8080705 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2474
Abstract
During growth, children are influenced by an extensive network, in which more favorable contexts provide better affordance landscapes, and consequently have a better potential to foster child development. We aimed to examine the affordances provided to children using the Affordances for Motor Behavior [...] Read more.
During growth, children are influenced by an extensive network, in which more favorable contexts provide better affordance landscapes, and consequently have a better potential to foster child development. We aimed to examine the affordances provided to children using the Affordances for Motor Behavior of Schoolchildren (AMBS) tool, estimating its association with children’s motor competence, as assessed by the Motor Competence Assessment (MCA) battery. Seventy-two Brazilian children were evaluated using the MCA instrument. Their parents/guardians completed the AMBS. The correlations between the two instruments (sub-scales and total scores) were investigated. ANOVAs were used to compare the motor competence performance of children with Low, Average, and High AMBS scores. Positive associations were found between AMBS and MCA, although weak to moderate in nature. In addition, children whose environments were richer in motor affordances (higher AMBS scores) showed significantly higher levels on the MCA. This study provides evidence that AMBS is a valid tool for assessing motor affordances for schoolchildren, and that those affordances are related to children’s motor competence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science for Children)
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15 pages, 4872 KiB  
Article
Interrelations of Physical Fitness and Cognitive Functions in German Schoolchildren
by Alina Drozdowska, Michael Falkenstein, Gernot Jendrusch, Petra Platen, Thomas Lücke, Mathilde Kersting and Kathrin Sinningen
Children 2021, 8(8), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8080669 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 7067
Abstract
This study investigated the relationship between different levels of physical fitness and cognitive functions in boys and girls. Schoolchildren from a comprehensive school in Germany (n = 211, 39% girls, 5th and 6th grade) attended regular or sport-focused classes with different numbers [...] Read more.
This study investigated the relationship between different levels of physical fitness and cognitive functions in boys and girls. Schoolchildren from a comprehensive school in Germany (n = 211, 39% girls, 5th and 6th grade) attended regular or sport-focused classes with different numbers of physical education (PE) classes per week (3 vs. 5–6 h). Performance of physical fitness was tested according to endurance, strength, speed, coordination and flexibility. Four computerized instruments (switch task, 2-back task, Corsi block-tapping task and flanker task) were used to test cognitive functions. Additional predictors, sex, age, PE class, Body Mass Index and physical activity, were included in analyses. The results showed that physical fitness was associated with improved attention and memory functions in children, although the associations were mostly small. After Bonferroni correction, mainly coordination was related to improved cognition. Physical activity, i.e., step counts, PE class and sex were associated with specific cognitive outcomes. These findings may be important for effective health promotion, and supporting children’s education in the school environment. Sex-specific physical activities in school could potentially lead to greater cognitive benefits in children. Randomized trials are needed to replicate these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science for Children)
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32 pages, 3218 KiB  
Article
Children of Smoking and Non-Smoking Households’ Perceptions of Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Exercise
by Melissa Parnell, Ivan Gee, Lawrence Foweather, Greg Whyte and Zoe Knowles
Children 2021, 8(7), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8070552 - 26 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3146
Abstract
Previous research has shown secondhand tobacco smoke to be detrimental to children’s health. This qualitative study aimed to explore children from low socioeconomic status (SES) families and their reasons for being physically active, attitudes towards physical activity (PA), fitness and exercise, perceived barriers [...] Read more.
Previous research has shown secondhand tobacco smoke to be detrimental to children’s health. This qualitative study aimed to explore children from low socioeconomic status (SES) families and their reasons for being physically active, attitudes towards physical activity (PA), fitness and exercise, perceived barriers and facilitators to PA, self-perceptions of fitness and physical ability, and how these differ for children from smoking and non-smoking households. A total of 38 children (9–11 years; 50% female; 42% smoking households) from the deprived areas of North West England participated in focus groups (n = 8), which were analysed by utilizing thematic analysis. The findings support hypothesised mediators of PA in children including self-efficacy, enjoyment, perceived benefit, and social support. Fewer than a quarter of all children were aware of the PA guidelines with varying explanations, while the majority of children perceived their own fitness to be high. Variances also emerged between important barriers (e.g., sedentary behaviour and environmental factors) and facilitators (e.g., psychological factors and PA opportunity) for children from smoking and non-smoking households. This unique study provided a voice to children from low SES and smoking households and these child perspectives could be used to create relevant and effective strategies for interventions to improve PA, fitness, and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science for Children)
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9 pages, 540 KiB  
Article
Learning to Cycle: Are Physical Activity and Birth Order Related to the Age of Learning How to Ride a Bicycle?
by Cristiana Mercê, Marco Branco, David Catela, Frederico Lopes, Luis Paulo Rodrigues and Rita Cordovil
Children 2021, 8(6), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8060487 - 8 Jun 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3860
Abstract
The present article aimed to verify whether the age at which children learn to ride a bicycle is related to their physical activity or birth order. Data were collected from an online structured survey between November 2019 and June 2020. A total of [...] Read more.
The present article aimed to verify whether the age at which children learn to ride a bicycle is related to their physical activity or birth order. Data were collected from an online structured survey between November 2019 and June 2020. A total of 8614 responses were obtained from 22 countries. The results reveal significant differences in learning age depending on the frequency of physical activity (F(5, 7235) = 35.12, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.24). People who engaged in physical activity less than twice a month learned to cycle later (M = 7.5 ± 5.3 years) than people who engaged in physical activity on a daily basis (M = 5.7 ± 2.2 years) (p < 0.001). There were also significant differences in learning age according to birth order (F(2, 3008) = 7.31, p = 0.00, ηp2 = 0.005). Only children had the highest learning age (M = 5.5 ± 2.4 years), whereas those who were born last had the lowest, (M = 5.1 ± 1.9 years) (p = 0.013). Creating opportunities for children to be engaged in play and physical activity and social modulation through their older siblings seem to be key conditions to encourage children to learn how to ride a bicycle from a young age and to foster their motor development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science for Children)
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13 pages, 1305 KiB  
Article
Learning Basketball Using Direct Instruction and Tactical Game Approach Methodologies
by Sergio González-Espinosa, Javier García-Rubio, Sebastián Feu and Sergio J. Ibáñez
Children 2021, 8(5), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8050342 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4140
Abstract
This study was to analyze and compare the learning acquired by the students in the sport of basketball in two different methodologies. The sample was composed of 40 students divided into two groups. The intervention programs had previously been validated. A descriptive analysis [...] Read more.
This study was to analyze and compare the learning acquired by the students in the sport of basketball in two different methodologies. The sample was composed of 40 students divided into two groups. The intervention programs had previously been validated. A descriptive analysis of the learning indicators, a t-test for independent samples to identify the differences between the methods, and a t-test for related samples to analyze the differences in each group were performed. There are differences between the performance profiles of students in the Direct Instruction in Basketball program and those in the Tactical Game in Basketball program in nine variables. Significant differences are found in the situations of dribbling, shooting, passing and movement, spacing, off-ball defense, and help and in the performance indicator for decision making, execution, and total, which are favorable to the Tactical Game in Basketball program. The students of the Direct Instruction in Basketball program only improved in three variables after the program, while the Tactical Game in Basketball students improved in thirteen variables. It is recommended that the teachers at the schools use the Tactical Game in Basketball methodology for their basketball teaching lessons, because student learning is better than in the Direct Instruction in Basketball program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science for Children)
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11 pages, 964 KiB  
Article
Children Involved in Team Sports Show Superior Executive Function Compared to Their Peers Involved in Self-Paced Sports
by Silke De Waelle, Felien Laureys, Matthieu Lenoir, Simon J. Bennett and Frederik J.A. Deconinck
Children 2021, 8(4), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8040264 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6205
Abstract
Children’s motor and cognitive functions develop rapidly during childhood. Physical activity and executive function are intricately linked during this important developmental period, with physical activity interventions consistently proving to benefit children’s executive function. However, it is less clear which type of physical activity [...] Read more.
Children’s motor and cognitive functions develop rapidly during childhood. Physical activity and executive function are intricately linked during this important developmental period, with physical activity interventions consistently proving to benefit children’s executive function. However, it is less clear which type of physical activity shows the strongest associations with executive function in children. Therefore, this study compared executive function performance of children aged 8 to 12 that either participated in team sports or self-paced sports or were not involved in any kind of organized sports (non-athletes). Results demonstrate that children participating in team sports show superior executive function compared to children participating in self-paced sports and non-athletes. Importantly, children participating in self-paced sports do not outperform non-athletes when it comes to executive function. This study is the first to show that even at a very young age, team sports athletes outperform athletes from self-paced sports as well as non-athletes on a multifaceted and comprehensive test battery for executive function. Furthermore, our findings support the hypothesis that cognitively engaging physical activity, such as participation in team sports, might show stronger associations with executive functioning compared to other types of sports and physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science for Children)
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10 pages, 515 KiB  
Article
Effects of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Portuguese Children’s Motor Competence
by André Pombo, Carlos Luz, Cristina de Sá, Luis Paulo Rodrigues and Rita Cordovil
Children 2021, 8(3), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8030199 - 7 Mar 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 10786
Abstract
During long periods without school, children are more susceptible to unhealthy behaviors, such as an increase in sedentary behaviors, which has a negative impact on children’s motor competence (MC). The COVID-19 lockdown offered us a unique opportunity to test, in a quasi-experimental setting, [...] Read more.
During long periods without school, children are more susceptible to unhealthy behaviors, such as an increase in sedentary behaviors, which has a negative impact on children’s motor competence (MC). The COVID-19 lockdown offered us a unique opportunity to test, in a quasi-experimental setting, the impact of lockdown movement restrictions on children’s MC. We assessed the motor competence of 114 children aged 6–9 years using the motor competence assessment. All children were tested before and after the COVID-19 lockdown. Chi-square and 2 × 2 ANOVA (sex by moment) were used to further analyze the data. Regardless of sex, motor performances in all tests (except for jumping sideways in boys) were lower when compared with performances before lockdown. There was a marked decreasing trend in children’s levels of MC, shifting from an upper to a lower quartile in different tests. The results after the lockdown were always significantly inferior to the results before lockdown in all motor tests (except jumping sideways), in the three components of MC, and in global MC. Children’s global MC score decreased by an average of 13 points in boys and 16 points in girls. The imposed movement restrictions had a negative effect on children’s motor competence development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science for Children)
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11 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
Sex Differences in Dysfunctional Movements and Asymmetries in Young Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Children
by Pat R. Vehrs, Haley Barker, Misea Nomiyama, Zachary Vehrs, Miklόs Tόth, Martina Uvacsek, Ulrike H. Mitchel and Aaron W. Johnson
Children 2021, 8(3), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8030184 - 1 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
This study evaluated overall performance on the functional movement screen (FMS), prevalence of asymmetries and dysfunctional movements, and the relationship between measures of adiposity and the FMS score. Methods: Ninety-four (53 boys; 41 girls) 10–12-year-old children in Hungary and Germany who were participating [...] Read more.
This study evaluated overall performance on the functional movement screen (FMS), prevalence of asymmetries and dysfunctional movements, and the relationship between measures of adiposity and the FMS score. Methods: Ninety-four (53 boys; 41 girls) 10–12-year-old children in Hungary and Germany who were participating in daily physical education performed the FMS. The mean FMS score in girls (14.1) was significantly higher than in boys (12.9). Individual test item scores were similar, except girls scored higher on the straight-leg raise. Most children (55% of boys, 68% of girls) presented with at least one asymmetry and 72% of boys and 76% of girls had at least one dysfunctional score. Measures of adiposity were negatively correlated to performance on all test items. Underweight and normal weight children performed significantly better on the FMS than overweight and obese children. Sex differences and the high prevalence of asymmetries and dysfunctional scores should be interpreted with caution since they may be due to dynamic changes in strength, proprioception, balance, and motor control that occur as part of growth and involvement in activities. Nevertheless, the high prevalence of asymmetries and dysfunctional scores indicate that most children have movement limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science for Children)
9 pages, 249 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity of Serbian Children in Daycare
by Milenko Janković, Maja Batez, Dušan Stupar, Jelena Obradović and Nebojša Trajković
Children 2021, 8(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020161 - 21 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
Background: Monitoring of physical activity within the educational institution is of great importance, primarily because of the orientation and content implemented in the daycare. This research aimed to examine the number of steps children took during their stay in daycare with regards to [...] Read more.
Background: Monitoring of physical activity within the educational institution is of great importance, primarily because of the orientation and content implemented in the daycare. This research aimed to examine the number of steps children took during their stay in daycare with regards to age, gender and the frequency of going out. Methods: The research was conducted in four daycares in the urban environment of Novi Sad (Republic of Serbia), where 231 children, aged 5 to 7, were monitored (129 boys and 102 girls). Data on the number of steps were obtained using the pedometers. Results: The result of the univariate analysis of the variance test confirmed a statistically significant difference in the number of steps in relation to the age of children (p = 0.04). Boys were more active than girls in both age groups (p = 0.001). Children who were going to the daycare yard three to five times a week took drastically more steps than children who went up to twice a week (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the current study show that age, gender, and time spent outdoors are significant determinants of physical activity in preschool age. Therefore, interventions regarding physical activity should be made during early childhood in order to promote health and prevent disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science for Children)
14 pages, 516 KiB  
Article
Differences in Weight Status and Autonomous Motivation towards Sports among Children with Various Profiles of Motor Competence and Organized Sports Participation
by Eline Coppens, An De Meester, Frederik J. A. Deconinck, Kristine De Martelaer, Leen Haerens, Farid Bardid, Matthieu Lenoir and Eva D’Hondt
Children 2021, 8(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020156 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3300
Abstract
This study aimed (1) to identify profiles in children based on actual motor competence (AMC), perceived motor competence (PMC), and organized sports participation (OSP), and (2) to examine differences among these profiles in weight status as well as autonomous motivation towards sports. Children’s [...] Read more.
This study aimed (1) to identify profiles in children based on actual motor competence (AMC), perceived motor competence (PMC), and organized sports participation (OSP), and (2) to examine differences among these profiles in weight status as well as autonomous motivation towards sports. Children’s (N = 206; 112 boys; Mage = 10.83 ± 0.92 years) AMC, PMC, OSP, weight status, and autonomous motivation towards sports were measured using validated assessment tools. Cluster analyses identified three profiles with completely convergent levels of AMC, PMC, and OSP and three profiles with partially convergent levels. Children in the convergent profiles with average to high levels of AMC, PMC, and OSP had the most optimal profile, as they combined a healthier weight status with elevated levels of autonomous motivation, while the opposite was true for children with low levels on all three cluster-variables. Partially convergent profiles showed that AMC and PMC appear crucial for weight status, as profiles with relatively low levels of AMC and PMC had the highest weight status, independent of their OSP levels. Overall, the findings highlight the importance of promoting AMC, PMC, and OSP simultaneously to help children in achieving a healthy weight status and being autonomously motivated towards OSP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science for Children)
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11 pages, 651 KiB  
Article
Relative Age Effect on Motor Competence in Children Aged 4–5 Years
by Rubén Navarro-Patón, Marcos Mecías-Calvo, José Eugenio Rodríguez Fernández and Víctor Arufe-Giráldez
Children 2021, 8(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8020115 - 6 Feb 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4273
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a Relative Age Effect (RAE) exists in motor competence of preschool children. The hypothesis was that motor competence, assessed by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2), would be higher in preschool children born [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a Relative Age Effect (RAE) exists in motor competence of preschool children. The hypothesis was that motor competence, assessed by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2), would be higher in preschool children born in the first quarter of the year compared to those who were born in the last quarter of the same year. A total of 360 preschool children were evaluated of whom 208 (57.8%) were boys and 152 (42.8%) were girls, with a mean age of 4.52 years old (± 0.50). The distribution of the participants was 172 children aged 4 years old and 188 aged 5 years old. The data showed a main effect on the age factor in the total score of aiming and catching (p < 0.001) and in the total test score (p < 0.001), in the quarter of birth factor in all the dimensions studied (i.e., total score of manual dexterity (p < 0.001); total score of aiming and catching (p = 0.001); total score of balance (p < 0.001); total test score (p < 0.001)) and in the interaction between both factors (i.e., total score of manual dexterity (p = 0.005); total score of aiming and catching (p = 0.002); total score of balance (p < 0.001); total test score (p < 0.001)). Age and quarter of birth produce a RAE in 4 and 5-year-old preschool children’s motor competence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science for Children)
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12 pages, 795 KiB  
Article
Meeting the Physical Activity Recommendations and Its Relationship with Obesity-Related Parameters, Physical Fitness, Screen Time, and Mediterranean Diet in Schoolchildren
by José Francisco López-Gil, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Wagner de Campos and Juan Luis Yuste Lucas
Children 2020, 7(12), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7120263 - 28 Nov 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3886
Abstract
The up-to-date scientific evidence suggests that adequate levels of physical activity provide essential health benefits for children and adolescents and help to maintain a healthy body weight. In this sense, children and adolescents should at least accumulate 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [...] Read more.
The up-to-date scientific evidence suggests that adequate levels of physical activity provide essential health benefits for children and adolescents and help to maintain a healthy body weight. In this sense, children and adolescents should at least accumulate 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in a daily basis to achieve these benefits and be considered active. Likewise, some lifestyle-related elements may interact with each other in an antagonistic or synergistic way to modify physical activity status. Thus, a better understanding of how meeting physical activity recommendations influences these potentially modifiable lifestyle factors (obesity-related parameters, physical fitness, dietary habits, or sedentary behaviour) would significantly reinforce the importance of complying with those recommendations from a health perspective and support the establishment of strategies for the promotion of diminishing the lower trends of physical activity among the young population. This study seeks to verify the association of meeting physical activity international recommendations with obesity-related parameters, global physical fitness, screen time, and Mediterranean diet in Spanish schoolchildren aged 8 to 13. A cross-sectional study was performed including 250 schoolchildren (41.2% girls) aged 8–13 (9.7 ± 1.2) from six primary schools in the Region of Murcia (Spain). Results: A higher proportion of children who complying with physical activity recommendations shows normal weight, no abdominal obesity, and low adiposity in comparison to other with different obesity-related parameters categories. Higher values in global physical fitness score were found in those who meet the physical activity international recommendations in both sexes. These higher values were also shown for adherence to the Mediterranean diet in both sexes; not being so in the case of screen time. Notwithstanding, none of these mean differences were statistically significant. To conclude, the proportion of schoolchildren meeting the physical activity recommendations in our study is low. A higher proportion of children who meet with physical activity recommendations present normal weight, no abdominal obesity and low adiposity in comparison to other obesity-related parameters categories in both sexes. Likewise, those considered as active children seem to have higher global physical fitness score and adherence to the Mediterranean diet than children who do not meet the recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Science for Children)
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