Medical Statistics and Clinical Epidemiology in Children

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Global and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2024) | Viewed by 6297

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Economical, Business and Environmental Sciences and Quantitative Methods, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
Interests: medical statistics; clinical epidemiology; pediatrics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am pleased to invite you to present a scientific contribution in this Special Issue, aimed at collecting valuable articles in which biostatistics plays a fundamental role in all levels of at biomedical research: from the organization of data and the choice of the research design to the data collection and the hypothesis verification procedure. In addition, the theory of statistical inference allows and guarantees the extensibility of the conclusions of a clinical study conducted on a sample to a reference population, under specific conditions related to probability sampling. The task of the biostatistician in the field of clinical research is to support researchers in designing, managing, analyzing, interpreting and evaluating experimental or observational studies on the basis of compliance with the methodology. In this context, we want to focus on children, offering an opportunity to collect contributions from biostatistics in pediatric research.

Dr. Angela Alibrandi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biostatistics
  • clinical epidemiology
  • inference procedure
  • data analysis
  • parametric and non-parametric tests
  • statistical models
  • childhood

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 577 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Analysis of Fever in Pediatric Age: Our Experience over the Last 5 Years
by Mariella Valenzise, Federica D’Amico, Giulia La Barbera, Carlo Maria Cassone, Silvia Patafi, Fortunato Lombardo, Tommaso Aversa, Malgorzata Gabriela Wasniewska, Giuseppina Salzano and Carmela Morace
Children 2024, 11(5), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11050539 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Background: Fever is one of the most frequent symptoms highlighted during medical assistance. Due to this great impact, our study has the purpose of analyzing the demographic and laboratory characteristics of patients hospitalized in our center and identifying predictive markers to make the [...] Read more.
Background: Fever is one of the most frequent symptoms highlighted during medical assistance. Due to this great impact, our study has the purpose of analyzing the demographic and laboratory characteristics of patients hospitalized in our center and identifying predictive markers to make the differential diagnosis between infectious and non-infectious fever. Methods: Our population included 220 children, collected from January 2017 to August 2022, hospitalized for continuous fever (4 days or more in duration with at least one temperature peak ≥37.5 °C) and excluded cases of discharge against medical advice and/or transfer to other operating units. Demographic (mean age at the time of admission, frequency of hospitalization, and mean days of hospitalization), laboratory, and instrumental variables were analyzed in order to find correlation with fever etiology. Results: Older age at the time of hospitalization, family history of periodic fever, fever lasting more than 8 days, and longer hospitalization are strongly associated with non-infectious fever, together with anemia, high platelet count, high CRP and ferritin, and hyponatremia at the time of admission. Paracetamol is the preferred antipyretic treatment. Echocardiogram has shown anomalies in patients with infectious fever, while ECG anomalies were detected in non-infectious fever. Conclusions: Our data underline the importance of predictive markers, such as clinical and laboratory parameters, to differentiate infectious from non-infectious fevers, but further studies are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Statistics and Clinical Epidemiology in Children)
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9 pages, 243 KiB  
Article
Association between Second-Hand Exposure to E-Cigarettes at Home and Exacerbations in Children with Asthma
by Serena Costantino, Arianna Torre, Simone Foti Randazzese, Salvatore Antonio Mollica, Federico Motta, Domenico Busceti, Federica Ferrante, Lucia Caminiti, Giuseppe Crisafulli and Sara Manti
Children 2024, 11(3), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/children11030356 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Several studies have shown the effects of e-cigarettes in adults. Nowadays, few data are available in the pediatric population. This study aims to assess the relationship between asthma exacerbations and home exposure to e-cigarettes. We conducted a pilot, retrospective, monocenter, observational study. Demographic [...] Read more.
Several studies have shown the effects of e-cigarettes in adults. Nowadays, few data are available in the pediatric population. This study aims to assess the relationship between asthma exacerbations and home exposure to e-cigarettes. We conducted a pilot, retrospective, monocenter, observational study. Demographic and clinical data were collected, including number of asthma exacerbations, need for rescue therapy and/or therapeutic step-up, and Asthma Control Test (ACT) and children-Asthma Control Test (c-ACT) scores. The cohort consisted of 54 patients (5–17 years old), divided into two groups: A, including patients exposed to e-cigarette aerosols; B, including unexposed patients. The statistical analysis showed no relevant variation in the number of asthma symptomatic days and need for rescue therapy in group A versus group B (p = 0.27 and 0.19, respectively). There were no statistically significant variations when also considering the number of patients who needed a therapeutic step-up (p = 0.3). The mean values of ACT and c-ACT were, respectively, 17.2 ± 7.6 and 18.3 ± 5.6 in group A and 19.6 ± 3.8 and 14.6 ± 5.8 in group B (p = 0.3 and 0.4, respectively). Although we did not find a statistically significant correlation between second-hand e-cigarette exposure and asthma exacerbations, our findings suggest that asthmatic children exposed second-hand to e-cigarettes may have increased risk of asthma symptomatic days. Future research is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Statistics and Clinical Epidemiology in Children)
12 pages, 1404 KiB  
Article
Reliability of Data Collected via Ecological Momentary Assessment on the Example of FeverApp Registry
by Larisa Rathjens, Moritz Gwiasda, Silke Schwarz, Ricarda Möhler, David D. Martin and Ekkehart Jenetzky
Children 2023, 10(2), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020385 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The FeverApp registry is an ambulant ecological momentary assessment (EMA) model registry focusing on research of fever in children. Verification of EMA reliability is a challenge, due to absence of other source data. To ensure the reliability of EMA data, 973 families were [...] Read more.
The FeverApp registry is an ambulant ecological momentary assessment (EMA) model registry focusing on research of fever in children. Verification of EMA reliability is a challenge, due to absence of other source data. To ensure the reliability of EMA data, 973 families were invited to reassess their documentation in a survey. The survey contained questions (a) regarding the number of children, (b) genuineness of entries, (c) completeness of submitted fever episodes, (d) medication, (e) usefulness and further usage of the app. Of those invited, 438 families (45% response rate) participated in the survey. Of these, 363 (83%) families have registered all their children, 208 families have one child. The majority (n = 325, 74.2%) of families stated that they only made genuine entries in the app. Agreement between survey and app for fever episodes is 90% (Cohen’s κ = 0.75 [0.66, 0.82]). Medication shows 73.7% agreement, κ = 0.49 [0.42; 0.54]. The majority (n = 245, 55.9%) consider the app as an additional benefit and 87.3% would like to use it further. Email surveys are a possible approach to evaluate EMA based registry data. The possible observation units (children and fever episodes) show an adequate reliability. With this approach, surveys of further samples and variables could help to improve the quality of EMA based registries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Statistics and Clinical Epidemiology in Children)
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10 pages, 923 KiB  
Article
Burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Related Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in Hospitalized Thai Children: A 6-Year National Data Analysis
by Phanthila Sitthikarnkha, Rattapon Uppala, Sirapoom Niamsanit, Sumitr Sutra, Kaewjai Thepsuthammarat, Leelawadee Techasatian, Watit Niyomkarn and Jamaree Teeratakulpisarn
Children 2022, 9(12), 1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9121990 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2269
Abstract
Objectives: This study sought to determine the epidemiology, seasonal variations, morbidity, and mortality of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infection in Thailand. In addition, we assessed the risk factors associated with severe RSV lower respiratory tract [...] Read more.
Objectives: This study sought to determine the epidemiology, seasonal variations, morbidity, and mortality of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infection in Thailand. In addition, we assessed the risk factors associated with severe RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)-related morbidity and mortality. Methods: The data were reviewed retrospectively from the National Health Security Office for hospitalized children younger than 18 years old diagnosed with RSV-related LRTI in Thailand, between the fiscal years of 2015 to 2020. The RSV-related LRTIs were identified using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Thai Modification. ICD-10-TM codes J12.1, J20.5, and J21.0, which represent respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia, acute bronchitis due to respiratory syncytial virus, and acute bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus, respectively, were studied. Results: During the study period, RSV-related LRTI accounted for 19,340 of the 1,610,160 hospital admissions due to LRTI. RSV pneumonia was the leading cause of hospitalization (13,684/19,340; 70.76%), followed by bronchiolitis (2849/19,340; 14.73%) and bronchitis (2807/19,340; 14.51%), respectively. The highest peak incidence of 73.55 percent occurred during Thailand’s rainy season, from August to October. The mortality rate of RSV-related LRTI in infants younger than 1 year of age was 1.75 per 100,000 person years, which was significantly higher than that of children 1 to younger than 5 years old and children 5 to younger than 18 years old (0.21 per 100,000 person years and 0.01 per 100,000 person years, respectively, p-value < 0.001). Factors associated with mortality were congenital heart disease, hematologic malignancy, malnutrition, and neurological disease. Conclusions: In children with RSV LRTI, pneumonia was the leading cause of hospitalization. The admission rate was highest during the rainy season. Mortality from RSV-related LRTI was higher in children under 1 year old and in children with underlying illnesses; future preventive interventions should target these groups of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Statistics and Clinical Epidemiology in Children)
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