Child Injury and the Determinants of Health

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Global and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020) | Viewed by 32972

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

School of Population Health, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Interests: drowning prevention; injury prevention; epidemiology; public health; social determinants of health; risk factors

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Guest Editor
Department of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Douglas, QLD 4811, Australia
Interests: injury prevention; drowning prevention; farm safety; child safety; alcohol-related safety; child development; quad bike safety; road safety; poisoning; chemicals; disasters; flooding; epidemiology; determinants of health; global burden of disease; motorcycles; helmets; swimming; education; behavioral approaches; communication; health promotion; public health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The World Health Organization recognizes that injuries are the leading cause of death and disability after a child’s first birthday in most countries around the world. There is also high morbidity associated with injuries sustained in childhood, often affecting the rest of their lives. For every child who dies from injury, there are several thousand who live with varying degrees of disability.

Children and adolescents (0–19 years of age) are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity due to injuries such as road traffic, burns, falls, poisoning, drowning, self-harm, and interpersonal violence. By understanding the impact of determinants of health (i.e., the social and economic environment, the physical environment, and a person’s individual characteristics and behaviors), effective prevention interventions can be implemented with high return on investment.

This Special Issue welcomes submissions of any type from scholars and practitioners from any discipline. Submissions may focus on child and adolescent intentional and unintentional injury and its prevention, exploring links to the determinants of health.

We particularly welcome works from developing nations and those nations with a high burden of child and adolescent injury and mortality. We are also encouraging of work submitted by emerging and early-career researchers.

Dr. Amy Peden
Dr. Richard Franklin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • child
  • adolescent
  • injury
  • risk
  • social determinants
  • prevention
  • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
  • child welfare
  • intervention
  • innovation
  • community
  • policy
  • practice
  • evidence
  • parent/caregiver perspectives
  • disability
  • economics
  • environment
  • supervision

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 182 KiB  
Editorial
Child Injury Prevention: It Is Time to Address the Determinants of Health
by Amy E. Peden and Richard C. Franklin
Children 2021, 8(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010046 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2272
Abstract
Injuries, although almost entirely preventable, accounted for more than 4 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury and the Determinants of Health)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

17 pages, 2814 KiB  
Article
Preventing Child Drowning in the Philippines: The Need to Address the Determinants of Health
by Jonathan P. Guevarra, Amy E. Peden, Lita L. Orbillo, Maria Rosario Sylvia Z. Uy, Joseph John R. Madrilejos, John Juliard L. Go, Rammell Eric C. Martinez, Lolita L. Cavinta and Richard C Franklin
Children 2021, 8(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010029 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6213
Abstract
Drowning is a public health issue in the Philippines, with children at significantly increased risk. Determinants of health (DoH) such as education, socio-economic status, ethnicity, and urbanization are factors that impact drowning risk. As drowning is a multisectoral issue, a national drowning prevention [...] Read more.
Drowning is a public health issue in the Philippines, with children at significantly increased risk. Determinants of health (DoH) such as education, socio-economic status, ethnicity, and urbanization are factors that impact drowning risk. As drowning is a multisectoral issue, a national drowning prevention plan can drive collaboration with relevant stakeholders. This study reports trends in unintentional child (0–14 years) drowning in the Philippines (incidence, rates, and trends over time for fatal and non-fatal (years lived with a disability (YLDs) and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) from 2008–2017 and conducts an analysis of the Philippines’ Multisector Action Plan (MSAP) on Drowning Prevention. From 2008–2017, 27,928 (95%UI [Uncertainty Interval]: 22,794–33,828) children aged 0–14 years died from drowning (52.7% aged 5–14 years old). Rates of drowning have declined among both age groups, with greater reductions seen among 0–4 year olds (y = −0.3368x + 13.035; R2 = 0.9588). The MSAP has 12 child drowning-specific activities and 20 activities were identified where DoH will need to be considered during development and implementation. The MSAP activities, and work done to prevent drowning more generally, must consider DoH such as education, urbanization, water and sanitation health, and safe water transportation. A national drowning surveillance system and investment in research in the Philippines are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury and the Determinants of Health)
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5 pages, 780 KiB  
Communication
Optimum Angle of Force Production Temporarily Changes Due to Growth in Male Adolescence
by Junya Saeki, Satoshi Iizuka, Hiroaki Sekino, Ayahiro Suzuki, Toshihiro Maemichi and Suguru Torii
Children 2021, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010020 - 03 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
The peak increase in lean mass in adolescents is delayed from peak height velocity (PHV), and muscle flexibility temporarily decreases as bones grow. If the decrease in muscle flexibility is caused by muscle elongation, the relationship between the exerted torque and the joint [...] Read more.
The peak increase in lean mass in adolescents is delayed from peak height velocity (PHV), and muscle flexibility temporarily decreases as bones grow. If the decrease in muscle flexibility is caused by muscle elongation, the relationship between the exerted torque and the joint angle could change in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in the optimum angle of force production due to growth. Eighty-eight healthy boys were recruited for this study. Isokinetic knee extension muscle strength of the dominant leg was recorded. The outcome variable was the knee flexion angle when maximal knee extension torque was produced (optimum angle). The age at which PHV occurred was estimated from subjects’ height history. We calculated the difference between the age at measurement and the expected age of PHV (growth age). A regression analysis was performed with the optimal angle of force exertion as the dependent variable and the growth age as the independent variable. Then, a polynomial formula with the lowest p-value was obtained. A significant cubic regression was obtained between optimum angle and growth age. The results suggest that the optimum angle of force production temporarily changes in male adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury and the Determinants of Health)
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17 pages, 657 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Impact of Remoteness and Socio-Economic Status on Child and Adolescent Injury-Related Mortality in Australia
by Amy E. Peden and Richard C. Franklin
Children 2021, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010005 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3871
Abstract
Injuries are a leading cause of harm for children. This study explores the impact of determinants of health on children (0–19 years) injury-related mortality (namely remoteness and socio-economic disadvantage, calculated using the index of relative socio-economic advantage and disadvantage (IRSAD)). Cause of death [...] Read more.
Injuries are a leading cause of harm for children. This study explores the impact of determinants of health on children (0–19 years) injury-related mortality (namely remoteness and socio-economic disadvantage, calculated using the index of relative socio-economic advantage and disadvantage (IRSAD)). Cause of death data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics were sourced for children in Australia between 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2017. Fifteen injury categories (ICD-10-AM external cause codes) were used. Burden and trends by injury mechanism were explored. A total of 5153 children died; with road traffic incidents (3.39 per 100,000 population), intentional self-harm (2.46) and drowning (0.72) being the leading mechanisms. Female fatality rates in very remote areas (8.73) were nine times higher than in major cities (Relative Risk [RR] = 8.73; 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 4.23–18.00). Fatality rates increased with remoteness; very remote areas recording an injury-related fatality rated six times (RR = 5.84; 95% CI: 3.76–9.12) that of major city residents. Accidental poisoning and intentional self-harm fatalities were more likely in high IRSAD areas, while road traffic fatalities were more likely in low and mid socio-economic areas (X2 = 69.1; p < 0.001). People residing in regional and remote areas and from low socio-economic backgrounds already face significant health and lifestyle challenges associated with disadvantage. It is time to invest in injury prevention interventions for these populations, as well as upstream policy strategies to minimize any further preventable loss of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury and the Determinants of Health)
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12 pages, 214 KiB  
Article
Work-Related Fatalities Involving Children in New Zealand, 1999–2014
by Rebbecca Lilley, Bronwen McNoe, Gabrielle Davie, Brandon de Graaf and Tim Driscoll
Children 2021, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010004 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
In high income countries, children under 15 years of age are exposed to workplace hazards when they visit or live on worksites or participate in formal or informal work. This study describes the causes and circumstances of unintentional child work-related fatal injuries (child [...] Read more.
In high income countries, children under 15 years of age are exposed to workplace hazards when they visit or live on worksites or participate in formal or informal work. This study describes the causes and circumstances of unintentional child work-related fatal injuries (child WRFI) in New Zealand. Potential cases were identified from the Mortality Collection using International Classification of Disease external cause codes: these were matched to Coronial records and reviewed for work-relatedness. Data were abstracted on the socio-demographic, employment and injury-related circumstances. Of the 1335 unintentional injury deaths in children from 1999 through 2014, 206 (15%) were identified as dying from a work-related injury: 9 workers and 197 bystanders—the majority involving vehicle crashes or being stuck by moving objects in incidents occurring on farms or public roads. Those at highest risk were males, preschoolers, and those of Māori or European ethnicity. Work made a notable contribution to the burden of unintentional fatal injury in children with most deaths highly preventable, largely by adult intervention and legislation. To address the determinants of child WRFI greater attention on rural farm and transport settings would result in a significant reduction in the injury mortality rates of New Zealand children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury and the Determinants of Health)
9 pages, 967 KiB  
Article
The Correlation between Oral Self-Harm and Ethnicity in Institutionalized Children
by Alexandra Mihaela Stoica, Oana Elena Stoica, Ramona Elena Vlad, Anca Maria Pop and Monica Monea
Children 2021, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010002 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Oral self-harm was described in institutionalized children who share a lack of emotional attention; frequently these children experience feelings such as neglect, loneliness, isolation or lack of connection with the world. The aim of our paper was to conduct a cross-sectional study in [...] Read more.
Oral self-harm was described in institutionalized children who share a lack of emotional attention; frequently these children experience feelings such as neglect, loneliness, isolation or lack of connection with the world. The aim of our paper was to conduct a cross-sectional study in order to assess the prevalence of this behavior and its correlation with ethnicity among children from three institutions located in the central part of Romania. We examined 116 children from three ethnic groups, Romanians, Hungarians and local Roma population aged between 10–14 years old. The oral soft tissues were evaluated by one dentist who recorded the lesions of lips, buccal mucosa, commissures and tongue; data were statistically analyzed at a level of significance of p < 0.05. We found oral self-harm lesions in 18.1% participants, with statistically significant higher odds in girls (p = 0.03). The results showed an association between ethnicity and the development of these lesions (Chi-square p = 0.04). The most frequent lesions were located at oral commissures (35.48%), buccal mucosa (29.03%) and upper lip (19.36%). Oral self-harm lesions have a high incidence among institutionalized children in Romania. Identification of these cases in early stages is important, as these conditions are known to be aggravated during adolescence and adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury and the Determinants of Health)
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10 pages, 907 KiB  
Article
Does Sex Dimorphism Exist in Dysfunctional Movement Patterns during the Sensitive Period of Adolescence?
by Josip Karuc, Mario Jelčić, Maroje Sorić, Marjeta Mišigoj-Duraković and Goran Marković
Children 2020, 7(12), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7120308 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate sex difference in the functional movement in the adolescent period. Seven hundred and thirty adolescents (365 boys) aged 16–17 years participated in the study. The participants performed standardized Functional Movement Screen™ (FMSTM) protocol and a t-test [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate sex difference in the functional movement in the adolescent period. Seven hundred and thirty adolescents (365 boys) aged 16–17 years participated in the study. The participants performed standardized Functional Movement Screen™ (FMSTM) protocol and a t-test was used to examine sex differences in the total functional movement screen score, while the chi-square test was used to determine sex differences in the proportion of dysfunctional movement and movement asymmetries within the individual FMSTM tests. Girls demonstrated higher total FMSTM score compared to boys (12.7 ± 2.3 and 12.2 ± 2.4, respectively; p = 0.0054). Sex differences were present in several individual functional movement patterns where boys demonstrated higher prevalence of dysfunctional movement compared to girls in patterns that challenge mobility and flexibility of the body (inline lunge: 32% vs. 22%, df = 1, p = 0.0009; shoulder mobility: 47% vs. 26%, df = 1, p < 0.0001; and active straight leg raise: 31% vs. 9%, df = 1, p < 0.0001), while girls underperformed in tests that have higher demands for upper-body strength and abdominal stabilization (trunk stability push-up: 81% vs. 44%, df = 1, p < 0.0001; and rotary stability: 54% vs. 44%, df = 1, p = 0.0075). Findings of this study suggest that sex dimorphisms exist in functional movement patterns in the period of mid-adolescence. The results of this research need to be considered while using FMSTM as a screening tool, as well as the reference standard for exercise intervention among the secondary school-aged population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury and the Determinants of Health)
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13 pages, 248 KiB  
Article
Adolescent Water Safety Behaviors, Skills, Training and Their Association with Risk-Taking Behaviors and Risk and Protective Factors
by Isabell Sakamoto, Sarah Stempski, Vijay Srinivasan, Tien Le, Elizabeth Bennett and Linda Quan
Children 2020, 7(12), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7120301 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2724
Abstract
Background: Drowning remains the third leading cause of unintentional injury death for adolescents in the United States. Aims: This study described adolescent swimming lessons, behaviors (life jacket wear while boating) and comfort (swimming in deep water) and their association with protective and [...] Read more.
Background: Drowning remains the third leading cause of unintentional injury death for adolescents in the United States. Aims: This study described adolescent swimming lessons, behaviors (life jacket wear while boating) and comfort (swimming in deep water) and their association with protective and risk factors and risk-taking behaviors reported by Washington State students in Grades 8, 10, 12, primarily comprised of youth ages 13 to 18 years. Methods: This study used the 2014 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey (HYS), a publicly available dataset. Results: Most students reported having had swimming lessons, using life jackets, and comfort in deep water. Differences reflected racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities: being White or Caucasian, speaking English at home and higher maternal education. Lowest rates of comfort in deep water were among Hispanics or Latino/Latinas followed by Blacks or African Americans. Greater life jacket wear while boating was reported by females, those in lower grades and negatively associated with alcohol consumption, sexual activity and texting while driving. Having had swimming lessons was associated with fewer risk-taking behaviors. Conclusions: The HYS was useful to benchmark and identify factors associated with drowning risk among adolescents. It suggests a need to reframe approaches to promote water safety to adolescents and their families. Multivariate analysis of this data could identify the key determinants amongst the racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities noted and provide stronger estimation of risk-taking and protective behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury and the Determinants of Health)
14 pages, 815 KiB  
Article
Predicting Injury Status in Adolescent Dancers Involved in Different Dance Styles: A Prospective Study
by Damir Sekulic, Dasa Prus, Ante Zevrnja, Mia Peric and Petra Zaletel
Children 2020, 7(12), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7120297 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3124
Abstract
The positive effects of dance on health indices in youth are widely recognized, but participation in dance is accompanied with a certain risk of injury. This prospective study aimed to investigate injury occurrence and to evaluate the possible influences of specific predictors on [...] Read more.
The positive effects of dance on health indices in youth are widely recognized, but participation in dance is accompanied with a certain risk of injury. This prospective study aimed to investigate injury occurrence and to evaluate the possible influences of specific predictors on the occurrence of musculoskeletal problems and injuries in adolescent dancers. Participants were 126 dancers (21 males; 11–18 years), who were competitors in the urban dance, rock and roll, and standard/Latin dance genres. Predictors included sociodemographic factors, anthropometric/body build indices, sport (dance) factors, and dynamic balance. The outcome variable was injury status, and this was evaluated by the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Overuse Injury Questionnaire (OSTRC). Predictors were evaluated at baseline, and outcomes were continuously monitored during the study period of 3 months. During the study course, 53% of dancers reported the occurrence of a musculoskeletal problem/injury, and dancers suffered from an average of 0.72 injuries over the study period (95% CI: 0.28–1.41), giving a yearly injury rate of 280%. Gender and dance styles were not significantly related to the occurrence of injury. Higher risk for injury was evidenced in older and more experienced dancers. Dynamic balance, as measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), was a significant protective factor of injury occurrence, irrespective of age/experience in dance. Knowing the simplicity and applicability of the SEBT, continuous monitoring of dynamic balance in adolescent dancers is encouraged. In order to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal problems/injuries in youth dancers, we suggest the incorporation of specific interventions aimed at improving dynamic balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury and the Determinants of Health)
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17 pages, 1137 KiB  
Article
Interventions for Child Drowning Reduction in the Indian Sundarbans: Perspectives from the Ground
by Medhavi Gupta, Sujoy Roy, Ranjan Panda, Pompy Konwar and Jagnoor Jagnoor
Children 2020, 7(12), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7120291 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3123
Abstract
Drowning is a leading cause of child death in the coastal Sundarbans region of India due to the presence of open water, lack of supervision and poor infrastructure, but no prevention programs are currently implemented. The World Health Organization has identified interventions that [...] Read more.
Drowning is a leading cause of child death in the coastal Sundarbans region of India due to the presence of open water, lack of supervision and poor infrastructure, but no prevention programs are currently implemented. The World Health Organization has identified interventions that may prevent child drowning in rural low-and middle-income country contexts, including the provision of home-based barriers, supervised childcare, swim and rescue training and first responder training. Child health programs should consider the local context and identify barriers for implementation. To ensure the sustainability of any drowning prevention programs implemented, we conducted a qualitative study to identify the considerations for the implementation of these interventions, and to understand how existing government programs could be leveraged. We also identified key stakeholders for involvement. We found that contextual factors such as geography, cultural beliefs around drowning, as well as skillsets of local people, would influence program delivery. Government programs such as accredited social health activists (ASHAs) and self-help groups could be leveraged for program implementation, while Anganwadi centres would require additional support due to poor resourcing. Gaining government permissions to change Anganwadi processes to provide childcare services may be challenging. The results showed that adapting drowning programs to the Sundarbans context presents unique challenges and program customisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury and the Determinants of Health)
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12 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Parent Mobile Phone Use in Playgrounds: A Paradox of Convenience
by Keira Bury, Jonine Jancey and Justine E. Leavy
Children 2020, 7(12), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7120284 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
Creating social and physical environments that promote good health is a key component of a social determinants approach. For the parents of young children, a smartphone offers opportunities for social networking, photography and multi-tasking. Understanding the relationship between supervision, mobile phone use and [...] Read more.
Creating social and physical environments that promote good health is a key component of a social determinants approach. For the parents of young children, a smartphone offers opportunities for social networking, photography and multi-tasking. Understanding the relationship between supervision, mobile phone use and injury in the playground setting is essential. This research explored parent mobile device use (MDU), parent–child interaction in the playground, parent attitudes and perceptions towards MDU and strategies used to limit MDU in the playground. A mixed-methods approach collected naturalistic observations of parents of children aged 0–5 (n = 85) and intercept interviews (n = 20) at four metropolitan playgrounds in Perth, Western Australia. Most frequently observed MDU was scrolling (75.5%) and telephone calls (13.9%). Increased duration of MDU resulted in a reduction in supervision, parent–child play and increased child injury potential. The camera function offered the most benefits. Strategies to prevent MDU included turning to silent mode, wearing a watch and environmental cues. MDU was found to contribute to reduced supervision of children, which is a risk factor for injury. This is an emerging area of injury prevention indicating a need for broader strategies addressing the complex interplay between the social determinants and the developmental younger years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury and the Determinants of Health)
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