Cell Biology: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives in Canada 2022

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 11962

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H1T 2M4, Canada
Interests: innate immunity; inflammation/resolution of inflammation; acute-phase proteins; leukocyte biology; cardiovascular diseases
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Guest Editor
1. Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, and Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
2. Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada
Interests: bone marrow transplantation and the role of trogocytosis in conferring host cell identity to the donor cell through the transfer of HLA class 1 proteins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of cell biology in Canada. We invite research papers that will consolidate our understanding in this area. The Special Issue will publish full research articles and comprehensive reviews. Potential topics include but are not limited to the following research areas:

  • OMICS: transcriptomics, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics, lipidomics, interactomics, fluxomics, and biomics;
  • Cell structure: organelles, cytoskeleton, cell membrane, capsule, flagella, etc.;
  • Cell physiology: cell growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, division, movement of proteins, active/passive transport, intra- and extracellular signaling, adhesion, DNA repair, etc.;
  • Cell movement and motility;
  • Autophagy;
  • Apoptosis;
  • PANoptosis;
  • Cell aging;
  • Cell techniques: cell and tissue culture, isolation, and fractionation of cells, immunocytochemistry (ICC), in situ hybridization (ISH), transfection, and optogenetics;
  • Cell growth and differentiation;
  • Hematopoiesis and stem cells;
  • Cancer stem cells;
  • Genetic disorders;
  • CAR-T cell research.

Prof. Dr. János G. Filep
Dr. Ian Rogers
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cells is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 2342 KiB  
Article
CD146 Defines a Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Subpopulation with Enhanced Suppressive Properties
by Jean-Pierre Bikorimana, Wael Saad, Jamilah Abusarah, Malak Lahrichi, Sebastien Talbot, Riam Shammaa and Moutih Rafei
Cells 2022, 11(15), 2263; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11152263 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are largely known for their immune-suppressive capacity, hence, their common use in the control of unwanted inflammation. However, novel concepts related to their biology, combined with the urgent need to identify MSC subpopulations with enhanced suppressive properties, drive the [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are largely known for their immune-suppressive capacity, hence, their common use in the control of unwanted inflammation. However, novel concepts related to their biology, combined with the urgent need to identify MSC subpopulations with enhanced suppressive properties, drive the search for isolation protocols optimized for clinical applications. We show, in this study, that MSCs expressing high CD146 levels exhibit altered surface expression profiles of CD44 and secrete elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-6, amongst other factors. In addition, CD146hi MSCs surpass the polyclonal parental populations in inhibiting alloreactive T cells in vitro, in both a soluble- and cell-contact-dependent manner. Despite the lack of CD146hi MSC-mediated activation of peritoneal macrophages to release the suppressive factor IL-10 in vitro, their administration in animals with graft-versus-host disease alleviates inflammation and leads to 40% survival rate up to 7 weeks post-transplantation. This pronounced inhibitory property is driven by CD146-mediated in situ efferocytosis by myeloid cells. Altogether, this study provides the impetus to adopt an isolation protocol for MSCs based on a CD146 expression profile before their therapeutic use and suggests a major role played by CD146 as a novel “eat-me” signal, capable of enhancing MSC uptake by competent phagocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Biology: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives in Canada 2022)
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16 pages, 5530 KiB  
Article
LSD1 Inhibition Enhances the Immunogenicity of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells by Eliciting a dsRNA Stress Response
by Fatemeh Mardani, Wael Saad, Nehme El-Hachem, Jean-Pierre Bikorimana, Mazen Kurdi, Riam Shammaa, Sebastien Talbot and Moutih Rafei
Cells 2022, 11(11), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11111816 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are commonly known for their immune-suppressive abilities. However, our group provided evidence that it is possible to convert MSCs into potent antigen presenting cells (APCs) using either genetic engineering or pharmacological means. Given the capacity of UM171a to trigger [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are commonly known for their immune-suppressive abilities. However, our group provided evidence that it is possible to convert MSCs into potent antigen presenting cells (APCs) using either genetic engineering or pharmacological means. Given the capacity of UM171a to trigger APC-like function in MSCs, and the recent finding that this drug may modulate the epigenome by inhibiting the lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), we explored whether the direct pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 could instill APC-like functions in MSCs akin to UM171a. The treatment of MSCs with the LSD1 inhibitor tranylcypromine (TC) elicits a double-stranded (ds)RNA stress response along with its associated responsive elements, including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Type-I interferon (IFN), and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). The net outcome culminates in the enhanced expression of H2-Kb, and an increased stability of the cell surface peptide: MHCI complexes. As a result, TC-treated MSCs stimulate CD8 T-cell activation efficiently, and elicit potent anti-tumoral responses against the EG.7 T-cell lymphoma in the context of prophylactic vaccination. Altogether, our findings reveal a new pharmacological protocol whereby targeting LSD1 in MSCs elicits APC-like capabilities that could be easily exploited in the design of future MSC-based anti-cancer vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Biology: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives in Canada 2022)
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Review

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19 pages, 528 KiB  
Review
Canadian Contributions in Fibroblast Biology
by Danah S. Al-Hattab, Sikta Chattopadhyaya and Michael P. Czubryt
Cells 2022, 11(15), 2272; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11152272 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2631
Abstract
Fibroblasts are stromal cells found in virtually every tissue and organ of the body. For many years, these cells were often considered to be secondary in functional importance to parenchymal cells. Over the past 2 decades, focused research into the roles of fibroblasts [...] Read more.
Fibroblasts are stromal cells found in virtually every tissue and organ of the body. For many years, these cells were often considered to be secondary in functional importance to parenchymal cells. Over the past 2 decades, focused research into the roles of fibroblasts has revealed important roles for these cells in the homeostasis of healthy tissue, and has demonstrated that activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is a key step in disease initiation and progression in many tissues, with fibrosis now recognized as not only an outcome of disease, but also a central contributor to tissue dysfunction, particularly in the heart and lungs. With a growing understanding of both fibroblast and myofibroblast heterogeneity, and the deciphering of the humoral and mechanical cues that impact the phenotype of these cells, fibroblast biology is rapidly becoming a major focus in biomedical research. In this review, we provide an overview of fibroblast and myofibroblast biology, particularly in the heart, and including a discussion of pathophysiological processes such as fibrosis and scarring. We then discuss the central role of Canadian researchers in moving this field forwards, particularly in cardiac fibrosis, and highlight some of the major contributions of these individuals to our understanding of fibroblast and myofibroblast biology in health and disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Biology: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives in Canada 2022)
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18 pages, 794 KiB  
Review
Uterus: A Unique Stem Cell Reservoir Able to Support Cardiac Repair via Crosstalk among Uterus, Heart, and Bone Marrow
by Ana Ludke, Kota Hatta, Alina Yao and Ren-Ke Li
Cells 2022, 11(14), 2182; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11142182 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2054
Abstract
Clinical evidence suggests that the prevalence of cardiac disease is lower in premenopausal women compared to postmenopausal women and men. Although multiple factors contribute to this difference, uterine stem cells may be a major factor, as a high abundance of these cells are [...] Read more.
Clinical evidence suggests that the prevalence of cardiac disease is lower in premenopausal women compared to postmenopausal women and men. Although multiple factors contribute to this difference, uterine stem cells may be a major factor, as a high abundance of these cells are present in the uterus. Uterine-derived stem cells have been reported in several studies as being able to contribute to cardiac neovascularization after injury. However, our studies uniquely show the presence of an “utero-cardiac axis”, in which uterine stem cells are able to home to cardiac tissue to promote tissue repair. Additionally, we raise the possibility of a triangular relationship among the bone marrow, uterus, and heart. In this review, we discuss the exchange of stem cells across different organs, focusing on the relationship that exists between the heart, uterus, and bone marrow. We present increasing evidence for the existence of an utero-cardiac axis, in which the uterus serves as a reservoir for cardiac reparative stem cells, similar to the bone marrow. These cells, in turn, are able to migrate to the heart in response to injury to promote healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Biology: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives in Canada 2022)
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Other

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10 pages, 594 KiB  
Essay
Could Endogenous Glucocorticoids Influence SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity?
by Eugenio Hardy and Carlos Fernandez-Patron
Cells 2022, 11(19), 2955; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11192955 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2173
Abstract
Endogenous glucocorticoids and their synthetic analogues, such as dexamethasone, stimulate receptor-mediated signal transduction mechanisms on target cells. Some of these mechanisms result in beneficial outcomes whereas others are deleterious in the settings of pathogen infections and immunological disorders. Here, we review recent studies [...] Read more.
Endogenous glucocorticoids and their synthetic analogues, such as dexamethasone, stimulate receptor-mediated signal transduction mechanisms on target cells. Some of these mechanisms result in beneficial outcomes whereas others are deleterious in the settings of pathogen infections and immunological disorders. Here, we review recent studies by several groups, including our group, showing that glucocorticoids can directly interact with protein components on SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. We postulate an antiviral defence mechanism by which endogenous glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol produced in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection) can bind to multiple sites on SARS-CoV-2 surface protein, Spike, inducing conformational alterations in Spike subunit 1 (S1) that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 interaction with the host SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2. We suggest that glucocorticoids-mediated inhibition of S1 interaction with ACE2 may, consequently, affect SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Further, glucocorticoids interactions with Spike could protect against a broad spectrum of coronaviruses and their variants that utilize Spike for infection of the host. These notions may be useful for the design of new antivirals for coronavirus diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Biology: State-of-the-Art and Perspectives in Canada 2022)
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