Special Issue "Roles and Functions of ROS and RNS in Cellular Physiology and Pathology"

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 July 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Neven Zarkovic

Laboratory for Oxidative Stress (LabOS), Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: oxidative stress; growth regulation; cancer; lipid peroxidation; 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For decades, free radicals were considered mostly as harmful molecules that contribute to the toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic bioactivities of different chemical and physical stressors. However, after hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide were found to have multiple, often cell-type and dose-dependent effects, the new era of interdisciplinary molecular biosciences and translation medicine made significant progress in studies on the pathophysiology of oxidative stress and associated disorders.

Therefore, the major goal of this Special Issue of Cells is to cover broad aspects of these important scientific areas, still focusing on the cellular level. However, since many disorders are based on altered cellular functions involving interactions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) with macromolecules, in this Special Issue we also hope to tackle physiological and pathological aspects of cellular ROS and RNS related to specific cellular processes affecting the entire organism.

Prof. Neven Zarkovic
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • free radicals
  • redox balance and cell signalling
  • antioxidants and oxidative homeostasis
  • oxidative metabolism of the cells
  • pathophysiology of oxidative stress

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Intermittent Hypoxia Prevents Myocardial Mitochondrial Ca2+ Overload and Cell Death during Ischemia/Reperfusion: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 9 June 2019
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Abstract
It has been documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to oxidative stress, leading to diseases such as ischemic heart disease. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that short-term intermittent hypoxia (IH), similar to ischemia preconditioning, could yield cardioprotection. However, the underlying mechanism for [...] Read more.
It has been documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to oxidative stress, leading to diseases such as ischemic heart disease. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that short-term intermittent hypoxia (IH), similar to ischemia preconditioning, could yield cardioprotection. However, the underlying mechanism for the IH-induced cardioprotective effect remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether IH exposure can enhance antioxidant capacity, which contributes to cardioprotection against oxidative stress and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in cardiomyocytes. Primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were cultured in IH condition with an oscillating O2 concentration between 20% and 5% every 30 min. An MTT assay was conducted to examine the cell viability. Annexin V-FITC and SYTOX green fluorescent intensity and caspase 3 activity were detected to analyze the cell death. Fluorescent images for DCFDA, Fura-2, Rhod-2, and TMRM were acquired to analyze the ROS, cytosol Ca2+, mitochondrial Ca2+, and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively. RT-PCR, immunocytofluorescence staining, and antioxidant activity assay were conducted to detect the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Our results show that IH induced slight increases of O2· and protected cardiomyocytes against H2O2- and I/R-induced cell death. Moreover, H2O2-induced Ca2+ imbalance and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were attenuated by IH, which also reduced the I/R-induced Ca2+ overload. Furthermore, treatment with IH increased the expression of Cu/Zn SOD and Mn SOD, the total antioxidant capacity, and the activity of catalase. Blockade of the IH-increased ROS production abolished the protective effects of IH on the Ca2+ homeostasis and antioxidant defense capacity. Taken together, our findings suggest that IH protected the cardiomyocytes against H2O2- and I/R-induced oxidative stress and cell death through maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis as well as the mitochondrial membrane potential, and upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway and Human Atherosclerotic Plaque Vulnerability: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation as an adaptive defense mechanism, determining the synthesis of antioxidant molecules, including heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1 protects cells against oxidative injury, degrading free heme and inhibiting ROS production. HO-1 is highly [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation as an adaptive defense mechanism, determining the synthesis of antioxidant molecules, including heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1 protects cells against oxidative injury, degrading free heme and inhibiting ROS production. HO-1 is highly expressed in macrophages during plaque growth. Macrophages are morpho-functionally heterogeneous, and the prevalence of a specific phenotype may influence the plaque fate. This heterogeneity has also been observed in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), a model of macrophages infiltrating tissue. The study aims to assess oxidative stress status and Nrf2/HO-1 axis in MDM morphotypes obtained from healthy subjects and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, in relation to coronary plaque features evaluated in vivo by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We found that MDMs of healthy subjects exhibited a lower oxidative stress status, lower Nrf2 and HO-1 levels as compared to CAD patients. High HO-1 levels in MDMs were associated with the presence of a higher macrophage content, a thinner fibrous cap, and a ruptured plaque with thrombus formation, detected by OCT analysis. These findings suggest the presence of a relationship between in vivo plaque characteristics and in vitro MDM profile, and may help to identify patients with rupture-prone coronary plaque. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Beneficial Effects of Vitamins K and D3 on Redox Balance of Human Osteoblasts Cultured with Hydroxyapatite-Based Biomaterials
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 5 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
Hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials are commonly used in surgery to repair bone damage. However, the introduction of biomaterials into the body can cause metabolic alterations, including redox imbalance. Because vitamins D3 and K (K1, MK-4, MK-7) have pronounced osteoinductive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, it is [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials are commonly used in surgery to repair bone damage. However, the introduction of biomaterials into the body can cause metabolic alterations, including redox imbalance. Because vitamins D3 and K (K1, MK-4, MK-7) have pronounced osteoinductive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, it is suggested that they may reduce the adverse effects of biomaterials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamins D3 and K, used alone and in combination, on the redox metabolism of human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19 cell line) cultured in the presence of hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials (Maxgraft, Cerabone, Apatos, and Gen-Os). Culturing of the osteoblasts in the presence of hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials resulted in oxidative stress manifested by increased production of reactive oxygen species and decrease of glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase activity. Such redox imbalance leads to lipid peroxidation manifested by an increase of 4-hydroxynonenal level, which is known to influence the growth of bone cells. Vitamins D3 and K were shown to help maintain redox balance and prevent lipid peroxidation in osteoblasts cultured with hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials. The strongest effect was observed for the combination of vitamin D3 and MK-7. Moreover, vitamins promoted growth of the osteoblasts, manifested by increased DNA biosynthesis. Therefore, it is suggested that the use of vitamins D3 and K may protect redox balance and support the growth of osteoblasts affected by hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Role of Acrolein and NADPH Oxidase in the Granulocyte-Mediated Growth-Inhibition of Tumor Cells
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
Although granulocytes are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood, their involvement in the immune response against cancer is not well understood. While granulocytes are known for their “oxidative burst” when challenged with tumor cells, it is less known that oxygen-dependent killing of [...] Read more.
Although granulocytes are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood, their involvement in the immune response against cancer is not well understood. While granulocytes are known for their “oxidative burst” when challenged with tumor cells, it is less known that oxygen-dependent killing of tumor cells by granulocytes includes peroxidation of lipids in tumor cell membranes, yielding formation of reactive aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and acrolein. In the present work, we investigate the role of reactive aldehydes on cellular redox homeostasis and surface toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression. We have further study the granulocyte-tumor cell intercellular redox signaling pathways. The data obtained show that granulocytes in the presence of 4-HNE and acrolein induce excessive ROS formation in tumor cells. Acrolein was also shown to induce granulocyte TLR4 expression. Furthermore, granulocyte-mediated antitumor effects were shown to be mediated via HOCl intracellular pathway by the action of NADPH oxidase. However, further studies are needed to understand interaction between TLR4 and granulocyte-tumor cell intercellular signaling pathways. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
VAS2870 Inhibits Histamine-Induced Calcium Signaling and vWF Secretion in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract
In this study, we investigated the effects of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) inhibitor VAS2870 (3-benzyl-7-(2-benzoxazolyl)thio-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine) on the histamine-induced elevation of free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the secretion of von Willebrand factor (vWF) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the effects of NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) inhibitor VAS2870 (3-benzyl-7-(2-benzoxazolyl)thio-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine) on the histamine-induced elevation of free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the secretion of von Willebrand factor (vWF) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and on relaxation of rat aorta in response to histamine. At 10 μM concentration, VAS2870 suppressed the [Ca2+]i rise induced by histamine. Inhibition was not competitive, with IC50 3.64 and 3.22 μM at 1 and 100 μM concentrations of histamine, respectively. There was no inhibition of [Ca2+]i elevation by VAS2870 in HUVECs in response to the agonist of type 1 protease-activated receptor SFLLRN. VAS2870 attenuated histamine-induced secretion of vWF and did not inhibit basal secretion. VAS2870 did not change the degree of histamine-induced relaxation of rat aortic rings constricted by norepinephrine. We suggest that NOX inhibitors might be used as a tool for preventing thrombosis induced by histamine release from mast cells without affecting vasorelaxation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Increasing the TRPM2 Channel Expression in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells Augments the Susceptibility to ROS-Induced Cell Death
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 22 December 2018 / Accepted: 30 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells are a widely-used human neuronal cell model in the study of neurodegeneration. A recent study shows that, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine ion (MPP), which selectively causes dopaminergic neuronal death leading to Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms, can reduce SH-SY5Y cell viability by inducing H [...] Read more.
Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells are a widely-used human neuronal cell model in the study of neurodegeneration. A recent study shows that, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine ion (MPP), which selectively causes dopaminergic neuronal death leading to Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms, can reduce SH-SY5Y cell viability by inducing H2O2 generation and subsequent TRPM2 channel activation. MPP-induced cell death is enhanced by increasing the TRPM2 expression. By contrast, increasing the TRPM2 expression has also been reported to support SH-SY5Y cell survival after exposure to H2O2, leading to the suggestion of a protective role for the TRPM2 channel. To clarify the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced TRPM2 channel activation in SH-SY5Y cells, we generated a stable SH-SY5Y cell line overexpressing the human TRPM2 channel and examined cell death and cell viability after exposure to H2O2 in the wild-type and TRPM2-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure to H2O2 resulted in concentration-dependent cell death and reduction in cell viability in both cell types. TRPM2 overexpression remarkably augmented H2O2-induced cell death and reduction in cell viability. Furthermore, H2O2-induced cell death in both the wild-type and TRPM2-overexpressing cells was prevented by 2-APB, a TRPM2 inhibitor, and also by PJ34 and DPQ, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Collectively, our results show that increasing the TRPM2 expression renders SH-SY5Y cells to be more susceptible to ROS-induced cell death and reinforce the notion that the TRPM2 channel plays a critical role in conferring ROS-induced cell death. It is anticipated that SH-SY5Y cells can be useful for better understanding the molecular and signaling mechanisms for ROS-induced TRPM2-mediated neurodegeneration in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Roles of Toll-Like Receptors in Nitroxidative Stress in Mammals
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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Abstract
Free radicals are important antimicrobial effectors that cause damage to DNA, membrane lipids, and proteins. Professional phagocytes produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that contribute towards the destruction of pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a fundamental role in the [...] Read more.
Free radicals are important antimicrobial effectors that cause damage to DNA, membrane lipids, and proteins. Professional phagocytes produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that contribute towards the destruction of pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a fundamental role in the innate immune response and respond to conserved microbial products and endogenous molecules resulting from cellular damage to elicit an effective defense against invading pathogens, tissue injury, or cancer. In recent years, several studies have focused on how the TLR-mediated activation of innate immune cells leads to the production of pro-inflammatory factors upon pathogen invasion. Here, we review recent findings that indicate that TLRs trigger a signaling cascade that induces the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Full article
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Open AccessReview
5′,8-Cyclopurine Lesions in DNA Damage: Chemical, Analytical, Biological, and Diagnostic Significance
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 18 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
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Abstract
Purine 5′,8-cyclo-2′-deoxynucleosides (cPu) are tandem-type lesions observed among the DNA purine modifications and identified in mammalian cellular DNA in vivo. These lesions can be present in two diasteroisomeric forms, 5′R and 5′S, for each 2′-deoxyadenosine and 2′-deoxyguanosine moiety. They are [...] Read more.
Purine 5′,8-cyclo-2′-deoxynucleosides (cPu) are tandem-type lesions observed among the DNA purine modifications and identified in mammalian cellular DNA in vivo. These lesions can be present in two diasteroisomeric forms, 5′R and 5′S, for each 2′-deoxyadenosine and 2′-deoxyguanosine moiety. They are generated exclusively by hydroxyl radical attack to 2′-deoxyribose units generating C5′ radicals, followed by cyclization with the C8 position of the purine base. This review describes the main recent achievements in the preparation of the cPu molecular library for analytical and DNA synthesis applications for the studies of the enzymatic recognition and repair mechanisms, their impact on transcription and genetic instability, quantitative determination of the levels of lesions in various types of cells and animal model systems, and relationships between the levels of lesions and human health, disease, and aging, as well as the defining of the detection limits and quantification protocols. Full article
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