Topical Collection "Membrane Lipids in the Interaction of Plants with Their Abiotic and Biotic Environment"
Dr. Éric Maréchal
Laboratoire Physiologie Cellulaire et Végétale, Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS, CEA, INRAE; IRIG; 17 rue des Martyrs, 38000, Grenoble, France
Interests: membrane and storage glycerolipids; plants; algae; fatty acids; galactolipids; phospholipids; chloroplasts; endosymbiosis; development; abiotic stress; nutrient availability; biofuels
Dr. Rebecca Roston
University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Biochemistry; 1901 Vine St., N123 Beadle Center, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA
Interests: Membrane and storage glycerolipid responses to the environment; galactolipids; lipid structure/function relationships; plastids; development; abiotic stress; redox status; stress signaling; evolution of stress tolerance
Topical Collection Information
Plants are sessile organisms that have to cope with a tremendous array of abiotic environmental variations, from sudden changes occurring within hours to long-term stresses at seasonal scale. Fixed in the soil, they acclimate reversibly to light intensity and quality variations, such as high UV irradiance; changes in temperatures, such as freezing; exposure to noxious gases and ozone; changes in soil composition, such as acidic pH; lack of phosphorous, nitrogen, or other nutrients; anoxia; excess of water; drought; etc. One of the first modifications occurring in plants subjected to abiotic stresses is a regulation of metabolic pathways and a reprogramming of gene expression controlling the balance between membrane lipid classes, their fatty acid profiles, and their subcellular localization, ending up with a so-called (glycerol)lipid remodeling. Strikingly, membrane lipids are also primordial molecular actors in plant responses to viruses and bacteria, pathogenic or not, and all sorts of biotic interactions. Sphingolipids and sterols are key components of membrane domains acting as functional platforms in biotic interactions. Some viruses and bacteria can divert plant subcellular membranes for their own benefit. Major phyto-hormones activated during biotic stresses include jasmonic acid and other oxylipins deriving from polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is noteworthy that, in various abiotic and biotic interactions, phosphoinositides derived from membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol operate in signaling pathways. To address the impact of climate change on plants, membrane lipids need, therefore, to be closely examined. This Special Issue aims to summarize the current knowledge on the role of membrane lipids and their derivatives in the interaction of plants with their abiotic and biotic environment.
We look forward to your contributions.
Dr. Éric Maréchal
Dr. Rebecca RostonGuest Editors
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- sterols, oxylipins
- fatty acids
- lipid dynamics
- lipid synthesis
- lipid flux
- lipid degradation
- membrane contact sites
- membrane remodeling
- abiotic stress
- biotic stress
- pathogenic bacteria
- symbiotic bacteria
Published Papers (4 papers)
The Role of Chloroplast Membrane Lipid Metabolism in Plant Environmental Responses
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Plants are nonmotile life forms that are constantly exposed to changing environmental conditions during the course of their life cycle. Fluctuations in environmental conditions can be drastic during both day–night and seasonal cycles, as well as in the long term as the climate
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Plants are nonmotile life forms that are constantly exposed to changing environmental conditions during the course of their life cycle. Fluctuations in environmental conditions can be drastic during both day–night and seasonal cycles, as well as in the long term as the climate changes. Plants are naturally adapted to face these environmental challenges, and it has become increasingly apparent that membranes and their lipid composition are an important component of this adaptive response. Plants can remodel their membranes to change the abundance of different lipid classes, and they can release fatty acids that give rise to signaling compounds in response to environmental cues. Chloroplasts harbor the photosynthetic apparatus of plants embedded into one of the most extensive membrane systems found in nature. In part one of this review, we focus on changes in chloroplast membrane lipid class composition in response to environmental changes, and in part two, we will detail chloroplast lipid-derived signals.
Acyl–Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturases and Plant Biotic Interactions
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Interactions between land plants and other organisms such as pathogens, pollinators, or symbionts usually involve a variety of specialized effectors participating in complex cross-talks between organisms. Fatty acids and their lipid derivatives play important roles in these biological interactions. While the transcriptional regulation
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Interactions between land plants and other organisms such as pathogens, pollinators, or symbionts usually involve a variety of specialized effectors participating in complex cross-talks between organisms. Fatty acids and their lipid derivatives play important roles in these biological interactions. While the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding acyl–acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases appears to be largely responsive to biotic stress, the different monounsaturated fatty acids produced by these enzymes were shown to take active part in plant biotic interactions and were assigned with specific functions intrinsically linked to the position of the carbon–carbon double bond within their acyl chain. For example, oleic acid, an omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid produced by Δ9
-stearoyl–ACP desaturases, participates in signal transduction pathways affecting plant immunity against pathogen infection. Myristoleic acid, an omega-5 monounsaturated fatty acid produced by Δ9
-myristoyl–ACP desaturases, serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of omega-5 anacardic acids that are active biocides against pests. Finally, different types of monounsaturated fatty acids synthesized in the labellum of orchids are used for the production of a variety of alkenes participating in the chemistry of sexual deception, hence favoring plant pollination by hymenopterans.
Phenotyping the Chilling and Freezing Responses of Young Microspore Stage Wheat Spikes Using Targeted Metabolome and Lipidome Profiling
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Chilling and frost conditions impose major yield restraints to wheat crops in Australia and other temperate climate regions. Unpredictability and variability of field frost events are major impediments for cold tolerance breeding. Metabolome and lipidome profiling were used to compare the cold response
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Chilling and frost conditions impose major yield restraints to wheat crops in Australia and other temperate climate regions. Unpredictability and variability of field frost events are major impediments for cold tolerance breeding. Metabolome and lipidome profiling were used to compare the cold response in spikes of cold-tolerant Young and sensitive variety Wyalkatchem at the young microspore (YM) stage of pollen development. We aimed to identify metabolite markers that can reliably distinguish cold-tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties for future cold-tolerance phenotyping applications. We scored changes in spike metabolites and lipids for both varieties during cold acclimation after initial and prolonged exposure to combined chilling and freezing cycles (1 and 4 days, respectively) using controlled environment conditions. The two contrasting wheat varieties showed qualitative and quantitative differences in primary metabolites involved in osmoprotection, but differences in lipid accumulation most distinctively separated the cold response of the two wheat lines. These results resemble what we previously observed in flag leaves of the same two wheat varieties. The fact that this response occurs in tissue types with very different functions indicates that chilling and freezing tolerance in these wheat lines is associated with re-modelling of membrane lipid composition to maintain membrane fluidity.
The Impact of Mutations in the HvCPD and HvBRI1 Genes on the Physicochemical Properties of the Membranes from Barley Acclimated to Low/High Temperatures
Cited by 1
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(1) Background: The study characterized barley mutants with brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and signaling disturbances in terms of the physicochemical/structural properties of membranes to enrich the knowledge about the role of brassinosteroids for lipid metabolism and membrane functioning. (2) Methods: The Langmuir method was
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(1) Background: The study characterized barley mutants with brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and signaling disturbances in terms of the physicochemical/structural properties of membranes to enrich the knowledge about the role of brassinosteroids for lipid metabolism and membrane functioning. (2) Methods: The Langmuir method was used to investigate the properties of the physicochemical membranes. Langmuir monolayers were formed from the lipid fractions isolated from the plants growing at 20 °C and then acclimated at 5 °C or 27 °C. The fatty acid composition of the lipids was estimated using gas chromatography. (3) Results: The BR-biosynthesis and BR-signaling mutants of barley were characterized by a temperature-dependent altered molar percentage of fatty acids (from 14:0 to 20:1) in their galactolipid and phospholipid fractions in comparison to wild-type (WT). For example, the mutants had a lower molar percentage of 18:3 in the phospholipid (PL) fraction. The same regularity was observed at 5 °C. It resulted in altered physicochemical parameters of the membranes (Alim
). (4) Conclusions: BR may be involved in regulating fatty acid biosynthesis or their transport/incorporation into the cell membranes. Mutants had altered physicochemical parameters of their membranes, compared to the WT, which suggests that BR may have a multidirectional impact on the membrane-dependent physiological processes.