Nanotherapeutics in Cancer Management

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 17713

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
Interests: drug delivery; nanotechnology; cancer chemoprevention and treatment; breast; lung and ovarian cancers; exosomes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
UofL Health-Brown Cancer Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
Interests: nanobiotechnology; immuno–oncology; chemoprevention; exosome; drug delivery

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Guest Editor
Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
Interests: skin cancer; nanotechnology; drug delivery; cancer biomarkers; photocarcinogenesis

Special Issue Information

Aim: The identification of novel therapeutics and their delivery systems is essential for strengthening our knowledge and developing more precise and targeted therapies for cancer treatment. This Special Issue intends to highlight novel therapeutic strategies for targeting tumor cells to achieve better treatments.

Dear Colleagues,

Cancer is a leading cause of deaths worldwide and the incidence of this disease are increasing every year. The cancer origin is directly impacted by urbanization, environmental pollutants, chemical carcinogens, unhealthy diets and social habits. Cancer cells appear through a series of genetic and epigenetic changes in which normal cells become cancerous when a series of mutations leads the cell to continue to grow and divide out of control. Gene mutations are the principal cause of the transformation of normal cells to their cancerous forms. Unfortunately, despite decades of active research in the area, successful therapies remain elusive as there are only handful of approved clinically effective drugs available for the treatment of cancer and its metastasis.

Historically, plant-derived agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxol®), vincristine, docetaxel, topotecan, and irinotecan, are among the most effective cancer chemotherapeutics currently available. Nevertheless, most of these therapies have mild to severe side effects due to a lack of tumor targetability and specificity. Ligand-targeted therapeutics could be a successful means of improving the selective toxicity of anticancer drugs. Lately, tumor-targeted drug delivery approaches have attracted extensive attention. Most human tumors overexpress receptors for various molecule such as folic acid and transferrin due to higher requirement for fast growth. The use of such tumor-targeting ligands could enhance the therapeutic efficacy by selectively increasing the uptake of the drug-loaded nano formulations into tumor cells.

The last two decades have witnessed tremendous growth in cancer therapeutics, including novel chemotherapies and gene therapies. The clinical translation of most of the interventions such as chemotherapies, immunotherapies and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated therapies predominantly depends on the tumor targetability and target specificity. In recent times, nanobiotechnology has been widely explored for overcoming several limitations of cancer treatments. Nanoparticles of different origins have been engineered with tumor-targeted ligands to guide therapeutic targets to tumor sites. However, there is no ideal tumor-targeting strategy approved to use in clinic since every invention has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, new inventions highlighting great therapeutic potential and tumor targetability are always in need and demand.

We are pleased to invite you to contribute your original work and up-to-date review articles on tumor-targeted ligands, and novel engineered nanoparticle delivery systems for guiding small molecules and macromolecules towards cancer cells. Additionally, work on natural nanoparticles and exosomes, and detailed toxicity studies on well-established nanoparticle delivery systems are also encouraged.

This Special Issue aims to muster original research and review articles that present newer nanotherapeutics and tumor-targeting drug-delivery approaches for managing various cancers.

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. The research areas may include all aspects of cancer therapeutics, exosome-mediated delivery, and their role in cancer therapy/treatment.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Farrukh Aqil
Dr. Raghuram Kandimalla
Dr. Mohammad Asif Sherwani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cancer
  • plant therapeutics
  • chemopreventive agents
  • nanotechnology
  • targeted delivery
  • oncogenes
  • nanobiotechnology
  • chemotherapy
  • immunotherapy

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Review

30 pages, 5381 KiB  
Review
Novel Strategies for the Bioavailability Augmentation and Efficacy Improvement of Natural Products in Oral Cancer
by Alisha Sachdeva, Dimple Dhawan, Gaurav K. Jain, Mükerrem Betül Yerer, Taylor E. Collignon, Devesh Tewari and Anupam Bishayee
Cancers 2023, 15(1), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15010268 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2631
Abstract
Oral cancer is emerging as a major cause of mortality globally. Oral cancer occupies a significant proportion of the head and neck, including the cheeks, tongue, and oral cavity. Conventional methods in the treatment of cancer involve surgery, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy, and these [...] Read more.
Oral cancer is emerging as a major cause of mortality globally. Oral cancer occupies a significant proportion of the head and neck, including the cheeks, tongue, and oral cavity. Conventional methods in the treatment of cancer involve surgery, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy, and these have not proven to completely eradicate cancerous cells, may lead to the reoccurrence of oral cancer, and possess numerous adverse side effects. Advancements in novel drug delivery approaches have gained popularity in cancer management with an increase in the number of cases associated with oral cancer. Natural products are potent sources for drug discovery, especially for anticancer drugs. Natural product delivery has major challenges due to its low solubility, poor absorption, inappropriate size, instability, poor permeation, and first-pass metabolism. Therefore, it is of prime importance to investigate novel treatment approaches for the delivery of bioactive natural products. Nanotechnology is an advanced method of delivering cancer therapy with minimal damage to normal cells while targeting cancer cells. Therefore, the present review elaborates on the advancements in novel strategies for natural product delivery that lead to the significant enhancement of bioavailability, in vivo activity, and fewer adverse events for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer. Various approaches to accomplish the desired results involve size reduction, surface property modification, and polymer attachment, which collectively result in the higher stability of the formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotherapeutics in Cancer Management)
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21 pages, 793 KiB  
Review
Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials-Based Recent Approaches in Upgraded Targeting and Management of Cancer: A Review
by Anupama Ojha, Sonali Jaiswal, Priyanka Bharti and Sarad Kumar Mishra
Cancers 2023, 15(1), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15010162 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4512
Abstract
Along with the extensive improvement in tumor biology research and different therapeutic developments, cancer remains a dominant and deadly disease. Tumor heterogeneity, systemic toxicities, and drug resistance are major hurdles in cancer therapy. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, phototherapy, and surgical therapy are some prominent areas [...] Read more.
Along with the extensive improvement in tumor biology research and different therapeutic developments, cancer remains a dominant and deadly disease. Tumor heterogeneity, systemic toxicities, and drug resistance are major hurdles in cancer therapy. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, phototherapy, and surgical therapy are some prominent areas of cancer treatment. During chemotherapy for cancer, chemotherapeutic agents are distributed all over the body and also damage normal cells. With advancements in nanotechnology, nanoparticles utilized in all major areas of cancer therapy offer the probability to advance drug solubility, and stability, extend drug half-lives in plasma, reduce off-target effects, and quintessence drugs at a target site. The present review compiles the use of different types of nanoparticles in frequently and recently applied therapeutics of cancer therapy. A recent area of cancer treatment includes cancer stem cell therapy, DNA/RNA-based immunomodulation therapy, alteration of the microenvironment, and cell membrane-mediated biomimetic approach. Biocompatibility and bioaccumulation of nanoparticles is the major impediment in nano-based therapy. More research is required to develop the next generation of nanotherapeutics with the incorporation of new molecular entities, such as kinase inhibitors, siRNA, mRNA, and gene editing. We assume that nanotherapeutics will dramatically improve patient survival, move the model of cancer treatment, and develop certainty in the foreseeable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotherapeutics in Cancer Management)
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21 pages, 1740 KiB  
Review
Nanoparticles Design for Theranostic Approach in Cancer Disease
by Barbara Carrese, Gennaro Sanità and Annalisa Lamberti
Cancers 2022, 14(19), 4654; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14194654 - 24 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2535
Abstract
Presently, there are no conclusive treatments for many types of cancer, mainly due to the advanced phase of the disease at the time of diagnosis and to the side effects of existing therapies. Present diagnostic and therapeutic procedures need to be improved to [...] Read more.
Presently, there are no conclusive treatments for many types of cancer, mainly due to the advanced phase of the disease at the time of diagnosis and to the side effects of existing therapies. Present diagnostic and therapeutic procedures need to be improved to supply early detection abilities and perform a more specific therapy with reduced systemic toxicity. In this review, improvements in nanotechnology allowing the design of multifunctional nanoparticles for cancer detection, therapy, and monitoring are reported. Nanoparticles, thanks to the nanomaterials they are made of, can be used as contrast agents for various diagnostic techniques such as MRI, optical imaging, and photoacoustic imaging. Furthermore, when used as drug carriers, they can accumulate in tumor tissues through the passive or/and active targeting, protect encapsulated drugs from degradation, raise tumor exposure to chemotherapeutic agents improving treatment effects. In addition, nanocarriers can simultaneously deliver more than one therapeutic agent enhancing the effectiveness of therapy and can co-deliver imaging and therapy agents to provide integration of diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up. Furthermore, the use of nanocarriers allows to use different therapeutic approaches, such as chemotherapy and hyperthermia to exploit synergistic effects. Theranostic approach to diagnose and treat cancer show a great potential to improve human health, however, despite technological advances in this field, the transfer into clinical practice is still a long way off. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotherapeutics in Cancer Management)
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27 pages, 4349 KiB  
Review
Exosomes as Emerging Drug Delivery and Diagnostic Modality for Breast Cancer: Recent Advances in Isolation and Application
by Dulla Naveen Kumar, Aiswarya Chaudhuri, Farrukh Aqil, Deepa Dehari, Radha Munagala, Sanjay Singh, Ramesh C. Gupta and Ashish Kumar Agrawal
Cancers 2022, 14(6), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14061435 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 6832
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common type of malignancy which covers almost one-fourth of all the cancers diagnosed in women. Conventionally, chemo-, hormonal-, immune-, surgery, and radiotherapy are the clinically available therapies for BC. However, toxicity and other related adverse effects are [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common type of malignancy which covers almost one-fourth of all the cancers diagnosed in women. Conventionally, chemo-, hormonal-, immune-, surgery, and radiotherapy are the clinically available therapies for BC. However, toxicity and other related adverse effects are still the major challenges. A variety of nano platforms have been reported to overcome these limitations, among them, exosomes provide a versatile platform not only for the diagnosis but also as a delivery vehicle for drugs. Exosomes are biological nanovesicles made up of a lipidic bilayer and known for cell-to-cell communication. Exosomes have been reported to be present in almost all bodily fluids, viz., blood, milk, urine, saliva, pancreatic juice, bile, peritoneal, and cerebrospinal fluid. Such characteristics of exosomes have attracted immense interest in cancer diagnosis and therapy. They can deliver bioactive moieties such as protein, lipids, hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic drugs, various RNAs to both distant and nearby recipient cells as well as have specific biological markers. By considering the growing interest of the scientific community in this field, we comprehensively compiled the information about the biogenesis of exosomes, various isolation methods, the drug loading techniques, and their diverse applications in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy along with ongoing clinical trials which will assist future scientific endeavors in a more organized direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotherapeutics in Cancer Management)
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