New Perspectives of Ocular Oncology

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 33198

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy
Interests: ocular oncology; orbital tumors; uveal melanoma; ocular metastasis; retinoblastoma; molecular biomarkers of solid tumors; imaging of ocular tumors; radiation side effects; rare tumors
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ocular oncology is a subspeciality of ophthalmology, dedicated to research, diagnosis and treatment of neoplastic lesions affecting the eye and its adnexa, including the orbit. In recent years, progress in the identification of new intraocular biomarkers of eye neoplasia, new diagnostic imaging technologies and some new insights into treatment modalities have contributed to the advancement of this subspeciality. The local treatment of benign intraocular tumors and metastatic intraocular disease is also a challenging topic. Local tumor irradiation is the most common treatment of uveal melanoma, the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults. The prevention and treatment of radiation chorioretinopathy deserves special attention, mostly because personalized therapy may contribute to vision salvage. Intraocular tumors in pediatric age have also received special attention from the genetic and pathophysiologic approach. Therefore, ocular oncology not only needs attention from ophthalmologists, but also from all medical specialties involved in the diagnosis and treatment of ocular and orbital tumors. This Special Issue is devoted to reporting on new aspects of this subspeciality, from any perspective.

Prof. Dr. Edoardo Midena
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • ocular oncology
  • orbital tumors
  • uveal melanoma
  • retinoblastoma

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 4206 KiB  
Article
The Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist Carvedilol Elicits Anti-Tumor Responses in Uveal Melanoma 3D Tumor Spheroids and May Serve as Co-Adjuvant Therapy with Radiation
by Lina S. Farhoumand, Miltiadis Fiorentzis, Miriam M. Kraemer, Ali Sak, Martin Stuschke, Tienush Rassaf, Ulrike Hendgen-Cotta, Nikolaos E. Bechrakis and Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3097; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133097 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular tumor in adults. Despite local tumor control, no effective therapy has been found to prevent metastasis, resulting in a high mortality rate. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-tumor potential of non-selective ß-blockers in [...] Read more.
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular tumor in adults. Despite local tumor control, no effective therapy has been found to prevent metastasis, resulting in a high mortality rate. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-tumor potential of non-selective ß-blockers in 3D tumor spheroids grown from UM cell lines. Of the various ß-blockers tested, carvedilol and its enantiomers were most potent in decreasing the viability of Mel270 spheroids. Carvedilol at a concentration of 10–50 µM significantly elicited cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in spheroid cells. In result, carvedilol inhibited tumor spheroid growth and compactness, and furthermore prevented the long-term survival and repopulation of spreading spheroid cells. The drug sensitivity of the different spheroids grown from Mel270, 92-1, UPMD2, or UPMM3 cell lines was dependent on 3D morphology rather than on high-risk cytogenetic profile or adrenergic receptor expression levels. In fact, the monosomy-3-containing UPMM3 cell line was most responsive to carvedilol treatment compared to the other cell lines. The concurrent treatment of UPMM3 spheroids with carvedilol and 5 or 10 Gy irradiation revealed additive cytotoxic effects that provided tumor control. Collectively, our data demonstrate the anti-tumor properties of carvedilol and its enantiomers, which may serve as candidates for the co-adjuvant therapy of UM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Ocular Oncology)
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18 pages, 4655 KiB  
Article
Calcium Electroporation Reduces Viability and Proliferation Capacity of Four Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines in 2D and 3D Cultures
by Miriam M. Kraemer, Theodora Tsimpaki, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Nikolaos E. Bechrakis, Berthold Seitz and Miltiadis Fiorentzis
Cancers 2022, 14(12), 2889; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14122889 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is the combination of transient pore formation following electric pulse application with the administration of cytotoxic drugs, which enhances the cytotoxic effect of the applied agent due to membrane changes and permeabilization. Although EP represents an established therapeutic option for solid [...] Read more.
Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is the combination of transient pore formation following electric pulse application with the administration of cytotoxic drugs, which enhances the cytotoxic effect of the applied agent due to membrane changes and permeabilization. Although EP represents an established therapeutic option for solid malignancies, recent advances shift to the investigation of non-cytotoxic agents, such as calcium, which can also induce cell death. The present study aims to evaluate the cytotoxic effect, the morphological changes in tumor spheroids, the effect on the cell viability, and the cell-specific growth rate following calcium electroporation (CaEP) in uveal melanoma (UM) 2D monolayer cell cultures as well as in 3D tumor spheroid models. The experiments were conducted in four cell lines, UM92.1, Mel270, and two primary UM cell lines, UPMD2 and UPMM3 (UPM). The 2D and 3D UM cell cultures were electroporated with eight rectangular pulses (100 µs pulse duration, 5 Hz repetition frequency) of a 1000 V/cm pulse strength alone or in combination with 0.11 mg/mL, 0.28 mg/mL, 0.55 mg/mL or 1.11 mg/mL calcium chloride or 1.0 µg/mL or 2.5 µg/mL bleomycin. The application of calcium chloride alone induced an ATP reduction only in the UM92.1 2D cell cultures. Calcium alone had no significant effect on ATP levels in all four UM spheroids. A significant decrease in the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level was documented in all four 2D and 3D cell cultures for both CaEP as well as ECT with bleomycin. The results suggest a dose-dependent ATP depletion with a wide range of sensitivity among the tested UM cell lines, control groups, and the applied settings in both 2D monolayer cell cultures and 3D tumor spheroid models. The colony formation capacity of the cell lines after two weeks reduced significantly after CaEP only with 0.5 mg/mL and 1.1 mg/mL, whereas the same effect could be achieved with both applied bleomycin concentrations, 1.0 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL, for the ECT group. The specific growth rate on day 7 following CaEP was significantly reduced in UM92.1 cell lines with 0.5 and 1.1 mg/mL calcium chloride, while Mel270 showed a similar effect only after administration of 1.1 mg/mL. UM92.1 and Mel270 spheroids exhibited lower adhesion and density after CaEP on day three in comparison to UPM spheroids showing detachment after day 7 following treatment. CaEP and bleomycin electroporation significantly reduce cell viability at similar applied voltage settings. CaEP may be a feasible and inexpensive therapeutic option for the local tumor control with fewer side effects, in comparison to other chemotherapeutic agents, for the treatment of uveal melanoma. The limited effect on normal cells and the surrounding tissue has already been investigated, but further research is necessary to clarify the effect on the surrounding tissue and to facilitate its application in a clinical setting for the eye. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Ocular Oncology)
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18 pages, 13696 KiB  
Article
RB1-Negative Retinal Organoids Display Proliferation of Cone Photoreceptors and Loss of Retinal Differentiation
by Deniz Kanber, Julia Woestefeld, Hannah Döpper, Morgane Bozet, Alexandra Brenzel, Janine Altmüller, Fabian Kilpert, Dietmar Lohmann, Claudia Pommerenke and Laura Steenpass
Cancers 2022, 14(9), 2166; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092166 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2436
Abstract
Retinoblastoma is a tumor of the eye in children under the age of five caused by biallelic inactivation of the RB1 tumor suppressor gene in maturing retinal cells. Cancer models are essential for understanding tumor development and in preclinical research. Because of the [...] Read more.
Retinoblastoma is a tumor of the eye in children under the age of five caused by biallelic inactivation of the RB1 tumor suppressor gene in maturing retinal cells. Cancer models are essential for understanding tumor development and in preclinical research. Because of the complex organization of the human retina, such models were challenging to develop for retinoblastoma. Here, we present an organoid model based on differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into neural retina after inactivation of RB1 by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis. Wildtype and RB1 heterozygous mutant retinal organoids were indistinguishable with respect to morphology, temporal development of retinal cell types and global mRNA expression. However, loss of pRB resulted in spatially disorganized organoids and aberrant differentiation, indicated by disintegration of organoids beyond day 130 of differentiation and depletion of most retinal cell types. Only cone photoreceptors were abundant and continued to proliferate, supporting these as candidate cells-of-origin for retinoblastoma. Transcriptome analysis of RB1 knockout organoids and primary retinoblastoma revealed gain of a retinoblastoma expression signature in the organoids, characterized by upregulation of RBL1 (p107), MDM2, DEK, SYK and HELLS. In addition, genes related to immune response and extracellular matrix were specifically upregulated in RB1-negative organoids. In vitro retinal organoids therefore display some features associated with retinoblastoma and, so far, represent the only valid human cancer model for the development of this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Ocular Oncology)
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11 pages, 2269 KiB  
Article
Choroidal Abnormalities in Pediatric NF1: A Cohort Natural History Study
by Eleonora Cosmo, Luisa Frizziero, Giacomo Miglionico, Chiara Sofia De Biasi, Marisa Bruno, Eva Trevisson, Ilaria Gabbiato, Giulia Midena and Raffaele Parrozzani
Cancers 2022, 14(6), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14061423 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term natural history of choroidal abnormalities (CAs) in a large pediatric neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) population, quantifying their progression in number and dimensions. Pediatric patients (<16 years old) affected by NF1 with a minimum [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term natural history of choroidal abnormalities (CAs) in a large pediatric neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) population, quantifying their progression in number and dimensions. Pediatric patients (<16 years old) affected by NF1 with a minimum follow-up of 3 years with at least one CA in one eye were consecutively recruited. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging was performed to identify CAs, which were quantified in number and size. The CAs area and perimeter were normalized for the optic disc dimensions to avoid possible bias related to the growing process of the eye. Ninety-nine eyes of 53 patients were evaluated. The CAs number, area and perimeter significantly increased during follow-up (p < 0.0001 for each parameter). The patient age at baseline was inversely correlated with the CAs number over time (coefficient = −0.1313, p = 0.0068), while no correlation was found between the patient age and CAs progression in size. In conclusion, we provide evidence that, in NF1 pediatric patients, CAs change over time, increasing both in number and dimensions, independently from the physiological growth of the eye. While the increase of the CAs number occurs particularly at an earlier age, the increase in the CAs dimensions is a slow process that remains constant during childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Ocular Oncology)
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10 pages, 491 KiB  
Article
Diagnosing Vitreoretinal Lymphomas—An Analysis of the Sensitivity of Existing Tools
by Anahita Sehgal, Jose S. Pulido, Arman Mashayekhi, Tatyana Milman and Gabor Gy Deák
Cancers 2022, 14(3), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14030598 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2192
Abstract
Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) is a rare ocular pathology that is notorious for mimicking chronic uveitis, which is a seemingly benign condition in comparison. The most common form of VRL is the diffuse large B-cell type, and there has been a high mortality rate. [...] Read more.
Vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) is a rare ocular pathology that is notorious for mimicking chronic uveitis, which is a seemingly benign condition in comparison. The most common form of VRL is the diffuse large B-cell type, and there has been a high mortality rate. This dismal prognosis can be improved significantly if the disease is diagnosed early, but until now there is no consensus on an appropriate diagnostic algorithm. We conducted a retrospective search of PubMed Central® and analyzed results from thirty-three studies that were published between 2011–2021. The chosen studies incorporated some popular testing tools for VRL, and our analyses focused on comparing the average sensitivity of five diagnostic methods. The methods included cytology including ancillary immunohistochemistry, Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 (MyD88) mutation analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for monoclonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T-cell Receptor (TCR) genes, flow cytometry, and IL10 and IL6 analysis. Across the varied diagnostic methods employed in thirty-three studies explored in this analysis, MyD88 mutation assay emerged as a strong contender given its sensitivity and low coefficient of variation. There is an imminent need for the introduction of newer assays that can further improve the sensitivity of identifying MyD88 mutation in cancer cells seen in the vitreous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Ocular Oncology)
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21 pages, 7501 KiB  
Article
Histopathologic and MR Imaging Appearance of Spontaneous and Radiation-Induced Necrosis in Uveal Melanomas: Initial Results
by Pietro Valerio Foti, Corrado Inì, Giuseppe Broggi, Renato Farina, Stefano Palmucci, Corrado Spatola, Rocco Luca Emanuele Liardo, Roberto Milazzotto, Luigi Raffaele, Vincenzo Salamone, Rosario Caltabiano, Lidia Puzzo, Andrea Russo, Michele Reibaldi, Antonio Longo, Paolo Vigneri, Massimo Venturini, Francesco Giurazza, Teresio Avitabile and Antonio Basile
Cancers 2022, 14(1), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010215 - 02 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
Necrosis in uveal melanomas can be spontaneous or induced by radiotherapy. The purpose of our study was to compare the histopathologic and MRI findings of radiation-induced necrosis of a group of proton beam-irradiated uveal melanomas with those of spontaneous necrosis of a control [...] Read more.
Necrosis in uveal melanomas can be spontaneous or induced by radiotherapy. The purpose of our study was to compare the histopathologic and MRI findings of radiation-induced necrosis of a group of proton beam-irradiated uveal melanomas with those of spontaneous necrosis of a control group of patients undergoing primary enucleation. 11 uveal melanomas who had undergone proton beam radiotherapy, MRI and secondary enucleation, and a control group of 15 untreated uveal melanomas who had undergone MRI and primary enucleation were retrospectively identified. Within the irradiated and nonirradiated group, 7 and 6 eyes with histological evidence of necrosis respectively, were furtherly selected for the final analysis; the appearance of necrosis was assessed at histopathologic examination and MRI. Irradiated melanomas showed a higher degree of necrosis as compared with nonirradiated tumors. Irradiated and nonirradiated lesions differed based on the appearance and distribution of necrosis. Irradiated tumors showed large necrotic foci, sharply demarcated from the viable neoplastic tissue; nonirradiated tumors demonstrated small, distinct foci of necrosis. Radiation-induced necrosis, more pigmented than surrounding viable tumor, displayed high signal intensity on T1-weighted and low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. The hemorrhagic/coagulative necrosis, more prevalent in nonirradiated tumors (4 out of 6 vs. 1 out of 7 cases), appeared hyperintense on T2-weighted and hypointense on T1-weighted images. Our study boosts the capability to recognize radiation-induced alterations in uveal melanomas at MRI and may improve the accuracy of radiologists in the evaluation of follow-up MR examination after radiotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Ocular Oncology)
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14 pages, 2805 KiB  
Article
Retinal Glial Cells in Von Hippel–Lindau Disease: A Novel Approach in the Pathophysiology of Retinal Hemangioblastoma
by Elisabetta Pilotto, Giulia Midena, Tommaso Torresin, Gilda De Mojà, Maria Laura Bacelle, Alfonso Massimiliano Ferrara, Stefania Zovato and Edoardo Midena
Cancers 2022, 14(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010170 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Background: Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease is a neoplastic syndrome caused by a mutation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene. Retinal hemangioblastoma (RH) is a vascularized tumor and represents the most common ocular manifestation of this disease. At the retinal level, VHL protein is [...] Read more.
Background: Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease is a neoplastic syndrome caused by a mutation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene. Retinal hemangioblastoma (RH) is a vascularized tumor and represents the most common ocular manifestation of this disease. At the retinal level, VHL protein is able to regulate tumor growth, angiogenic factors, and neuroinflammation, probably stimulating retinal glial cells. The aim of the present study was to analyze in vivo the optical coherence tomography (OCT) biomarkers of retinal macroglia and microglia in a cohort of VHL patients. Methods: The mean thicknesses of macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) were measured with OCT as biomarkers of retinal macroglia. OCT images were also analyzed to detect and quantify hyperreflective retinal foci (HRF), a biomarker of retinal activated microglia. Results: 61 eyes of 61 VHL patients (22 eyes (36.07%) with peripheral RH and 39 eyes (63.93%) without RH) and 28 eyes of 28 controls were evaluated. pRNFL was thinner in VHL patients (p < 0.05) and in VHL without RH (p < 0.01) compared to controls, and thicker in VHL patients with RH than in those without RH (p < 0.05). The thickness of mRNFL (p < 0.0001) and GCL (p < 0.05) was reduced in VHL patients and in VHL without RH compared to controls, whereas mRNFL (p < 0.0001) and GCL (p < 0.05) were increased in VHL patients with RH compared to those without RH. HRF were significantly higher in number in VHL patients and in VHL without RH, than in controls, and significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the eyes of VHL patients with RH, than in those without RH. Conclusions: The OCT analysis, which detects and allows to quantify the biomarkers of retinal microglia (HRF) and macroglia (pRNFL, mRNFL and GCL), showed a different behavior of these two retinal glial cells populations in VHL patients, related to the presence or absence of peripheral RH. These data allow to hypothesize a novel pathophysiologic pathway of retinal hemangioblastoma in VHL disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Ocular Oncology)
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Review

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21 pages, 882 KiB  
Review
GNAQ and GNA11 Genes: A Comprehensive Review on Oncogenesis, Prognosis and Therapeutic Opportunities in Uveal Melanoma
by Paula Silva-Rodríguez, Daniel Fernández-Díaz, Manuel Bande, María Pardo, Lourdes Loidi and María José Blanco-Teijeiro
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3066; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133066 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3975
Abstract
The GNAQ and GNA11 genes are mutated in almost 80–90% of uveal melanomas in a mutually exclusive pattern. These genes encode the alpha subunits of the heterotrimeric G proteins, Gq and G11; thus, mutations of these genes result in the activation [...] Read more.
The GNAQ and GNA11 genes are mutated in almost 80–90% of uveal melanomas in a mutually exclusive pattern. These genes encode the alpha subunits of the heterotrimeric G proteins, Gq and G11; thus, mutations of these genes result in the activation of several important signaling pathways, including phospholipase C, and activation of the transcription factor YAP. It is well known that both of them act as driver genes in the oncogenic process and it has been assumed that they do not play a role in the prognosis of these tumours. However, it has been hypothesised that mutations in these genes could give rise to molecularly and clinically distinct types of uveal melanomas. It has also been questioned whether the type and location of mutation in the GNAQ and GNA11 genes may affect the progression of these tumours. All of these questions, except for their implications in carcinogenesis, remain controversial. Uveal melanoma has a distinctive genetic profile, and specific recurrent mutations, which make it a potential candidate for treatment with targeted therapy. Given that the most frequent mutations are those observed in the GNAQ and GNA11 genes, and that both genes are involved in oncogenesis, these molecules, as well as the downstream signalling pathways in which they are involved, have been proposed as promising potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, in this review, special attention is paid to the current data related to the possible prognostic implications of both genes from different perspectives, as well as the therapeutic options targeting them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Ocular Oncology)
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44 pages, 4003 KiB  
Review
Prognostic Biomarkers in Uveal Melanoma: The Status Quo, Recent Advances and Future Directions
by Nuno Jorge Lamas, Arnaud Martel, Sacha Nahon-Estève, Samantha Goffinet, Adam Macocco, Corine Bertolotto, Sandra Lassalle and Paul Hofman
Cancers 2022, 14(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010096 - 25 Dec 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 9209
Abstract
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common malignant intraocular tumour in the adult population. It is a rare cancer with an incidence of nearly five cases per million inhabitants per year, which develops from the uncontrolled proliferation of melanocytes in the choroid (≈90%), [...] Read more.
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common malignant intraocular tumour in the adult population. It is a rare cancer with an incidence of nearly five cases per million inhabitants per year, which develops from the uncontrolled proliferation of melanocytes in the choroid (≈90%), ciliary body (≈6%) or iris (≈4%). Patients initially present either with symptoms like blurred vision or photopsia, or without symptoms, with the tumour being detected in routine eye exams. Over the course of the disease, metastases, which are initially dormant, develop in nearly 50% of patients, preferentially in the liver. Despite decades of intensive research, the only approach proven to mildly control disease spread are early treatments directed to ablate liver metastases, such as surgical excision or chemoembolization. However, most patients have a limited life expectancy once metastases are detected, since there are limited therapeutic approaches for the metastatic disease, including immunotherapy, which unlike in cutaneous melanoma, has been mostly ineffective for UM patients. Therefore, in order to offer the best care possible to these patients, there is an urgent need to find robust models that can accurately predict the prognosis of UM, as well as therapeutic strategies that effectively block and/or limit the spread of the metastatic disease. Here, we initially summarized the current knowledge about UM by compiling the most relevant epidemiological, clinical, pathological and molecular data. Then, we revisited the most important prognostic factors currently used for the evaluation and follow-up of primary UM cases. Afterwards, we addressed emerging prognostic biomarkers in UM, by comprehensively reviewing gene signatures, immunohistochemistry-based markers and proteomic markers resulting from research studies conducted over the past three years. Finally, we discussed the current hurdles in the field and anticipated the future challenges and novel avenues of research in UM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Ocular Oncology)
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Other

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18 pages, 3069 KiB  
Systematic Review
Orbital Metastases: A Systematic Review of Clinical Characteristics, Management Strategies, and Treatment Outcomes
by Paolo Palmisciano, Gianluca Ferini, Christian Ogasawara, Waseem Wahood, Othman Bin Alamer, Aditya D. Gupta, Gianluca Scalia, Alexandra M. G. Larsen, Kenny Yu, Giuseppe E. Umana, Aaron A. Cohen-Gadol, Tarek Y. El Ahmadieh and Ali S. Haider
Cancers 2022, 14(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010094 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5311
Abstract
Background: Orbital metastases often lead to severe functional impairment. The role of resection, orbital exenteration, and complementary treatments is still debated. We systematically reviewed the literature on orbital metastases. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web-of-Science, and Cochrane were searched upon PRISMA guidelines to identify studies [...] Read more.
Background: Orbital metastases often lead to severe functional impairment. The role of resection, orbital exenteration, and complementary treatments is still debated. We systematically reviewed the literature on orbital metastases. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web-of-Science, and Cochrane were searched upon PRISMA guidelines to identify studies on orbital metastases. Clinical characteristics, management strategies, and survival were analyzed. Results: We included 262 studies comprising 873 patients. Median age was 59 years. The most frequent primary tumors were breast (36.3%), melanoma (10.1%), and prostate (8.5%) cancers, with median time interval of 12 months (range, 0–420). The most common symptoms were proptosis (52.3%) and relative-afferent-pupillary-defect (38.7%). Most metastases showed a diffuse location within the orbit (19%), with preferential infiltration of orbital soft tissues (40.2%). In 47 cases (5.4%), tumors extended intracranially. Incisional biopsy (63.7%) was preferred over fine-needle aspiration (10.2%), with partial resection (16.6%) preferred over complete (9.5%). Orbital exenteration was pursued in 26 patients (3%). A total of 305 patients (39.4%) received chemotherapy, and 506 (58%) received orbital radiotherapy. Post-treatment symptom improvement was significantly superior after resection (p = 0.005) and orbital radiotherapy (p = 0.032). Mean follow-up was 14.3 months, and median overall survival was 6 months. Fifteen cases (1.7%) demonstrated recurrence with median local control of six months. Overall survival was statistically increased in patients with breast cancer (p < 0.001) and in patients undergoing resection (p = 0.024) but was not correlated with orbital location (p = 0.174), intracranial extension (p = 0.073), biopsy approach (p = 0.344), extent-of-resection (p = 0.429), or orbital exenteration (p = 0.153). Conclusions: Orbital metastases severely impair patient quality of life. Surgical resection safely provides symptom and survival benefit compared to biopsy, while orbital radiotherapy significantly improves symptoms compared to not receiving radiotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives of Ocular Oncology)
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