Special Issue "New Discoveries in Radiation Science: Selection of Papers from the 44th Congress of the European Radiation Research Society (Pécs, Hungary)"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Géza Sáfrány
Website
Guest Editor
Division of Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, National Public Health Institute, Budapest, Hungary
Interests: radiation carcinogenesis; low dose effects; normal tissue responses
Dr. Katalin Lumniczky
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Radiation Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Budapest, Hungary
Interests: low dose effects; brain; immune system; exosomes
Dr. Lorenzo Manti
Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Cancers will consist of selected papers from the 44th Congress of the European Radiation Research Society (http://www.err2018.hu) taking place in Pécs (Hungary), on 21–25 August, 2018. The European Radiation Research Society (ERRS; http://www.errs.eu/) was established in 1959 to encourage international cooperation and communication in all fields of radiation research. This Meeting will provide a forum enabling the exchange of scientific ideas among all participating scientists and clinicians of various countries within the field of radiation. The research topics of the meeting cover diverse and exciting fields of radiation science such as stem cell radiation biology; individual radiosensitivity and radiosusceptibility; radiation and exosomes; repair of radiation-induced DNA damage; radiation-induced inter- and intracellular signalling; radiation effects on the immune system; radiation effects on the brain; radiation-induced carcinogenesis and cancer risks; radiation hormesis; medical aspects of ionising radiation, normal tissue effects; pre-clinical and clinical high-LET and proton radiobiology; laser-driven ionizing radiation effects and biomedical application; and Radon as an environmental and a therapeutic agent. Finally, the effects of non-ionizing radiations will also be included.

This Special Issue will therefore represent state-of-the-art and up-to-date information on the manifold fields of radiation research.

Dr. Géza Sáfrány
Dr. Katalin Lumniczky
Dr. Lorenzo Manti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (16 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
γ-H2AX Foci Persistence at Chromosome Break Suggests Slow and Faithful Repair Phases Restoring Chromosome Integrity
Cancers 2019, 11(9), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091397 - 19 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Many toxic agents can cause DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which are in most cases quickly repaired by the cellular machinery. Using ionising radiation, we explored the kinetics of DNA lesion signaling and structural chromosome aberration formation at the intra- and inter-chromosomal level. [...] Read more.
Many toxic agents can cause DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which are in most cases quickly repaired by the cellular machinery. Using ionising radiation, we explored the kinetics of DNA lesion signaling and structural chromosome aberration formation at the intra- and inter-chromosomal level. Using a novel approach, the classic Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) was combined with γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining in order to unravel the kinetics of DNA damage signalisation and chromosome repair. We identified an early mechanism of DNA DSB joining that occurs within the first three hours post-irradiation, when dicentric chromosomes and chromosome exchanges are formed. The slower and significant decrease of ”deleted chromosomes” and 1 acentric telomere fragments observed until 24 h post-irradiation, leads to the conclusion that a second and error-free repair mechanism occurs. In parallel, we revealed remaining signalling of γ-H2AX foci at the site of chromosome fusion long after the chromosome rearrangement formation. Moreover there is important signalling of foci on the site of telomere and sub-telomere sequences suggesting either a different function of γ-H2AX signalling in these regions or an extreme sensibility of the telomere sequences to DNA damage that remains unrepaired 24 h post-irradiation. In conclusion, chromosome repair happens in two steps, including a last and hardly detectable one because of restoration of the chromosome integrity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Radiotherapy-Induced Changes in the Systemic Immune and Inflammation Parameters of Head and Neck Cancer Patients
Cancers 2019, 11(9), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091324 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Though radiotherapy is a local therapy, it has systemic effects mainly influencing immune and inflammation processes. This has important consequences in the long-term prognosis and therapy individualization. Our objective was to investigate immune and inflammation-related changes in the peripheral blood of head and [...] Read more.
Though radiotherapy is a local therapy, it has systemic effects mainly influencing immune and inflammation processes. This has important consequences in the long-term prognosis and therapy individualization. Our objective was to investigate immune and inflammation-related changes in the peripheral blood of head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Peripheral blood cells, plasma and blood cell-derived RNA were isolated from 23 patients before and at two time points after radiotherapy and cellular immune parameters, plasma protein changes and gene expression alterations were studied. Increased regulatory T cells and increased CTLA4 and PD-1 expression on CD4 cells indicated an immune suppression induced by the malignant condition, which was accentuated by radiotherapy. Circulating dendritic cells were strongly elevated before treatment and were not affected by radiotherapy. Decreased endoglin levels in the plasma of patients before treatment were further decreased by radiotherapy. Expression of the FXDR, SESN1, GADD45, DDB2 and MDM2 radiation-response genes were altered in the peripheral blood cells of patients after radiotherapy. All changes were long-lasting, detectable one month after radiotherapy. In conclusion we demonstrated radiotherapy-induced changes in systemic immune parameters of head and neck cancer patients and proposed markers suitable for patient stratification worth investigating in larger patient cohorts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Cancers after Chornobyl: From Epidemiology to Molecular Quantification
Cancers 2019, 11(9), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091291 - 02 Sep 2019
Abstract
An overview and new data are presented from cancer studies of the most exposed groups of the population after the Chornobyl accident, performed at the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine (NRCRM). Incidence rates of solid cancers were analyzed for the 1990–2016 period [...] Read more.
An overview and new data are presented from cancer studies of the most exposed groups of the population after the Chornobyl accident, performed at the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine (NRCRM). Incidence rates of solid cancers were analyzed for the 1990–2016 period in cleanup workers, evacuees, and the general population from the contaminated areas. In male cleanup workers, the significant increase in rates was demonstrated for cancers in total, leukemia, lymphoma, and thyroid cancer, as well as breast cancer rates were increased in females. Significantly elevated thyroid cancer incidence was identified in the male cleanup workers cohort (150,813) in 1986–2012 with an overall standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 3.35 (95% CI: 2.91–3.80). A slight decrease in incidence rates was registered starting at 25 years after exposure. In total, 32 of 57 deaths in a group of cleanup workers with confirmed acute radiation syndrome (ARS) or not confirmed ARS (ARS NC) were due to blood malignancies or cancer. Molecular studies in cohort members included gene expression and polymorphism, FISH, relative telomere length, immunophenotype, micronuclei test, histone H2AX, and TORCH infections. Analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases from the cohort showed more frequent mutations in telomere maintenance pathway genes as compared with unexposed CLL patients. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Analysing Tumour Growth Delay Data from Animal Irradiation Experiments with Deviations from the Prescribed Dose
Cancers 2019, 11(9), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091281 - 31 Aug 2019
Abstract
The development of new radiotherapy technologies is a long-term process, which requires proof of the general concept. However, clinical requirements with respect to beam quality and controlled dose delivery may not yet be fulfilled. Exemplarily, the necessary radiobiological experiments with laser-accelerated electrons are [...] Read more.
The development of new radiotherapy technologies is a long-term process, which requires proof of the general concept. However, clinical requirements with respect to beam quality and controlled dose delivery may not yet be fulfilled. Exemplarily, the necessary radiobiological experiments with laser-accelerated electrons are challenged by fluctuating beam intensities. Based on tumour-growth data and dose values obtained in an in vivo trial comparing the biological efficacy of laser-driven and conventional clinical Linac electrons, different statistical approaches for analysis were compared. In addition to the classical averaging per dose point, which excludes animals with high dose deviations, multivariable linear regression, Cox regression and a Monte-Carlo-based approach were tested as alternatives that include all animals in statistical analysis. The four methods were compared based on experimental and simulated data. All applied statistical approaches revealed a comparable radiobiological efficacy of laser-driven and conventional Linac electrons, confirming the experimental conclusion. In the simulation study, significant differences in dose response were detected by all methods except for the conventional method, which showed the lowest power. Thereby, the alternative statistical approaches may allow for reducing the total number of required animals in future pre-clinical trials. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Interphase Cytogenetic Analysis of Micronucleated and Multinucleated Cells Supports the Premature Chromosome Condensation Hypothesis as the Mechanistic Origin of Chromothripsis
Cancers 2019, 11(8), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11081123 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The discovery of chromothripsis in cancer genomes challenges the long-standing concept of carcinogenesis as the result of progressive genetic events. Despite recent advances in describing chromothripsis, its mechanistic origin remains elusive. The prevailing conception is that it arises from a massive accumulation of [...] Read more.
The discovery of chromothripsis in cancer genomes challenges the long-standing concept of carcinogenesis as the result of progressive genetic events. Despite recent advances in describing chromothripsis, its mechanistic origin remains elusive. The prevailing conception is that it arises from a massive accumulation of fragmented DNA inside micronuclei (MN), whose defective nuclear envelope ruptures or leads to aberrant DNA replication, before main nuclei enter mitosis. An alternative hypothesis is that the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) dynamics in asynchronous micronucleated cells underlie chromosome shattering in a single catastrophic event, a hallmark of chromothripsis. Specifically, when main nuclei enter mitosis, premature chromatin condensation provokes the shattering of chromosomes entrapped inside MN, if they are still undergoing DNA replication. To test this hypothesis, the agent RO-3306, a selective ATP-competitive inhibitor of CDK1 that promotes cell cycle arrest at the G2/M boundary, was used in this study to control the degree of cell cycle asynchrony between main nuclei and MN. By delaying the entrance of main nuclei into mitosis, additional time was allowed for the completion of DNA replication and duplication of chromosomes inside MN. We performed interphase cytogenetic analysis using asynchronous micronucleated cells generated by exposure of human lymphocytes to γ-rays, and heterophasic multinucleated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells generated by cell fusion procedures. Our results demonstrate that the PCC dynamics during asynchronous mitosis in micronucleated or multinucleated cells are an important determinant of chromosome shattering and may underlie the mechanistic origin of chromothripsis. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Monitoring Radiotherapeutic Response in Prostate Cancer Patients Using High Throughput FTIR Spectroscopy of Liquid Biopsies
Cancers 2019, 11(7), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070925 - 02 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Radiation therapy (RT) is used to treat approximately 50% of all cancer patients. However, RT causes a wide range of adverse late effects that can affect a patient’s quality of life. There are currently no predictive assays in clinical use to identify patients [...] Read more.
Radiation therapy (RT) is used to treat approximately 50% of all cancer patients. However, RT causes a wide range of adverse late effects that can affect a patient’s quality of life. There are currently no predictive assays in clinical use to identify patients at risk of normal tissue radiation toxicity. This study aimed to investigate the potential of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for monitoring radiotherapeutic response. Blood plasma was acquired from 53 prostate cancer patients at five different time points: prior to treatment, after hormone treatment, at the end of radiotherapy, two months post radiotherapy and eight months post radiotherapy. FTIR spectra were recorded from plasma samples at all time points and the data was analysed using MATLAB software. Discrimination was observed between spectra recorded at baseline versus follow up time points, as well as between spectra from patients showing minimal and severe acute and late toxicity using principal component analysis. A partial least squares discriminant analysis model achieved sensitivity and specificity rates ranging from 80% to 99%. This technology may have potential to monitor radiotherapeutic response in prostate cancer patients using non-invasive blood plasma samples and could lead to individualised patient radiotherapy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Differentiation Induction as a Response to Irradiation in Neural Stem Cells In Vitro
Cancers 2019, 11(7), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070913 - 29 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Radiotherapy plays a significant role in brain cancer treatment; however, the use of this therapy is often accompanied by neurocognitive decline that is, at least partially, a consequence of radiation-induced damage to neural stem cell populations. Our findings describe features that define the [...] Read more.
Radiotherapy plays a significant role in brain cancer treatment; however, the use of this therapy is often accompanied by neurocognitive decline that is, at least partially, a consequence of radiation-induced damage to neural stem cell populations. Our findings describe features that define the response of neural stem cells (NSCs) to ionizing radiation. We investigated the effects of irradiation on neural stem cells isolated from the ventricular-subventricular zone of mouse brain and cultivated in vitro. Our findings describe the increased transcriptional activity of p53 targets and proliferative arrest after irradiation. Moreover, we show that most cells do not undergo apoptosis after irradiation but rather cease proliferation and start a differentiation program. Induction of differentiation and the demonstrated potential of irradiated cells to differentiate into neurons may represent a mechanism whereby damaged NSCs eliminate potentially hazardous cells and circumvent the debilitating consequences of cumulative DNA damage. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Acute Skin Damage and Late Radiation-Induced Fibrosis and Inflammation in Murine Ears after High-Dose Irradiation
Cancers 2019, 11(5), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11050727 - 25 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The use of different scoring systems for radiation-induced toxicity limits comparability between studies. We examined dose-dependent tissue alterations following hypofractionated X-ray irradiation and evaluated their use as scoring criteria. Four dose fractions (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 Gy/fraction) were applied daily to ear [...] Read more.
The use of different scoring systems for radiation-induced toxicity limits comparability between studies. We examined dose-dependent tissue alterations following hypofractionated X-ray irradiation and evaluated their use as scoring criteria. Four dose fractions (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 Gy/fraction) were applied daily to ear pinnae. Acute effects (ear thickness, erythema, desquamation) were monitored for 92 days after fraction 1. Late effects (chronic inflammation, fibrosis) and the presence of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-expressing cells were quantified on day 92. The maximum ear thickness displayed a significant positive correlation with fractional dose. Increased ear thickness and erythema occurred simultaneously, followed by desquamation from day 10 onwards. A significant dose-dependency was observed for the severity of erythema, but not for desquamation. After 4 × 20 and 4 × 30 Gy, inflammation was significantly increased on day 92, whereas fibrosis and the abundance of TGFβ1-expressing cells were only marginally increased after 4 × 30 Gy. Ear thickness significantly correlated with the severity of inflammation and fibrosis on day 92, but not with the number of TGFβ1-expressing cells. Fibrosis correlated significantly with inflammation and fractional dose. In conclusion, the parameter of ear thickness can be used as an objective, numerical and dose-dependent quantification criterion to characterize the severity of acute toxicity and allow for the prediction of late effects. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Does Direct and Indirect Exposure to Ionising Radiation Influence the Metastatic Potential of Breast Cancer Cells
Cancers 2020, 12(1), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010236 - 17 Jan 2020
Abstract
Ionising radiation (IR) is commonly used for cancer therapy; however, its potential influence on the metastatic ability of surviving cancer cells exposed directly or indirectly to IR remains controversial. Metastasis is a multistep process by which the cancer cells dissociate from the initial [...] Read more.
Ionising radiation (IR) is commonly used for cancer therapy; however, its potential influence on the metastatic ability of surviving cancer cells exposed directly or indirectly to IR remains controversial. Metastasis is a multistep process by which the cancer cells dissociate from the initial site, invade, travel through the blood stream or lymphatic system, and colonise distant sites. This complex process has been reported to require cancer cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by which the cancer cells convert from an adhesive, epithelial to motile, mesenchymal form and is also associated with changes in glycosylation of cell surface proteins, which may be functionally involved in metastasis. In this paper, we give an overview of metastatic mechanisms and of the fundamentals of cancer-associated glycosylation changes. While not attempting a comprehensive review of this wide and fast moving field, we highlight some of the accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo models for increased metastatic potential in cancer cells that survive IR, focusing on angiogenesis, cancer cell motility, invasion, and EMT and glycosylation. We also explore the indirect effects in cells exposed to exosomes released from irradiated cells. The results of such studies need to be interpreted with caution and there remains limited evidence that radiotherapy enhances the metastatic capacity of cancers in a clinical setting and undoubtedly has a very positive clinical benefit. However, there is potential that this therapeutic benefit may ultimately be enhanced through a better understanding of the direct and indirect effects of IR on cancer cell behaviour. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Mutation Induction in Humans and Mice: Where Are We Now?
Cancers 2019, 11(11), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11111708 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
The analysis of mutation induction in human families exposed to mutagens provides the only source of reliable estimates of factors contributing to the genetic risk of human exposure to mutagens. In this paper, I briefly summarize the results of recent studies on the [...] Read more.
The analysis of mutation induction in human families exposed to mutagens provides the only source of reliable estimates of factors contributing to the genetic risk of human exposure to mutagens. In this paper, I briefly summarize the results of recent studies on the pattern of mutation induction in the human and mouse germline. The results of recent studies on the genome-wide effects of exposure to mutagens on mutation induction in the mammalian germline are presented and discussed. Lastly, this review also addresses the issue of transgenerational effects of parental exposure to mutagens on mutation rates in their non-exposed offspring, which are known as transgenerational instability. The possible contribution of transgenerational instability to the genetic risk of human exposure to mutagens is discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Necessities in the Processing of DNA Double Strand Breaks and Their Effects on Genomic Instability and Cancer
Cancers 2019, 11(11), 1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11111671 - 28 Oct 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Double strand breaks (DSBs) are induced in the DNA following exposure of cells to ionizing radiation (IR) and are highly consequential for genome integrity, requiring highly specialized modes of processing. Erroneous processing of DSBs is a cause of cell death or its transformation [...] Read more.
Double strand breaks (DSBs) are induced in the DNA following exposure of cells to ionizing radiation (IR) and are highly consequential for genome integrity, requiring highly specialized modes of processing. Erroneous processing of DSBs is a cause of cell death or its transformation to a cancer cell. Four mechanistically distinct pathways have evolved in cells of higher eukaryotes to process DSBs, providing thus multiple options for the damaged cells. The homologous recombination repair (HRR) dependent subway of gene conversion (GC) removes IR-induced DSBs from the genome in an error-free manner. Classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ) removes DSBs with very high speed but is unable to restore the sequence at the generated junction and can catalyze the formation of translocations. Alternative end-joining (alt-EJ) operates on similar principles as c-NHEJ but is slower and more error-prone regarding both sequence preservation and translocation formation. Finally, single strand annealing (SSA) is associated with large deletions and may also form translocations. Thus, the four pathways available for the processing of DSBs are not alternative options producing equivalent outcomes. We discuss the rationale for the evolution of pathways with such divergent properties and fidelities and outline the logic and necessities that govern their engagement. We reason that cells are not free to choose one specific pathway for the processing of a DSB but rather that they engage a pathway by applying the logic of highest fidelity selection, adapted to necessities imposed by the character of the DSB being processed. We introduce DSB clusters as a particularly consequential form of chromatin breakage and review findings suggesting that this form of damage underpins the increased efficacy of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation modalities. The concepts developed have implications for the protection of humans from radon-induced cancer, as well as the treatment of cancer with radiations of high LET. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The CD73/Ado System—A New Player in RT Induced Adverse Late Effects
Cancers 2019, 11(10), 1578; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101578 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Radiotherapy (RT) is a central component of standard treatment for many cancer patients. RT alone or in multimodal treatment strategies has a documented contribution to enhanced local control and overall survival of cancer patients, and cancer cure. Clinical RT aims at maximizing tumor [...] Read more.
Radiotherapy (RT) is a central component of standard treatment for many cancer patients. RT alone or in multimodal treatment strategies has a documented contribution to enhanced local control and overall survival of cancer patients, and cancer cure. Clinical RT aims at maximizing tumor control, while minimizing the risk for RT-induced adverse late effects. However, acute and late toxicities of IR in normal tissues are still important biological barriers to successful RT: While curative RT may not be tolerable, sub-optimal tolerable RT doses will lead to fatal outcomes by local recurrence or metastatic disease, even when accepting adverse normal tissue effects that decrease the quality of life of irradiated cancer patients. Technical improvements in treatment planning and the increasing use of particle therapy have allowed for a more accurate delivery of IR to the tumor volume and have thereby helped to improve the safety profile of RT for many solid tumors. With these technical and physical strategies reaching their natural limits, current research for improving the therapeutic gain of RT focuses on innovative biological concepts that either selectively limit the adverse effects of RT in normal tissues without protecting the tumor or specifically increase the radiosensitivity of the tumor tissue without enhancing the risk of normal tissue complications. The biology-based optimization of RT requires the identification of biological factors that are linked to differential radiosensitivity of normal or tumor tissues, and are amenable to therapeutic targeting. Extracellular adenosine is an endogenous mediator critical to the maintenance of homeostasis in various tissues. Adenosine is either released from stressed or injured cells or generated from extracellular adenine nucleotides by the concerted action of the ectoenzymes ectoapyrase (CD39) and 5′ ectonucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) that catabolize ATP to adenosine. Recent work revealed a role of the immunoregulatory CD73/adenosine system in radiation-induced fibrotic disease in normal tissues suggesting a potential use as novel therapeutic target for normal tissue protection. The present review summarizes relevant findings on the pathologic roles of CD73 and adenosine in radiation-induced fibrosis in different organs (lung, skin, gut, and kidney) that have been obtained in preclinical models and proposes a refined model of radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity including the disease-promoting effects of radiation-induced activation of CD73/adenosine signaling in the irradiated tissue environment. However, expression and activity of the CD73/adenosine system in the tumor environment has also been linked to increased tumor growth and tumor immune escape, at least in preclinical models. Therefore, we will discuss the use of pharmacologic inhibition of CD73/adenosine-signaling as a promising strategy for improving the therapeutic gain of RT by targeting both, malignant tumor growth and adverse late effects of RT with a focus on fibrotic disease. The consideration of the therapeutic window is particularly important in view of the increasing use of RT in combination with various molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapy to enhance the tumor radiation response, as such combinations may result in increased or novel toxicities, as well as the increasing number of cancer survivors. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Implementation of the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) Model in Radiation Biology and Experimental Radiation Oncology Research
Cancers 2019, 11(10), 1499; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101499 - 07 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Radiotherapy (RT) is part of standard cancer treatment. Innovations in treatment planning and increased precision in dose delivery have significantly improved the therapeutic gain of radiotherapy but are reaching their limits due to biologic constraints. Thus, a better understanding of the complex local [...] Read more.
Radiotherapy (RT) is part of standard cancer treatment. Innovations in treatment planning and increased precision in dose delivery have significantly improved the therapeutic gain of radiotherapy but are reaching their limits due to biologic constraints. Thus, a better understanding of the complex local and systemic responses to RT and of the biological mechanisms causing treatment success or failure is required if we aim to define novel targets for biological therapy optimization. Moreover, optimal treatment schedules and prognostic biomarkers have to be defined for assigning patients to the best treatment option. The complexity of the tumor environment and of the radiation response requires extensive in vivo experiments for the validation of such treatments. So far in vivo investigations have mostly been performed in time- and cost-intensive murine models. Here we propose the implementation of the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model as a fast, cost-efficient model for semi high-throughput preclinical in vivo screening of the modulation of the radiation effects by molecularly targeted drugs. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the application spectrum, advantages and limitations of the CAM assay and summarizes current knowledge of its applicability for cancer research with special focus on research in radiation biology and experimental radiation oncology. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Radiation Tolerance in Tardigrades: Current Knowledge and Potential Applications in Medicine
Cancers 2019, 11(9), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091333 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Tardigrades represent a phylum of very small aquatic animals in which many species have evolved adaptations to survive under extreme environmental conditions, such as desiccation and freezing. Studies on several species have documented that tardigrades also belong to the most radiation-tolerant animals on [...] Read more.
Tardigrades represent a phylum of very small aquatic animals in which many species have evolved adaptations to survive under extreme environmental conditions, such as desiccation and freezing. Studies on several species have documented that tardigrades also belong to the most radiation-tolerant animals on Earth. This paper gives an overview of our current knowledge on radiation tolerance of tardigrades, with respect to dose-responses, developmental stages, and different radiation sources. The molecular mechanisms behind radiation tolerance in tardigrades are still largely unknown, but omics studies suggest that both mechanisms related to the avoidance of DNA damage and mechanisms of DNA repair are involved. The potential of tardigrades to provide knowledge of importance for medical sciences has long been recognized, but it is not until recently that more apparent evidence of such potential has appeared. Recent studies show that stress-related tardigrade genes may be transfected to human cells and provide increased tolerance to osmotic stress and ionizing radiation. With the recent sequencing of the tardigrade genome, more studies applying tardigrade omics to relevant aspects of human medicine are expected. In particular, the cancer research field has potential to learn from studies on tardigrades about molecular mechanisms evolved to maintain genome integrity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Relevance of Non-Targeted Effects for Radiotherapy and Diagnostic Radiology; A Historical and Conceptual Analysis of Key Players
Cancers 2019, 11(9), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091236 - 23 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Non-targeted effects (NTE) such as bystander effects or genomic instability have been known for many years but their significance for radiotherapy or medical diagnostic radiology are far from clear. Central to the issue are reported differences in the response of normal and tumour [...] Read more.
Non-targeted effects (NTE) such as bystander effects or genomic instability have been known for many years but their significance for radiotherapy or medical diagnostic radiology are far from clear. Central to the issue are reported differences in the response of normal and tumour tissues to signals from directly irradiated cells. This review will discuss possible mechanisms and implications of these different responses and will then discuss possible new therapeutic avenues suggested by the analysis. Finally, the importance of NTE for diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine which stems from the dominance of NTE in the low-dose region of the dose–response curve will be presented. Areas such as second cancer induction and microenvironment plasticity will be discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Nucleoshuttling of the ATM Protein: A Unified Model to Describe the Individual Response to High- and Low-Dose of Radiation?
Cancers 2019, 11(7), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070905 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The evaluation of radiation-induced (RI) risks is of medical, scientific, and societal interest. However, despite considerable efforts, there is neither consensual mechanistic models nor predictive assays for describing the three major RI effects, namely radiosensitivity, radiosusceptibility, and radiodegeneration. Interestingly, the ataxia telangiectasia mutated [...] Read more.
The evaluation of radiation-induced (RI) risks is of medical, scientific, and societal interest. However, despite considerable efforts, there is neither consensual mechanistic models nor predictive assays for describing the three major RI effects, namely radiosensitivity, radiosusceptibility, and radiodegeneration. Interestingly, the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is a major stress response factor involved in the DNA repair and signaling that appears upstream most of pathways involved in the three precited RI effects. The rate of the RI ATM nucleoshuttling (RIANS) was shown to be a good predictor of radiosensitivity. In the frame of the RIANS model, irradiation triggers the monomerization of cytoplasmic ATM dimers, which allows ATM monomers to diffuse in nucleus. The nuclear ATM monomers phosphorylate the H2AX histones, which triggers the recognition of DNA double-strand breaks and their repair. The RIANS model has made it possible to define three subgroups of radiosensitivity and provided a relevant explanation for the radiosensitivity observed in syndromes caused by mutated cytoplasmic proteins. Interestingly, hyper-radiosensitivity to a low dose and adaptive response phenomena may be also explained by the RIANS model. In this review, the relevance of the RIANS model to describe several features of the individual response to radiation was discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop