Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors and Its Application in Miniaturized Analysis

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensor Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 June 2024 | Viewed by 7082

Special Issue Editors

School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
Interests: electroanalysis; electrocatalysis; electrochemiluminescence; nanoparticle; biosensor; immunoassay; enzyme

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Guest Editor
College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin Universtiy of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
Interests: electroanalysis; fluorescent analysis; biosensing; nanomaterial modification; chiral sensing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials have unique optic, electronic, and porous properties, which mean they have been widely applied in electrochemical biosensing. The term “nanomaterials” covers a range of noble metal nanomaterials, conjugated polymers, semiconductor nanomaterials, metal–organic frameworks, and carbon nanomaterials. Due to the varied shapes and structures of nanomaterials, such as 0D particle/clusters, 1D wires, 2D sheets/plates, and 3D porous materials, they can work as labels, carriers, and electron mediators in electrochemical biosensing to greatly improve the sensitivity and detection limits. Thus, this Special Issue will focus on the applications of various nanomaterials in electrochemical biosensors for human health detection and food and environment analysis. Fast, point-of-care, non-invasive analytical techniques will also be proposed. We invite you to submit your research to this Special Issue.

Dr. Ling Zhang
Prof. Dr. Yali Yuan
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • electrochemical biosensor
  • noble metal nanomaterials
  • carbon nanomaterials
  • porous nanomaterials
  • electrochemiluminescence
  • point-of care
  • labeling

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 2187 KiB  
Article
Duplex Vertical-Flow Rapid Tests for Point-of-Care Detection of Anti-dsDNA and Anti-Nuclear Autoantibodies
by Rongwei Lei, Hufsa Arain, David Wang, Janani Arunachalam, Ramesh Saxena and Chandra Mohan
Biosensors 2024, 14(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios14020098 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1590
Abstract
The goal of this study is to develop a rapid diagnostic test for rheumatic disease and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) screening. A novel rapid vertical flow assay (VFA) was engineered and used to assay anti-nuclear (ANA) and anti-dsDNA (αDNA) autoantibodies from systemic lupus [...] Read more.
The goal of this study is to develop a rapid diagnostic test for rheumatic disease and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) screening. A novel rapid vertical flow assay (VFA) was engineered and used to assay anti-nuclear (ANA) and anti-dsDNA (αDNA) autoantibodies from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls (HCs). Observer scores and absolute signal intensities from the VFA were validated via ELISA. The rapid point-of-care VFA test that was engineered demonstrated a limit of detection of 0.5 IU/mL for ANA and αDNA autoantibodies in human plasma with an inter-operator CV of 19% for ANA and 12% for αDNA. Storage stability was verified over a three-month period. When testing anti-dsDNA and ANA levels in SLE and HC serum samples, the duplex VFA revealed 95% sensitivity, 72% specificity and an 84% ROC AUC value in discriminating disease groups, comparable to the gold standard, ELISA. The rapid αDNA/ANA duplex VFA can potentially be used in primary care clinics for evaluating patients or at-risk subjects for rheumatic diseases and for planning follow-up testing. Given its low cost, ease, and rapid turnaround, it can also be used to assess SLE prevalence estimates. Full article
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18 pages, 4043 KiB  
Article
Unique Electron-Transfer-Mediated Electrochemiluminescence of AuPt Bimetallic Nanoclusters and the Application in Cancer Immunoassay
by Huiwen Zhou, Ruanshan Liu, Guangxing Pan, Miaomiao Cao and Ling Zhang
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050550 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1726
Abstract
Noble Metal nanoclusters (NCs) are promising electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emitters due to their amazing optical properties and excellent biocompatibility. They have been widely used in the detection of ions, pollutant molecules, biomolecules, etc. Herein, we found that glutathione-capped AuPt bimetallic NCs (GSH-AuPt NCs) emitted [...] Read more.
Noble Metal nanoclusters (NCs) are promising electrochemiluminescence (ECL) emitters due to their amazing optical properties and excellent biocompatibility. They have been widely used in the detection of ions, pollutant molecules, biomolecules, etc. Herein, we found that glutathione-capped AuPt bimetallic NCs (GSH-AuPt NCs) emitted strong anodic ECL signals with triethylamine as co-reactants which had no fluorescence (FL) response. Due to the synergistic effect of bimetallic structures, the ECL signals of AuPt NCs were 6.8 and 94 times higher than those of monometallic Au and Pt NCs, respectively. The electric and optical properties of GSH-AuPt NCs differed from those of Au and Pt NCs completely. An electron-transfer mediated ECL mechanism was proposed. The excited electrons may be neutralized by Pt(II) in GSH-Pt and GSH-AuPt NCs, resulting in the vanished FL. Furthermore, abundant TEA radicals formed on the anode contributed electrons to the highest unoccupied molecular orbital of GSH-Au2.5Pt NCs and Pt(II), booming intense ECL signals. Because of the ligand effect and ensemble effect, bimetallic AuPt NCs exhibited much stronger ECL than GSH-Au NCs. A sandwich-type immunoassay for alpha fetoprotein (AFP) cancer biomarkers was fabricated with GSH-AuPt NCs as signal tags, which displayed a wide linear range from 0.01 to 1000 ng·mL−1 and a limit of detection (LOD) down to 1.0 pg·mL−1 at 3S/N. Compared to previous ECL AFP immunoassays, this method not only had a wider linear range but also a lower LOD. The recoveries of AFP in human serum were around 108%, providing a wonderful strategy for fast, sensitive, and accurate cancer diagnosis. Full article
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11 pages, 2726 KiB  
Article
Development of Levo-Lansoprazole Chiral Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensor Based on the Polylysine–Phenylalanine Complex Framework Conformational Separation
by Lianming Zhang, Zian Wang, Dan Li, Yali Yuan, Huixiang Ouyang and Jianping Li
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050509 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
The efficacies and toxicities of chiral drug enantiomers are often dissimilar, necessitating chiral recognition methods. Herein, a polylysine–phenylalanine complex framework was used to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sensors with enhanced specific recognition capabilities for levo-lansoprazole. The properties of the MIP sensor [...] Read more.
The efficacies and toxicities of chiral drug enantiomers are often dissimilar, necessitating chiral recognition methods. Herein, a polylysine–phenylalanine complex framework was used to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sensors with enhanced specific recognition capabilities for levo-lansoprazole. The properties of the MIP sensor were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. The optimal sensor performance was achieved by applying self-assembly times of 30.0 and 25.0 min for the complex framework and levo-lansoprazole, respectively, eight electropolymerization cycles with o-phenylenediamine as the functional monomer, an elution time of 5.0 min using an ethanol/acetic acid/H2O mixture (2/3/8, V/V/V) as the eluent, and a rebound time of 10.0 min. A linear relationship was observed between the sensor response intensity (ΔI) and logarithm of the levo-lansoprazole concentration (l-g C) in the range of 1.0 × 10−13–3.0 × 10−11 mol/L. Compared with a conventional MIP sensor, the proposed sensor showed more efficient enantiomeric recognition, with high selectivity and specificity for levo-lansoprazole. The sensor was successfully applied to levo-lansoprazole detection in enteric-coated lansoprazole tablets, thus demonstrating its suitability for practical applications. Full article
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16 pages, 2160 KiB  
Article
Behind the Optimization of the Sensor Film: Bioconjugation of Triangular Gold Nanoparticles with Hemoproteins for Sensitivity Enhancement of Enzymatic Biosensors
by Miriam Chávez, Ángela Fernandez-Merino, Rafael del Caño, Guadalupe Sánchez-Obrero, Rafael Madueño, Manuel Blázquez and Teresa Pineda
Biosensors 2023, 13(4), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13040467 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Electrochemical biosensors are widely used in a multitude of applications, such as medical, nutrition, research, among other fields. These sensors have been historically used and have not undergone many changes in terms of the involved electrochemical processes. In this work, we propose a [...] Read more.
Electrochemical biosensors are widely used in a multitude of applications, such as medical, nutrition, research, among other fields. These sensors have been historically used and have not undergone many changes in terms of the involved electrochemical processes. In this work, we propose a new approach on the immobilization and enhancement of the electrochemical properties of the sensing layers through the control and bioconjugation of hemoproteins (hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome C) on anisotropic gold nanoparticles (gold nanotriangles (AuNTs)). The hemeproteins and the AuNTs are mixed in a solution, resulting in stable bioconjugates that are deposited onto the electrode surface to obtain the biosensors. All the systems proposed herein exhibited direct well-defined redox responses, highlighting the key role of the AuNTs acting as mediators of such electron transfers. Several protein layers surrounding the AuNTs are electroactive, as demonstrated from the charge measured by cyclic voltammetry. The retention of the stability of the hemeproteins once they are part of the bioconjugates is evidenced towards the electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and nitrite. The parameters obtained for the proposed biosensors are similar or even lower than those previously reported for similar systems based on nanomaterials, and they exhibit attractive properties that make them potential candidates for the latest developments in the field of sensing devices. Full article
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