Mechanical Characterization of Biomaterials

A special issue of Biomimetics (ISSN 2313-7673).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2021) | Viewed by 14758

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Engineering (SI-UniBas), Università degli Studi della Basilicata (UniBas), 85100 Potenza, PZ, Italy
Interests: contact mechanics; tribology; mechanical vibrations; vehicle dynamics; material characterization
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Understanding the mechanical behaviour of biological components, like those of human and animal bodies, plays a crucial role in monitoring their functionalities. In addition, the marvellous mechanical performance of biological tissues, in the recent years has inspired in-depth analyses by researchers, who are involved in studying how to mimic these properties for many applications. Indeed, for several years now, bio-inspired materials have been employed to fabricate medical devices (e.g. optimal adhesive tapes), as well as miniaturized robots, but also many examples exists in the regenerative medicine, such as the synthetic tissues, which are utilized for treating injuries (e.g. in ligament, brain and spinal cord). However, when considering a biomaterial to be used in implants, various aspects, such as biocompatibility and its mechanical functions, should also be studied.

So far, some specific properties of these materials have not yet been well characterized and, hence, replicated, due to the complicated experimental measurements to be carried out with the suitable instrumentation, and the difficulty in developing theories able to properly predict their mechanical behaviour. The main goal of this special issue is to report advances in this research field, and to disclose some still unknown characteristics of human and animal organ  materials, which are typically heterogeneous, ultra-soft and sometimes biphasic, non-linear or viscoelastic.

The research topic welcomes original research and review articles, and is devoted to a worthwhile exchange of novel insights regarding biological components and their material properties. Both experimental and modelling approaches are expected, in order to contribute to a more profound and thorough understanding of the mechanical behaviour of living matter. Due to the intrinsic multidisciplinary nature of this research topic, synergies are encouraged between different fields, as engineering, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Carbone
Dr. Elena Pierro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomimetics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biological tissues
  • tissue engineering
  • biomimetic materials
  • mechanical characterization
  • biomimetics
  • mechanical properties
  • non linear materials
  • viscoelastic materials

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

8 pages, 913 KiB  
Article
The Evaluation of Microshear Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Titanium Using Different Surface Treatment Methods: An In Vitro Study
by Mohammadreza Nakhaei, Neda Bozorgmehr, Hamidreza Rajati Haghi, Hossein Bagheri and Abdolrasoul Rangrazi
Biomimetics 2022, 7(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7010018 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
This study attempted to investigate the effect of sandblasting and H2O2 treatments on the microshear bond strength of two commercially available resin cements. A total of 90 cube-shaped specimens of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) were divided into two groups of [...] Read more.
This study attempted to investigate the effect of sandblasting and H2O2 treatments on the microshear bond strength of two commercially available resin cements. A total of 90 cube-shaped specimens of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) were divided into two groups of Panavia and MHA cements (n = 45). Samples of the Panavia group were randomly divided into three subgroups of 15 samples, including subgroups (no treatment, aluminum oxide sandblasting, and immersion in 35% hydrogen peroxide solution with halogen light). Once the treatment was completed, Panavia V5 was applied on the cp-Ti surface by a Tygon tube. The 45 specimens of the MHA cement group were randomly divided into three subgroups (n = 15) similarly to the Panavia group. Then, the MHA was applied on the surface of cp-Ti. A universal testing machine was used to measure and examine the microshear bond strength of cement to cp-Ti subsequent to the step of thermocycling. According to results, in the Panavia cement group, the SBS of sandblasting treatment was significantly higher than that of the H2O2 treatment subgroup (p < 0.05), which displayed a significantly higher SBS than that of the no-treatment subgroup (p < 0.001). In regard to the MHA group, the SBS of the H2O2 treatment subgroup was significantly lower than that of the sandblasting treatment subgroup (p < 0.001), whereas there were no significant differences between the SBS of the no treatment and H2O2 treatment subgroups (p = 0.35). Considering the comparison between Panavia and MHA cases, there were no significant differences observed among the no-treatment subgroups (p = 0.34), as well as the sandblasting treatment subgroups (p = 0.67), while the SBS of the H2O2 treatment subgroup in Panavia cement was higher than that of the H2O2 subgroup in MHA cement (p < 0.001). In conclusion, in both Panavia V5 and MHA cements, sandblasting treatment could improve the bond strength between the titanium surface. However, H2O2 treatment proved to be capable of enhancing the bond strength of Panavia V5 cement without causing any positive effects on the bond strength of MHA cement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Characterization of Biomaterials)
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20 pages, 7543 KiB  
Article
The Role of Substrate Topography and Stiffness on MSC Cells Functions: Key Material Properties for Biomimetic Bone Tissue Engineering
by Foteini K. Kozaniti, Despina D. Deligianni, Margarita D. Georgiou and Diana V. Portan
Biomimetics 2022, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics7010007 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3516
Abstract
The hypothesis of the present research is that by altering the substrate topography and/or stiffness to make it biomimetic, we can modulate cells behavior. Substrates with similar surface chemistry and varying stiffnesses and topographies were prepared. Bulk PCL and CNTs-reinforced PCL composites were [...] Read more.
The hypothesis of the present research is that by altering the substrate topography and/or stiffness to make it biomimetic, we can modulate cells behavior. Substrates with similar surface chemistry and varying stiffnesses and topographies were prepared. Bulk PCL and CNTs-reinforced PCL composites were manufactured by solvent casting method and electrospinning and further processed to obtain tunable moduli of elasticity in the range of few MPa. To ensure the same chemical profile for the substrates, a protein coating was added. Substrate topography and properties were investigated. Further on, the feedback of Wharton’s Jelly Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells to substrates characteristics was investigated. Solvent casting scaffolds displayed superior mechanical properties compared to the corresponding electrospun films. However, the biomimetic fibrous texture of the electrospun substrates induced improved feedback of the cells with respect to their viability and proliferation. Cells’ adhesion and differentiation was remarkably pronounced on solvent casting substrates compared to the electrospun substrates. Soft substates improved cells multiplication and migration, while stiff substrates induced differentiation into bone cells. Aspects related to the key factors and the ideal properties of substrates and microenvironments were clarified, aiming towards the deep understanding of the required optimum biomimetic features of biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Characterization of Biomaterials)
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6 pages, 1197 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Labrum Resistance Force while Pull-Probing In Vivo and Cadaveric Hips
by Takehito Hananouchi, Soshi Uchida, Yusuke Hashimoto, Funakoshi Noboru and Stephen K. Aoki
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020035 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3504
Abstract
Cadaver tissue has been identified as the highest-fidelity anatomical representation in terms of the training for orthopedic surgery, including for arthroscopy of a damaged hip labrum. However, hip labrum stiffness in vivo and in cadavers has not been directly compared. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Cadaver tissue has been identified as the highest-fidelity anatomical representation in terms of the training for orthopedic surgery, including for arthroscopy of a damaged hip labrum. However, hip labrum stiffness in vivo and in cadavers has not been directly compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo and cadaveric hip labrum stiffness during pull-probing with a force sensor. We measured the resistance force of the hip labrum in ten patients during hip arthroscopy (i.e., in vivo) and compared it with ten cadavers, both intact and detached from the acetabulum, using a surgical knife. We confirmed a partial labral tear (i.e., not detached fully from the rim) at an antero-superior potion in all of the patients. The mean highest resistance levels for the hip labrum in the patients (4.7 N) were significantly lower than the intact cadaveric labrum (8.3 N), and slightly higher than the detached labrum (4.2 N). In this study, the stiffness of the cadaveric labrum tissue was similar to that of the in-vivo hip labrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Characterization of Biomaterials)
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9 pages, 1139 KiB  
Article
Incorporation of Chitosan Nanoparticles into a Cold-Cure Orthodontic Acrylic Resin: Effects on Mechanical Properties
by Mostafa Shahabi, Sorour Movahedi Fazel and Abdolrasoul Rangrazi
Biomimetics 2021, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6010007 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3730
Abstract
Improvement of the antibacterial properties of acrylic resins, used in the construction of removable orthodontic appliances, is an important strategy to reduce the incidence of caries and oral diseases in orthodontic treatments. The addition of antimicrobial agents to acrylic resins is one of [...] Read more.
Improvement of the antibacterial properties of acrylic resins, used in the construction of removable orthodontic appliances, is an important strategy to reduce the incidence of caries and oral diseases in orthodontic treatments. The addition of antimicrobial agents to acrylic resins is one of the effective methods to enhance the antimicrobial properties of these materials. However, one main concern is that modification of acrylic resin has negative effects on its mechanical properties. Recently, chitosan nanoparticles (NPs), as biocompatible and biodegradable polysaccharides with remarkable antimicrobial properties, have been used in different areas of dentistry and medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding chitosan NPs on the mechanical properties of a cold-cure orthodontic acrylic resin. The chitosan NPs were added to the acrylic resin in various weight percentages: 0% (control), 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 4%. The flexural strength, compressive strength, Vickers microhardness, and impact strength measurements were performed for all five groups. The results showed that adding up to 1% (w/w) chitosan NPs to an acrylic resin had no significant negative effects on its flexural strength and compressive strength, while it decreased these parameters at weight percentages of 2% and 4% (w/w). The results also revealed that modification of acrylic resin with chitosan NPs up to 4% had no significant negative effects on the microhardness and impact strength of acrylic resin. In conclusion, the addition of chitosan NPs up to 1% (w/w) had no significant negative effects on the mechanical properties of cold-cure acrylic resin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Characterization of Biomaterials)
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