Oral Microbiota: Development Control, Physiopathology and Oral Biomarkers

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737). This special issue belongs to the section "Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 9963

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences, Morphological and Functional Images, School of Dentistry University of Messina, 98100 Messina, Italy
2. Multidisciplinary Department of Medical-Surgical and Odontostomatological Specialties, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80121 Naples, Italy
Interests: oral health; public health; systemic disease; biomaterials; microbiomes; infection risk; oral surgery; rehabilitative medicine; environment disinfection
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Guest Editor
Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95124 Catania, Italy
Interests: prosthesis; prosthodontics; material sciences; oral surgery; tissue engineering; biomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue stems from the need to shed light on many aspects of oral health, and on how the presence of a microbiota could affect it. The oral microbiota is represented by microorganisms that live in symbiosis in the oral cavity. This complex ecosystem is mainly composed of bacteria, of which there are as many as 700 species, as well as protozoa, fungi, and viruses, which coexist with bacteria. The peculiarity lies in the ability of bacteria to aggregate with each other by adhering, through salivary proteins, to the surface of the teeth. From this aggregation, a biofilm originates, which constitutes the dental plaque, which, when calcified, can lead to the formation of tartar. In a healthy subject and with good hygiene, a balance is normally established in the oral ecosystem between the numerous bacterial species present and the organism’s defense systems. However, variation in this equilibrium could determine the origin of pathologies of the oral cavity, in particular of periodontal disease.

The oral microbiota seems to have an important role in the development of new diagnostic and/or treatment methods for particular pathologies, even if not strictly related to the oropharyngeal tract. From this, we could deduce how certain oral bacteria are involved in the development and course of different clinical conditions. The oral microbiota could therefore also be influenced by systemic health and by some environmental factors such as diet, smoking habits or alcohol. It is important to highlight whether or not a correlation exists with the surgical, rehabilitative or healing phases. The presence of biomarkers that may or may not identify an oral health status is essential and would also become an important signal for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases.

Dr. Luca Fiorillo
Prof. Dr. Marco Cicciù
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • oral health
  • dentistry
  • oral biology
  • biomarkers
  • oral pathology
  • oral microbiota
  • bacteria
  • infection
  • wound healing
  • periodontology
  • oral surgery
  • biomaterials
  • animal studies
  • human studies
  • biofilm
  • plaque

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Editorial

5 pages, 246 KiB  
Editorial
Water Contamination Risks at the Dental Clinic
by Marco Cicciù
Biology 2020, 9(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9030043 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3945
Abstract
Dental clinics, furnished with an array of specialized equipment, are commonplace, particularly in industrialized countries. Minimizing the risk of infection at the dental practice requires the formulation and implementation of strict protocols. These protocols must address the real risk posed by water contamination, [...] Read more.
Dental clinics, furnished with an array of specialized equipment, are commonplace, particularly in industrialized countries. Minimizing the risk of infection at the dental practice requires the formulation and implementation of strict protocols. These protocols must address the real risk posed by water contamination, particularly given that water is both integral to the function of some dental equipment, and is typically administered directly to the patient. The water in the dental clinic may be of local origin or from a water main, this can be problematic since the clinician often has little assurance regarding the quality of water reaching the dental chair. Though most modern dental equipment includes self-sterilization protocols, care must be taken that water does not stagnate anywhere in the dental equipment or clinic. The management of water quality at the dental clinic is an important part of respecting the protocols needed to manage the risk of patient infections. Full article
5 pages, 544 KiB  
Editorial
We Do Not Eat Alone: Formation and Maturation of the Oral Microbiota
by Luca Fiorillo
Biology 2020, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology9010017 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5204
Abstract
From the earliest moments of life, contact with the outside world and with other individuals invalidates the sterility of the oral cavity. The oral cavity passes from a sterility condition, that is present only during intrauterine life, to a condition in which a [...] Read more.
From the earliest moments of life, contact with the outside world and with other individuals invalidates the sterility of the oral cavity. The oral cavity passes from a sterility condition, that is present only during intrauterine life, to a condition in which a microbiota organizes and evolves itself, accompanying the person throughout their life. Depending on a patient’s age, systemic conditions and/or oral conditions, different characteristics of the oral microbiome are shown. By verifying and analyzing this process it is possible to understand what is at the basis of the etiopathogenesis of some oral pathologies, and also the function of the oral microbiome. Full article
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