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Dental Materials in Endodontic and Post-endodontic Therapy

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 November 2022) | Viewed by 16693

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences, Morphological and Functional Images, School of Dentistry, University of Messina, Policlinico G. Martino, Via Consolare Valeria, 98100 Messina, Italy
Interests: oral surgery; prosthodontics; parametrical analysis; biomechanics; biomaterials; biotechnologies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
Interests: restorative dentistry; endodontics; digital dentistry; sealers; biocompatibility; adhesion; CAD-CAM
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the recent introduction of the “minimal-invasive dentistry” concept, the development of new materials and technologies in restorative dentistry and endodontics is becoming more and more important. The aim of this Special Issue is to summarize and to focus the future of endodontic and post-endodontic restoration with a special attention to new opportunities offered by digital technologies. Materials properties analysis is an important step for computer-assisted-design/computer-assisted-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and fabrication procedures like milling and 3D printing. Accuracy in post-endodontic procedures can be obtained only through the knowledge of the type and limitations of materials, criteria of materials selection, preparation concepts, protocols of adhesion to tooth structure, and cementation procedures. In endodontics, the Special Issue will focus on the new Ni–Ti alloys in the manufacturing of shaping instruments, new irrigants in cleaning, and new materials in obturation, like bioceramic sealers derived from bioactive glass-based. At present, the properties of these sealers require investigations which shall provide evidence about their biocompatibility, sealing mechanism, sealing ability, and removability. It would be good to create a platform for all researchers and clinicians to share their experiences and studies in these fields. It is my pleasure to invite researchers and university groups to submit original, clinical, and review studies, on these subjects.

Prof. Giuseppe Lo Giudice
Prof. Marco Cicciù
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Post endo restoration
  • CAD–CAM
  • Endo-crown
  • Indirect restoration
  • Adhesion
  • Sealers
  • Bioceramic
  • Biomaterials
  • Ni–Ti instruments
  • Nanomaterials
  • Irrigants
  • Minimal invasive dentistry
  • Composite cements

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 1656 KiB  
Article
The Efficiency of the BTR-Pen System in Removing Different Types of Broken Instruments from Root Canals and Its Effect on the Fracture Resistance of Roots
by Merve Dulundu and Dilek Helvacioglu-Yigit
Materials 2022, 15(17), 5816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15175816 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2265
Abstract
The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the BTR-Pen system in removing different types of instrument fragments from root canals and to assess its effect on fracture resistance of the roots after the removal of the instruments. One hundred thirty human teeth [...] Read more.
The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the BTR-Pen system in removing different types of instrument fragments from root canals and to assess its effect on fracture resistance of the roots after the removal of the instruments. One hundred thirty human teeth were divided into 10 groups (2 control groups and 8 study groups) according to the localization and type of the fractured fragment as well as the retrieval techniques. Broken instruments were extracted either with BTR-Pen system loops or removed using solely ultrasonic tips. The success rate of instrument removal and consumed time were recorded. All the teeth were subjected to a load at a 1 mm/min rate in a universal testing machine for mechanical testing. The success of removing broken instruments using the BTR-Pen and ultrasonic was 86.7% and 83.3%, respectively (p > 0.05). When the time is compared, the BTR-Pen system (23.97 ± 8.35 min) showed similar results to that of the ultrasonic technique (24.1 ± 8.28 min) (p > 0.05). The BTR-Pen group required less force to fracture than the ultrasonic group (p = 0.024). In conclusion, the BTR-Pen and ultrasonic groups showed no significant difference in terms of the success rate and removal time. The roots that underwent instrument removal using the BTR-Pen system had less fracture resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials in Endodontic and Post-endodontic Therapy)
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11 pages, 1595 KiB  
Article
Comparative Evaluation of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Obturation Using Four Different Techniques—A Laboratory Study
by Abhishek Isaac Mathew, Silvia Chamin Lee, Giampiero Rossi-Fedele, George Bogen, Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu and William Nguyen Ha
Materials 2021, 14(11), 3126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14113126 - 7 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3979
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the density of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root canal filling material in the apical 5 mm of artificial root canals. Forty transparent acrylic blocks with 30-degree curved canals were instrumented and allocated into four compaction technique [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the density of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root canal filling material in the apical 5 mm of artificial root canals. Forty transparent acrylic blocks with 30-degree curved canals were instrumented and allocated into four compaction technique groups (n = 10): Lawaty (hand files); gutta-percha (GP) points; auger (nickel–titanium rotary files in reverse mode); and plugger technique. Filled canals were weighed after setting the MTA to calculate difference in mass. Two postoperative radiographs compared radiopacity by measuring luminance variations at 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, and 5 mm from the root apex. Obturation time was measured using a digital chronometer. The significance level was set to p < 0.05. The plugger group had a lower mass. Relative luminance was significantly higher for the Lawaty group than the plugger group at all examined apical levels. The relative luminance of the auger and GP groups were significantly higher than the plugger group at depths between 0.5 mm and 2 mm. Relative luminance was highest for the Lawaty technique at all depths between 0.5 mm and 4 mm. The Lawaty technique group was associated with increased obturation time compared with pluggers. Compacting MTA in curved canals with the Lawaty technique has the highest mass and radiopacity but requires more time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials in Endodontic and Post-endodontic Therapy)
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13 pages, 25501 KiB  
Communication
Lithium Disilicate Ceramic Endocrown Biomechanical Response According to Different Pulp Chamber Extension Angles and Filling Materials
by João Paulo Mendes Tribst, Roberto Lo Giudice, Alison Flavio Campos dos Santos, Alexandre Luiz Souto Borges, Laís Regiane Silva-Concílio, Marina Amaral and Giuseppe Lo Giudice
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051307 - 9 Mar 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4152
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of pulp chamber extension angles and filling material mechanical properties on the biomechanical response of a ceramic endocrown. A 3D model of maxillary molar that underwent endodontically treatment was exported to computer aided [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of pulp chamber extension angles and filling material mechanical properties on the biomechanical response of a ceramic endocrown. A 3D model of maxillary molar that underwent endodontically treatment was exported to computer aided design software to conduct finite element analysis (FEA). The endocrown model was modified considering different pulp chamber extension angles (right angle; 6°, 12° and 18° of axial divergence). The solids were imported into the computer aided engineering software in Standard for the Exchange of Product Data (STEP) format. Nine different filling materials were simulated to seal the orifice of the root canal system under each endocrown restoration (resin composite, bulk-fill resin composite, alkasite, flowable resin composite, glass ionomer cement, autocured resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement, resin cement, bulk-fill flowable resin composite, zinc oxide cement), totaling 36 models. An axial load (300 N) was applied at the occlusal surface. Results were determined by colorimetric graphs of von-Misses stress (VMS) and Maximum Principal Stress (MPS) on tooth, cement layer, and endocrown restorations. VMS distribution showed a similar pattern between the models, with more stress at the load region for the right-angled endocrowns. The MPS showed that the endocrown intaglio surface and cement layer showed different mechanical responses with different filing materials and pulp chamber angles. The stress peaks plotted in the dispersion plot showed that the filling material stiffness is proportional to the stress magnitude in the endocrown, cement layer and tooth adhesive surface. In addition, the higher the pulp chamber preparation angle, the higher the stress peak in the restoration and tooth, and the lower the stress in the cement layer. Therefore, 6° and 12° pulp chamber angles showed more promising balance between the stresses of the adhesive interface structures. Under the conditions of this study, rigid filling materials were avoided to seal the orifice of root canal system when an endocrown restoration was planned as rehabilitation. In addition, the pulp chamber axial walls were prepared between 6° and 12° of divergence to balance the stress magnitude in the adhesive interface for this treatment modality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials in Endodontic and Post-endodontic Therapy)
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14 pages, 1667 KiB  
Article
Copper–Calcium Hydroxide and Permanent Electrophoretic Current for Treatment of Apical Periodontitis
by Agron Meto, Etleva Droboniku, Elisabetta Blasi, Bruna Colombari, Emiljano Tragaj, Gabriele Cervino, Luca Fiorillo and Aida Meto
Materials 2021, 14(3), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030678 - 2 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2827
Abstract
Endodontic failure has been and continues to be a problem for endodontics-specialists. Complicated anatomy, numerous foramens, and accessory canals are an environment for microorganisms to infect the teeth. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the regeneration of copper–calcium hydroxide (Cupral)-endodontically [...] Read more.
Endodontic failure has been and continues to be a problem for endodontics-specialists. Complicated anatomy, numerous foramens, and accessory canals are an environment for microorganisms to infect the teeth. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the regeneration of copper–calcium hydroxide (Cupral)-endodontically treated teeth diagnosed with apical periodontitis using an electrophoresis technique. In total, 132 patients, aging from 19 to 65 years old, underwent endodontic treatment mono- and multi-radicular teeth, with complicated canals from January 2019 to June 2020. The patients were divided into two groups: (i) the control group—which included 54 patients (n = 62 teeth) receiving endodontic paste (Calcipast + 1) and, as final filling, the AH-PlusTM cement—and (ii) the Cupral group, which included 78 patients (n = 80 teeth) receiving Cupral paste plus the electrophoretic current and, as final filling, the Atacamit-alkaline cement. The clinical cases were periodically observed along an 18-month follow-up period via radiography. Data were expressed as focal size of the lesions (mean ± standard error (SEM) of all the radiographic outcomes) observed in each group at each interval point. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student’s t-test that allowed us to compare the control and Cupral groups; the statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, where the latter was highly significant. Before treatments, the focal sizes were 4.8 mm and 4.95 mm for control and Cupral-treated groups, respectively. After 6 months, the mean focal sizes were 3.9 mm and 2.14 mm for the control and Cupral groups, respectively. After 12 months, in the control group, the mean focal size was measured at 2.8 mm, while, in Cupral group, the lesion size decreased down to 0.31 mm and a highly dynamic regeneration of the destructive focal-bone occurred. After 18 months, the lesions were further significantly reduced in the control group (mean values of 2.62 mm), while they were barely detectable in the Cupral group (0.2 mm). In conclusion, we provide initial evidence that the Cupral-electrophoresis methodology is effective in treating destructive periodontitis of teeth with problematic canals up to 18 months, thus allowing teeth preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials in Endodontic and Post-endodontic Therapy)
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13 pages, 9730 KiB  
Article
Shaping and Centering Ability, Cyclic Fatigue Resistance and Fractographic Analysis of Three Thermally Treated NiTi Endodontic Instrument Systems
by Saulius Drukteinis, Vytaute Peciuliene, Ruta Bendinskaite, Vilma Brukiene, Rasmute Maneliene and Vygandas Rutkunas
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5823; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245823 - 21 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
The better understanding of the clinically important behavioral features of new instrument systems has an important significance for the clinical endodontics. This study aimed to investigate the shaping and centering ability as well as cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex CM (CM), HyFlex EDM [...] Read more.
The better understanding of the clinically important behavioral features of new instrument systems has an important significance for the clinical endodontics. This study aimed to investigate the shaping and centering ability as well as cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex CM (CM), HyFlex EDM (EDM) and EdgeFile (EF) thermally treated nickel–titanium (NiTi) endodontic instrument systems. Sixty curved root canals of the mesial roots of mandibular molars were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 20) and shaped using CM, EDM and EF files up to the size 40 and taper 04 of the instruments. µCT scanning of the specimens before and after preparation was performed and the morphometric 2D and 3D parameters were evaluated in the apical, middle and coronal thirds of root canals. In each group, 40.04 instruments (n = 20) were subjected to the cyclic fatigue resistance test in artificial root canals at 37 °C temperature until fractures occurred, and the number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated. The fractographic analysis was performed using a scanning electron microscope, evaluating topographic features and surface profiles of the separated instruments. The one-way analysis of variance with post hoc Tuckey’s test was used for statistical analysis of the data; the significance level was set at 5%. All systems prepared the comparable percentage of root canal surface with the similar magnitude of canal transportation in all root thirds (p > 0.05), but demonstrated significantly different resistance to cyclic fatigue (p < 0.05). The most resistant to fracture was EF, followed by EDM and CM. The length of the fractured fragments was not significantly different between the groups, and fractographic analysis by SEM detected the typical topographic features of separated thermally treated NiTi instrument surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials in Endodontic and Post-endodontic Therapy)
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