Special Issue "Neutrophil Extracellular Traps"

A special issue of Biology (ISSN 2079-7737).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Sebastian P. Galuska

Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN) Institute of Reproductive Biology, Wilhelm-Stahl-Allee 2, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +49 38208 68-769
Interests: sialic acids; polysialic acid; glycoimmunology; siglecs; extracellular traps; innate immune system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As a part of the innate immune system, neutrophils play a key role during inflammation. An effective mechanism of these immune cells to counteract the invasion of pathogens is the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NET-fibers consist mainly of chromatin and granule proteins, which are released to trap and kill invaders. However, besides the positive outcomes of NETs, innumerable studies demonstrated that exaggerated NET-formation triggers several pathomechanisms, which can lead to life-threatening consequences like sepsis and thrombosis. Thus, not only the activation mechanisms, but also the modulation and inhibition of the release of NET are key points for the development of treatment strategies against such pathological situations.

This Special Issue is focused on the physiological and the pathophysiological roles of NETs in addition to the possibilities to modulate the activation of NET formation and the release of these NET fibers. This includes a comparison of NET mechanisms in different animal species forming a bridge between evolutionary biology and the biomedical sciences.

Dr. Sebastian P. Galuska
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 650 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • neutrophils
  • extracellular traps
  • innate immune system
  • evolution

Published Papers (2 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-2
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Polysialic Acid Modulates the Binding of External Lactoferrin in Neutrophil Extracellular Traps
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are formed by neutrophils during inflammation. Among other things, these DNA constructs consist of antimicrobial proteins such as lactoferrin and histones. With these properties, NETs capture and destroy invading microorganisms. The carbohydrate polysialic acid (polySia) interacts with both lactoferrin [...] Read more.
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are formed by neutrophils during inflammation. Among other things, these DNA constructs consist of antimicrobial proteins such as lactoferrin and histones. With these properties, NETs capture and destroy invading microorganisms. The carbohydrate polysialic acid (polySia) interacts with both lactoferrin and histones. Previous experiments demonstrated that, in humans, lactoferrin inhibits the release of NET and that this effect is supported by polySia. In this study, we examined the interplay of lactoferrin and polySia in already-formed NETs from bovine neutrophils. The binding of polySia was considered to occur at the lactoferricin (LFcin)-containing domain of lactoferrin. The interaction with the peptide LFcin was studied in more detail using groups of defined polySia chain lengths, which suggested a chain-length-dependent interaction mechanism with LFcin. The LFcin domain of lactoferrin was found to interact with DNA. Therefore, the possibility that polySia influences the integration of lactoferrin into the DNA-structures of NETs was tested by isolating bovine neutrophils and inducing NETosis. Experiments with NET fibers saturated with lactoferrin demonstrated that polySia initiates the incorporation of external lactoferrin in already-loaded NETs. Thus, polySia may modulate the constituents of NET. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophil Extracellular Traps)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Pinniped- and Cetacean-Derived ETosis Contributes to Combating Emerging Apicomplexan Parasites (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum) Circulating in Marine Environments
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 9 March 2019
PDF Full-text (1955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Leukocytes play a major role in combating infections either by phagocytosis, release of antimicrobial granules, or extracellular trap (ET) formation. ET formation is preceded by a certain leukocyte cell death form, known as ETosis, an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of the innate immune system [...] Read more.
Leukocytes play a major role in combating infections either by phagocytosis, release of antimicrobial granules, or extracellular trap (ET) formation. ET formation is preceded by a certain leukocyte cell death form, known as ETosis, an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of the innate immune system also observed in marine mammals. Besides several biomolecules and microbial stimuli, marine mammal ETosis is also trigged by various terrestrial protozoa and metazoa, considered nowadays as neozoan parasites, which are circulating in oceans worldwide and causing critical emerging marine diseases. Recent studies demonstrated that pinniped- and cetacean-derived polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and monocytes are able to form different phenotypes of ET structures composed of nuclear DNA, histones, and cytoplasmic peptides/proteases against terrestrial apicomplexan parasites, e.g., Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Detailed molecular analyses and functional studies proved that marine mammal PMNs and monocytes cast ETs in a similar way as terrestrial mammals, entrapping and immobilizing T. gondii and N. caninum tachyzoites. Pinniped- and cetacean leukocytes induce vital and suicidal ETosis, with highly reliant actions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and combined mechanisms of myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase (NE), and DNA citrullination via peptidylarginine deiminase IV (PAD4).This scoping review intends to summarize the knowledge on emerging protozoans in the marine environment and secondly to review limited data about ETosis mechanisms in marine mammalian species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophil Extracellular Traps)
Figures

Figure 1

Biology EISSN 2079-7737 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top