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Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2023) | Viewed by 61267

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Guest Editor
Departamento de Ingeniería Geológica y Minera, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: blast and impact engineering (structures and materials); numerical modelling; computational fluid dynamics
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Guest Editor
Departamento de Ingeniería Geológica y Minera, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: blast; explosives; explosions; safety engineering; mining engineering

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Ingeniería Geológica y Minera, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: finite element analysis; computational mechanics; structural dynamics; structural analysis; blast; blast modeling.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the high number of intentional or unintentional explosions and impact problems, it is of great importance to investigate and improve the response of structures exposed to these issues. In addition to the structures, it is important to study materials such as concrete, steel, glass, or bricks that are widely used in engineered critical constructions. Over the last decade, the investigation of these phenomena has been an area of active research in different fields including experimental studies, analytical models, or numerical simulations.

By considering the different approaches, this Special Issue invites papers that include one or more of the mentioned fields. Studies from different areas of engineering like aeronautical, civil, mechanical, or material are highly welcome.

Dr. Ricardo Castedo
Dr. Lina M. López
Dr. Anastasio P. Santos
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Explosive charge
  • improvised explosive devices
  • composite structures
  • concrete
  • field tests
  • numerical modeling
  • structural elements

Published Papers (26 papers)

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23 pages, 11183 KiB  
Article
Mesoscale Equivalent Numerical Study of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Subjected to Projectile Impact
by Jian Yang, Jie Ao, Wenzheng Wan and Yikang Liu
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 4991; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13084991 - 16 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1003
Abstract
Numerical investigations on the performance of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) subjected to projectile impacts have attracted extensive attention, but there are still deficiencies in the accuracy and computational efficiency of related simulation methods. To make up for these deficiencies, a mesoscale equivalent model [...] Read more.
Numerical investigations on the performance of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) subjected to projectile impacts have attracted extensive attention, but there are still deficiencies in the accuracy and computational efficiency of related simulation methods. To make up for these deficiencies, a mesoscale equivalent model for UHPC is developed to simulate the response of UHPC under projectile impacts. In this model, an equivalent treatment is conducted on steel fibers to reduce their quantity under the premise that the interfacial shearing force between the fibers and the matrix remains equal. Based on the mesoscale equivalent model, numerical simulations of uniaxial compressive tests and projectile penetration tests on UHPC specimens are performed in LS-DYNA, and the numerical results are compared with the corresponding experimental results to verify the developed model. It is found that the mesoscale equivalent model could accurately reproduce the failure mode and stress-strain curve of UHPC specimens when the amplification factor of steel fibers is lower than 5. When the amplification factor is 5, the computational efficiency of the numerical models for penetration tests is significantly improved, and the maximum relative error between the numerical results of the crater diameter and penetration depth and experimental results is 11.7%. The successful application of the mesoscale equivalent model provides a more precise and in-depth perspective in simulating the response of UHPC with steel fibers subjected to projectile impact. Then, the influence of projectile striking velocities, UHPC compressive strengths, and volume percentages of steel fibers on the depth of penetration (DOP) are further numerically assessed. Based on the simulated data, modifications of the Young equation for predicting the DOP are conducted, and the maximum relative error of the modified equation is 13.9%. This demonstrates that the modified Young equation can accurately predict the DOP of UHPC subjected to projectile impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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12 pages, 3872 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Sympathetic Detonation of Blasting Caps
by Eugen Trană, Marin Lupoae, Bogdan Iftimie and Alexandru Cătălin Casapu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(24), 12761; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122412761 - 12 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2745
Abstract
The neutralization of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) involves the use of disrupting agents propelled explosively. Due to the special nature of such materials, a proper investigation of the parts most susceptible to sympathetic detonation is in order. The initiation of IEDs is caused [...] Read more.
The neutralization of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) involves the use of disrupting agents propelled explosively. Due to the special nature of such materials, a proper investigation of the parts most susceptible to sympathetic detonation is in order. The initiation of IEDs is caused by detonation products, shock waves, and propelled disruptive agents. In this paper, initiation of IED composition (acceptor charge) due to the neutralization system’s (donor charge’s) explosive charge detonation is evaluated based on the influence of the first two of the three above-mentioned factors. One of the most susceptible components of IEDs to sympathetic initiation is the blasting cap. Based on an experimental and numerical mix approach, blasting cap tendency to sympathetic detonation in open field had been investigated. The suitability of critical energy fluence and Chapman–Jouguet threshold criteria to the sympathetic detonation tendency of blasting caps was investigated. Experimental and numerical/analytical results describing the phenomenon are in agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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13 pages, 8454 KiB  
Article
Corner Convergence Effect of Enclosed Blast Shock Wave and High-Pressure Range
by Xudong Li, Haojie Chen, Jianping Yin and Zhijun Wang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(22), 11341; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122211341 - 8 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1334
Abstract
An explosion inside a cabin will converge at the corners to form high-pressure areas, significantly impacting the destruction of a bulkhead structure. This paper investigates shock wave convergence characteristics at the corners when the explosive detonates at the center of the cabin, based [...] Read more.
An explosion inside a cabin will converge at the corners to form high-pressure areas, significantly impacting the destruction of a bulkhead structure. This paper investigates shock wave convergence characteristics at the corners when the explosive detonates at the center of the cabin, based on a combination of the wall reflection law for shock waves and a numerical simulation method. The parameter K represents the aspect ratio of the cabin structure. This study shows that when 1 ≤ K ≤ 1.19, the high pressure at the corner is caused by the superposition of Mach waves along both wall surfaces. However, for the initial shock wave, when 1.2 < K ≤ 2, the high pressure is caused by the superposition of Mach waves along the longer wall surface and regular reflected waves on the shorter wall surface; when 2 < K, the cause are Mach waves along the longer wall surface and the corresponding positive reflection on the shorter wall surface. The influence of K on the range for the high-pressure region at the corner is also analyzed, the functional relationship between the range of the high-pressure area and K is given, and the universality is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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25 pages, 4895 KiB  
Article
Study on the Penetration Characteristics of Water Entry Rod Projectile into Liquid Cabin at an Attack Angle
by Ke Wang, Hailiang Hou, Dian Li and Yongqing Li
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(20), 10213; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122010213 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
The penetration of a projectile into a warship broadside liquid cabin is usually a non-ideal penetration process. To explore the protective effects of the broadside liquid cabin of a large warship against the non-ideal penetration of rod projectiles and to provide reference for [...] Read more.
The penetration of a projectile into a warship broadside liquid cabin is usually a non-ideal penetration process. To explore the protective effects of the broadside liquid cabin of a large warship against the non-ideal penetration of rod projectiles and to provide reference for the design of new liquid cabin structures, ballistic impact tests of rod projectiles penetrating the liquid cabin at different attack angles were carried out. Combined with numerical calculation, the impact of the attack angle on the water entry and penetration characteristics of the projectile into the liquid cabin as well as their failure modes were studied. The overturning and yawing of the projectile in water were analyzed. The pressure load characteristics in the liquid cabin and the deformation/failure modes of the projectile and the liquid cabin were identified. The results showed that: multiple overturning and yawing occur in the projectile with an initial attack angle during penetration into liquid; the yaw direction is mainly affected by the initial attack angle and projectile attitude; the projectile mainly undergoes four basic failure modes, namely, asymmetric mushrooming at the projectile nose, side erosion, overall plastic bending and fracture; the actual failure of the projectile is a combination of the basic failure modes; the overall plastic bending and fracture are mainly related to the length to diameter ratio, initial attack angle and initial projectile velocity; the front plate of the liquid cabin may undergo tearing along the central plastic hinge line of the plate: at a small attack angle, the tear is “I” shaped, and at a large attack angle, it is “X”-shaped. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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17 pages, 4661 KiB  
Article
Forecast of Airblast Vibrations Induced by Blasting Using Support Vector Regression Optimized by the Grasshopper Optimization (SVR-GO) Technique
by Lihua Chen, Panagiotis G. Asteris, Markos Z. Tsoukalas, Danial Jahed Armaghani, Dmitrii Vladimirovich Ulrikh and Mojtaba Yari
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9805; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199805 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1672
Abstract
Air overpressure (AOp) is an undesirable environmental effect of blasting. To date, a variety of empirical equations have been developed to forecast this phenomenon and prevent its negative impacts with accuracy. However, the accuracy of these methods is not sufficient. In addition, they [...] Read more.
Air overpressure (AOp) is an undesirable environmental effect of blasting. To date, a variety of empirical equations have been developed to forecast this phenomenon and prevent its negative impacts with accuracy. However, the accuracy of these methods is not sufficient. In addition, they are resource-consuming. This study employed support vector regression (SVR) optimized with the grasshopper optimizer (GO) algorithm to forecast AOp resulting from blasting. Additionally, a novel input selection technique, the Boruta algorithm (BFS), was applied. A new algorithm, the SVR-GA-BFS7, was developed by combining the models mentioned above. The findings showed that the SVR-GO-BFS7 model was the best technique (R2 = 0.983, RMSE = 1.332). The superiority of this model means that using the seven most important inputs was enough to forecast the AOp in the present investigation. Furthermore, the performance of SVR-GO-BFS7 was compared with various machine learning techniques, and the model outperformed the base models. The GO was compared with some other optimization techniques, and the superiority of this algorithm over the others was confirmed. Therefore, the suggested method presents a framework for accurate AOp prediction that supports the resource-saving forecasting methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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14 pages, 4740 KiB  
Article
Behavior of Sedimentary Rock Tunnel against Rigid Projectile Impact
by Abdullah H. Alsabhan, Md. Rehan Sadique, Ali S. Alqarni, Shamshad Alam and Wonho Suh
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9595; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199595 - 24 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
The tunnels in present-day cities are experiencing varying degrees of loading conditions ranging from static to extreme loading. Therefore, the stability of underground tunnels needs to be analyzed and understood for safer and strengthened design. The present study was conducted to simulate the [...] Read more.
The tunnels in present-day cities are experiencing varying degrees of loading conditions ranging from static to extreme loading. Therefore, the stability of underground tunnels needs to be analyzed and understood for safer and strengthened design. The present study was conducted to simulate the impact loading conditions due to a missile traveling at a velocity of 5 Mach for different rock tunnels. The nonlinear continuum finite element analysis has been carried out through Abaqus and Explicit. The four different types of sandstones considered in the present study include Kota, Jamrani, Singrauli, and Jhingurda sandstones. An elastoplastic Mohr–Coulomb constitutive material model has been considered to model the behavior of rock surrounding the tunnel opening. The tunnel has an opening of 7 m in diameter (d), and 50 m in height and breadth, with 50 m of longitudinal length. The deformation and stress in the rock and the damage to the concrete lining have been compared in different cases. The Concrete–Damage–Plasticity (CDP) model and the Johnson–Cook model were considered for modelling of the RC lining and steel reinforcement. It was concluded that Jhingurda sandstone has maximum deformations due to impacts caused by missiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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16 pages, 6323 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Damage of Typical Composite/Metal Connecting Structure in Aircraft under the Influences of High-Velocity Fragments
by Yitao Wang, Teng Zhang, Yuting He, Jiyuan Ye, Hanzhe Zhang and Xianghong Fan
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 9268; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189268 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1823
Abstract
A two-stage light gas gun was used to conduct a high-velocity impact test on the aircraft’s typical composite/metal connecting structure (CFRP/AL). The battle damage simulations used for the CFRP/AL connecting structure were carried out under different intersection conditions. Then, the damage morphology and [...] Read more.
A two-stage light gas gun was used to conduct a high-velocity impact test on the aircraft’s typical composite/metal connecting structure (CFRP/AL). The battle damage simulations used for the CFRP/AL connecting structure were carried out under different intersection conditions. Then, the damage morphology and mechanism of high-velocity prefabricated spherical fragments on typical structures, the dynamic process of hyper-velocity impact, and the formation of debris clouds on the secondary damage morphology of different component structures were investigated. Next, based on the X-ray computerized tomography (CT), the typical mode of different damage areas and evolution trends of CFRP under high-velocity impacts were explored. Finally, a simulation model was established for battle damages of typical structures by combining FEM methods, and structural components’ energy dissipation capabilities for fragments under different velocities were analyzed. The study results provide a reference and model support for the rapid repair of battle-damaged aircraft and aircraft survivability design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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17 pages, 3159 KiB  
Article
Empirical Attenuation Law for Air Blast Waves Due to the Detonation of Explosives Outdoors
by Juan Andrés Marín, Rafael Rodríguez, María B. Díaz and Saray Antón
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 9139; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189139 - 12 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1709
Abstract
The detonation of explosives in the open air was studied, analyzing different amounts of explosives detonated at different distances, monitoring the overpressure or air blast wave generated with the aim of determining a model, which allows to establish safety zones. A series of [...] Read more.
The detonation of explosives in the open air was studied, analyzing different amounts of explosives detonated at different distances, monitoring the overpressure or air blast wave generated with the aim of determining a model, which allows to establish safety zones. A series of tests measuring the air wave with different loads and sensors placed at various distances from the origin of the explosion were carried out. The work was focused on designing full-scale trials that allowed to develop a predictive empirical method based on the calculation model of the equivalent mass of TNT. A total of 18 different gelatinous dynamite charges, placing the sensor at six different distances from the origin of the explosion, produced a total of 90 tests measuring the air wave produced by the detonation of gelatinous dynamite. Later, the outdoor detonation of 10 TNT explosive charges was analyzed to extend the model and improve its scope. With all this, it has been possible to develop a predictive model that allows assessing the overpressure generated by the detonation of a TNT-equivalent explosive charge. The results are useful to predict the air blast wave in common open-air blasts, such as those carried out with shaped charges to demolish metallic structures. On the other hand, the results are also useful to determine the air blast wave overpressure in the case of large explosive charges detonated in the open air, such as accidental explosive detonation or terrorist bombs. It is important to point out the relevance of the results achieved after the detonation of large explosive charges (more than 80 kg) simulating a type of bomb frequently used by terrorists. Reproducing the explosion on a real scale, the results are fully representative of the overpressure produced by an explosion of these characteristics without the need of extrapolating the results of tests with small loads. In addition, the detonation was carried out with TNT, which can serve as a standard to compare with any other type of explosive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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22 pages, 2034 KiB  
Article
SimEx: A Tool for the Rapid Evaluation of the Effects of Explosions
by Juan Sánchez-Monreal, Alberto Cuadra, César Huete and Marcos Vera
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 9101; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189101 - 10 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2425
Abstract
The dynamic response of structural elements subjected to blast loading is a problem of growing interest in the field of defense and security. In this work, a novel computational tool for the rapid evaluation of the effects of explosions, hereafter referred to as [...] Read more.
The dynamic response of structural elements subjected to blast loading is a problem of growing interest in the field of defense and security. In this work, a novel computational tool for the rapid evaluation of the effects of explosions, hereafter referred to as SimEx, is presented and discussed. The classical correlations for the reference chemical (1 kg of TNT) and nuclear (106 kg of TNT) explosions, both spherical and hemispherical, are used together with the blast wave scaling laws and the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) to compute the dynamic response of Single-Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF) systems subject to blast loading. The underlying simplifications in the analysis of the structural response follow the directives established by UFC 3-340-02 and the Protective Design Center Technical Reports of the US Army Corps of Engineers. This offers useful estimates with a low computational cost that enable in particular the computation of damage diagrams in the Charge Weight–Standoff distance (CW–S) space for the rapid screening of component (or building) damage levels. SimEx is a computer application based on Matlab and developed by the Fluid Mechanics Research Group at University Carlos III of Madrid (UC3M). It has been successfully used for both teaching and research purposes in the Degree in Security Engineering, taught to the future Guardia Civil officers at the Spanish University Center of the Civil Guard (CUGC). This dual use has allowed the development of the application well beyond its initial objective, testing on one hand the implemented capacities by undergraduate cadets with the end-user profile, and implementing new functionalities and utilities by Masters and PhD students. With this experience, the application has been continuously growing since its initial inception in 2014 both at a visual and a functional level, including new effects in the propagation of the blast waves, such as clearing and confinement, and incorporating new calculation assistants, such as those for the thermochemical analysis of explosive mixtures; crater formation; fragment mass distributions, ejection speeds and ballistic trajectories; and the statistical evaluation of damage to people due to overpressure, body projection, and fragment injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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20 pages, 2701 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of Blast Effects and Mitigation in the Far-Field from Small Explosions
by Adam G. Taylor
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8824; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178824 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
Requirements for explosive safety are often given in terms of a “K-Factor”, correlating incident blast effects with the distance and TNT equivalent weight of an explosion. Traditionally, this is conducted using empirical correlations to experimental measurements (e.g., the Kingery–Bulmash equations). In [...] Read more.
Requirements for explosive safety are often given in terms of a “K-Factor”, correlating incident blast effects with the distance and TNT equivalent weight of an explosion. Traditionally, this is conducted using empirical correlations to experimental measurements (e.g., the Kingery–Bulmash equations). In the far-field, empirical verification of incident overpressure and impulse magnitudes can be difficult; extrapolations from data give expected values at reasonable standoff distances that sometimes are too small to measure on available equipment but are larger than some regulations require. The present paper describes the results of numerical hydrocode analysis to verify the expected incident overpressure and impulse from small hemispherical ground charges of TNT at these relatively large distances. Furthermore, the dynamic effect of incident blast waves on lightweight, modular mitigation barriers is studied to gauge their effectiveness at providing safety standard compliance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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23 pages, 9190 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Response of Reinforced Recycled Aggregate Concrete Pavement under Impact Loading
by Jifeng Yuan, Jin Wu, Tian Su and Dadi Lin
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8804; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178804 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Airport runway pavements often undergo the direct impact of aircraft landings. For the purposes of designing the structure, it is of great importance to know about the dynamic response of the pavement and its behavior under impact loading. However, the dynamics and failure [...] Read more.
Airport runway pavements often undergo the direct impact of aircraft landings. For the purposes of designing the structure, it is of great importance to know about the dynamic response of the pavement and its behavior under impact loading. However, the dynamics and failure mechanisms of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete pavements subjected to impact loading are seldom explored in the literature. For this purpose, four reinforced recycled aggregate concrete pavements with different thickness and ratios of reinforcement, and one reinforced normal concrete pavement, were manufactured and tested under impact loading using the drop-weight impact frame system. The impact force characteristics, crack patterns, deformation responses, and strain developments of reinforced concrete pavements subjected to impact loading were evaluated and compared. The above-mentioned study revealed that with an increase in the reinforcement ratio, both the deformation and the steel strain were reduced. Increasing the thickness would reduce the degree of damage and the impact force of reinforced concrete pavement (RCP) but increase the deformation. The results show that under the same compressive strength, the dynamic performance of the reinforced recycled aggregate concrete pavement was worse than that of the reinforced normal concrete pavement because of its lower elastic modulus and weaker interfacial transition zone. The dynamic performance of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete pavement could be improved by increasing the thickness and reinforcement ratio. The use of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) in RCP is a technically feasible application of the material within the scope of this experimental study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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19 pages, 7124 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Behavior of Masonry Walls Constructed with Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks under Blast Loading
by Somayeh Mollaei, Reza Babaei Ghazijahani, Ehsan Noroozinejad Farsangi and Davoud Jahani
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8725; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178725 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2628
Abstract
Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) blocks have widespread popularity in the construction industry. In addition to lightness, these materials have other advantages, including fire resistance, low acoustic and thermal conductivity, ease of cutting and grooving, and simple transportation. Since the behavior of AAC under [...] Read more.
Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) blocks have widespread popularity in the construction industry. In addition to lightness, these materials have other advantages, including fire resistance, low acoustic and thermal conductivity, ease of cutting and grooving, and simple transportation. Since the behavior of AAC under severe dynamic loading conditions such as blast loads has not been adequately studied in the literature, in the current paper, the behavior of masonry walls constructed with AAC blocks was evaluated under blast loading. In this study, after performing experimental testing on materials and obtaining their compressive, tensile, and shear strength values, the finite element (FE) models of AAC-based masonry walls were created in the ABAQUS/Explicit nonlinear platform. Three different wall thicknesses of 15, 20, and 25 cm were simulated, and the models were analyzed under a lateral explosion caused by 5 and 7 kg of TNT at the stand-off distances of 2, 5, and 10 m from the wall face. The stress distributions, displacement responses, adsorbed energy, and crack propagation pattern were investigated in each case. The results showed the inappropriate behavior of these materials against explosion loads, especially at shorter distances and on walls with less thickness. The outcome gives valuable information to prioritize these walls for possible blast strengthening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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21 pages, 9936 KiB  
Article
Blast Hole Pressure Measurement and a Full-Scale Blasting Experiment in Hard Rock Quarry Mine Using Shock-Reactive Stemming Materials
by Younghun Ko, Chanhwi Shin, Youngjun Jeong and Sangho Cho
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8629; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178629 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3011
Abstract
By increasing the effectiveness of the energy generated by the explosive charge inserted into a blast hole, stemming increases rock fragmentation. Missing or improper stemming, which can lead to the detonation gas escaping from the blast hole in advance, results not only in [...] Read more.
By increasing the effectiveness of the energy generated by the explosive charge inserted into a blast hole, stemming increases rock fragmentation. Missing or improper stemming, which can lead to the detonation gas escaping from the blast hole in advance, results not only in the waste of explosive energy and poor fragmentation but also in environmental problems, such as ground vibration, noise, flying rocks, back breaks, and air blasts. In this study, a stemming material based on a shear thickening fluid (STF) that reacts to dynamic pressure was developed. Two blasting experiments were conducted to verify the performance of the STF-based stemming material. In the first experiment, the pressure inside the blast hole was directly measured based on the application of the stemming material. In the second experiment, full-scale bench blasting was performed, and the blasting results of sand stemming and the STF-based stemming cases were compared. The measurement results of the pressure in the blast hole showed that when the STF-based stemming material was applied, the pressure at the top of the blast hole was lower than in the sand stemming case, and the stemming ejection was also lower. Full-scale bench blasting was conducted to compare the two types of stemming materials by evaluating the size of the rock fragments using image processing. The results of the two blasting experiments helped to verify that the blockage performance of the STF-based stemming material in the blast hole was superior to that of the sand stemming material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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18 pages, 13137 KiB  
Article
Reinforced Concrete Building with IED Detonation: Test and Simulation
by Anastasio P. Santos, Ricardo Castedo, Lina M. López, María Chiquito, José I. Yenes, Alejandro Alañón, Elisa Costamagna and Santiago Martínez-Almajano
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(15), 7803; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157803 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
There is growing concern about the possibility of a suicide bomber being immolated when the army forces or the law enforcement agencies discover the place where they prepare their material or simply find themselves inside a building. To study the possible effects that [...] Read more.
There is growing concern about the possibility of a suicide bomber being immolated when the army forces or the law enforcement agencies discover the place where they prepare their material or simply find themselves inside a building. To study the possible effects that these improvised explosive devices (IEDs) would have on the structures, eight tests were carried out with various configurations of IEDs with vest bombs inside a reinforced concrete (including walls and roof) building constructed ad hoc for these tests. These vests were made with different explosives (black powder, ANFO, AN/AL, PG2). For the characterization of these tests, a high-speed camera and pressure and acceleration sensors were used. The structure behaved surprisingly well, as it withstood all the first seven detonations without apparent structural damage. In the last detonation, located on the ground and with a significant explosive charge, the structural integrity of the roof and some of the walls was compromised. The simulation of the building was carried out with the LS-DYNA software with a Lagrangian formulation for the walls, using the LBE (based on CONWEP) module for the application of the charge. Despite the difficulty of this simulation, the results obtained, in terms of applied pressures and measured accelerations, are acceptable with differences of about 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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19 pages, 2595 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Shielding for Hypervelocity Impact of Orbital Debris on Unmanned Spacecraft
by Kayleigh Fowler and Filipe Teixeira-Dias
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 7071; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12147071 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2932
Abstract
The passive shielding of space craft structures is critical due to the increase in demand for lightweight protection, which is required to counter the damaging effects of micro-meteoroid orbital debris (MMOD) on unmanned spacecraft, which have steeply increased in recent years. Research on [...] Read more.
The passive shielding of space craft structures is critical due to the increase in demand for lightweight protection, which is required to counter the damaging effects of micro-meteoroid orbital debris (MMOD) on unmanned spacecraft, which have steeply increased in recent years. Research on hypervelocity impact (HVI) led to the development of shield configurations such as the conventional Whipple shield, which consists of two plates separated by a stand-off distance to allow for the fragmentation and dispersion of the debris from the impact. Variations in the Whipple shield have been proposed, where additional layers are included for increased energy dissipation efficiency. In this work, the authors develop, validate and test a numerical model of an orthogonally loaded hybrid Whipple shield, incorporating an aluminium honeycomb core, orientated with hexagonal tubes perpendicular to the direction of proposed debris travel, to mitigate the well-known channelling effect. The debris threat is an A2024-T3 projectile, impacting the structure at a velocity of 6.5 km/s. The proposed model is validated with experimental observations of the debris spread at half-angle and the efficiency of the proposed topology is assessed against a conventional two-plate A2024-T3 shield. The honeycomb core cell density, its position relative to the point of impact, the thickness of the honeycomb shell, and the material of the honeycomb are thoroughly analysed. A hybrid honeycomb structure concept is proposed, which provides a highly efficient alternative to a standard Whipple shield design, without significantly compromising the weight of the structure. The obtained results clearly show that the hybrid Whipple shield exhibits significantly increased the kinetic energy dissipation of the debris from the impactor and shield front plate, with an increase in the dissipated kinetic energy that can reach 86.8% relative to the conventional shield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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14 pages, 1167 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Empirical Study for Prediction of Blast Loads
by Anselmo Filice, Miroslav Mynarz and Raffaele Zinno
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 2691; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052691 - 4 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3217
Abstract
This paper presents the issue of determining the blast load on an engineering structure. In cases of industrial accidents or terrorist attacks, in many cases it is necessary to determine the necessary explosion parameters to determine the response of the structure, preferably in [...] Read more.
This paper presents the issue of determining the blast load on an engineering structure. In cases of industrial accidents or terrorist attacks, in many cases it is necessary to determine the necessary explosion parameters to determine the response of the structure, preferably in a simple and time-saving manner. In such a way, the empirical relationships can be used to estimate the selected parameters of the explosion load. Many empirical relationships have been derived in the past, but not all are suitable for different types of explosions. This article compares and validates experimentally determined selected explosion parameters for the chosen explosive with empirical relationships. For comparison, three already verified and frequently used calculation procedures (Kingery, Kinney, Henrych) and one newly derived procedure (PECH) were used. As part of the experimental measurements, blast wave explosion parameters for small charges were determined for near-field explosions. The general-purpose plastic explosive Semtex 10-SE was used for the experiments. The results of the comparative study presented in this article demonstrate the importance of taking these procedures into account for a reliable determination of the effects of blast actions on buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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20 pages, 5634 KiB  
Article
A Machine Learning Model for the Prediction of Concrete Penetration by the Ogive Nose Rigid Projectile
by Qadir Bux alias Imran Latif, Zubair Ahmed Memon, Zafar Mahmood, Mohsin Usman Qureshi and Abdalrhman Milad
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(4), 2040; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12042040 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2269
Abstract
In recent years, research interest has been revolutionized to predict the rigid projectile penetration depth in concrete. The concrete penetration predictions persist, unsettled, due to the complexity of phenomena and the continuous development of revolutionized statistical techniques, such as machine learning, neural networks, [...] Read more.
In recent years, research interest has been revolutionized to predict the rigid projectile penetration depth in concrete. The concrete penetration predictions persist, unsettled, due to the complexity of phenomena and the continuous development of revolutionized statistical techniques, such as machine learning, neural networks, and deep learning. This research aims to develop a new model to predict the penetration depth of the ogive nose rigid projectile into concrete blocks using machine learning. Genetic coding is used in Python programming to discover the underlying mathematical relationship from the experimental data in its non-dimensional form. A populace of erratic formulations signifies the rapport amid dependent parameters, such as the impact factor (I), the geometry function of the projectile (N), the empirical constant for concrete strength (S), the slenderness of the projectile (λ), and their independent objective variable, X/d, where X is the penetration depth of the projectile and d is the diameter of the projectile. Four genetic operations were used, including the crossover, sub-tree transfiguration, hoist transfiguration, and point transfiguration operations on supervised test datasets, which were divided into three categories, namely, narrow penetration (X/d < 0.5), intermediate penetration (0.5 ≤ X/d < 5.0), and deep penetration (X/d ≥ 5.0). The proposed model shows a significant relationship with all data in the category for medium penetration, where R2 = 0.88, and R2 = 0.96 for deep penetration. Furthermore, the proposed model predictions are also compared with the most commonly used NDRC and Li and Chen models. The outcome of this research shows that the proposed model predicts the penetration depth precisely, compared to the NDRC and Li and Chen models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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19 pages, 7569 KiB  
Article
Analytical Model Formulation of Steel Plate Reinforced Concrete Walls against Hard Projectile Impact
by Bo Pu, Xiaoming Wang, Weibing Li and Jun Feng
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010518 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2447
Abstract
Steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) walls can effectively resist projectile impact by preventing the rear concrete fragments flying away, thus attracting much attention in defence technology. This work numerically and analytically investigated the hard projectile perforation of steel plate reinforced concrete walls. Impact [...] Read more.
Steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) walls can effectively resist projectile impact by preventing the rear concrete fragments flying away, thus attracting much attention in defence technology. This work numerically and analytically investigated the hard projectile perforation of steel plate reinforced concrete walls. Impact resistance theories, including cavity expansion analysis as well as the petaling theory of thin steel plates were used to describe the cratering, tunneling and plugging phases of SC walls perforation. Numerical modeling of SC walls perforation was performed to estimate projectile residual velocity and target destructive form, which were validated against the test results. An analytical model for SC wall perforation was established to describe the penetration resistance featuring five stages, i.e., cratering, tunneling and plugging, petaling with plugging and solely petaling. Analytical model predictions matched numerical results well with respect to projectile deceleration evolution as well as residual velocity. From a structural absorbed energy perspective, the effect of front concrete panel and rear steel plate thickness combinations was also studied and analyzed. Finally, equivalent concrete slab thickness was derived with respect to the ballistic limit of SC walls, which may be helpful in the design of a protective strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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20 pages, 3485 KiB  
Article
A Numerical Simulation of Blasting Stress Wave Propagation in a Jointed Rock Mass under Initial Stresses
by Qian Dong, Xinping Li, Yongsheng Jia and Jinshan Sun
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7873; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177873 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2716
Abstract
The initial stresses have a strong effect on the mechanical behavior of underground rock masses, and the initial stressed rock masses are usually under strong dynamic disturbances such as blasting and earthquakes. The influence mechanism of a blasting excavation on underground rock masses [...] Read more.
The initial stresses have a strong effect on the mechanical behavior of underground rock masses, and the initial stressed rock masses are usually under strong dynamic disturbances such as blasting and earthquakes. The influence mechanism of a blasting excavation on underground rock masses can be revealed by studying the propagation of stress waves in them. In this paper, the improved Mohr-Coulomb elasto-plastic constitutive model of the intact rock considering the initial damage was first established and numerically implemented in Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC) based on the variation of the experimental stress wave velocity in the initial stressed intact rock, and the feasibility of combining the established rock constitutive model and the BB (Bandis-Barton) model which characterizes the nonlinear deformation of the joints to simulate stress waves across jointed rock masses under initial stress was validated by comparing the numerical and model test results subsequently. Finally, further parameter studies were carried out through the UDEC to investigate the effect of the initial stress, angle, and number of joints on the transmission of the blasting stress wave in the jointed rock mass. The results showed that the initial stress significantly changed the propagation of the stress waves in the jointed rock mass. When the initial stress was small, the transmission coefficients of the stress waves in the jointed rock were vulnerable to be influenced by the variation of the angle and the number of joints, while the effect of the angle and the number of joints on the stress wave propagation gradually weakened as the initial stress increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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14 pages, 4321 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation on Dynamic Behavior of Slab–Column Connections Subjected to Blast Loads
by Kwang Mo Lim, Taek Hee Han and Joo Ha Lee
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7573; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167573 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2216
Abstract
Although many studies on the blast-resistant performance of structures have focused mainly on single members such as beams and columns, there is little research on the behavior of joints that are subjected to blast loads. In this study, the structural behavior of a [...] Read more.
Although many studies on the blast-resistant performance of structures have focused mainly on single members such as beams and columns, there is little research on the behavior of joints that are subjected to blast loads. In this study, the structural behavior of a slab–column connection subjected to blast load was investigated using a numerical analysis method. LS-DYNA was used as a finite element analysis program, and in order to improve the accuracy of numerical analysis, mesh size, material model, and simulation method of blast load were determined through preliminary analysis. The effect of different restraints of the joints, depending on the position of the columns in the slab, on the blast resistance performance was investigated. As a result, the highly confined slab-interior column connection showed better behavior than other edge and corner columns. The drop panel installed between the lower column and the slab was effective in improving the blast-resistance performance of the slab–column connection. For a more accurate evaluation of blast resistance performance, it was suggested that various evaluation factors such as ductility ratio, reinforcing stress, and concrete fracture area can be considered along with the support rotation, which is an important evaluation factor suggested by many standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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17 pages, 3608 KiB  
Article
Predictive Modelling for Blasting-Induced Vibrations from Open-Pit Excavations
by Yo-Hyun Choi and Sean Seungwon Lee
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7487; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167487 - 15 Aug 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2374
Abstract
Reliable estimates of peak particle velocity (PPV) from blasting-induced vibrations at a construction site play a crucial role in minimizing damage to nearby structures and maximizing blasting efficiency. However, reliably estimating PPV can be challenging due to complex connections between PPV and influential [...] Read more.
Reliable estimates of peak particle velocity (PPV) from blasting-induced vibrations at a construction site play a crucial role in minimizing damage to nearby structures and maximizing blasting efficiency. However, reliably estimating PPV can be challenging due to complex connections between PPV and influential factors such as ground conditions. While many efforts have been made to estimate PPV reliably, discrepancies remain between measured and predicted PPVs. Here, we analyzed various methods for assessing PPV with several key relevant factors and 1191 monitored field blasting records at 50 different open-pit sites across South Korea to minimize the discrepancies. Eight prediction models are used based on artificial neural network, conventional empirical formulas, and multivariable regression analyses. Seven influential factors were selected to develop the prediction models, including three newly included and four already formulated in empirical formulas. The three newly included factors were identified to have a significant influence on PPV, as well as the four existing factors, through a sensitivity analysis. The measured and predicted PPVs were compared to evaluate the performances of prediction models. The assessment of PPVs by an artificial neural network yielded the lowest errors, and site factors, K and m were proposed for preliminary open-pit blasting designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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13 pages, 7406 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of Explosion Mitigation by Deployed Metal Combined with Water Curtain
by Thérèse Schunck and Dominique Eckenfels
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6539; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146539 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
In this paper, protective barriers made of perforated plates with or without a water cover were investigated. In urban areas, such barriers could be envisaged for the protection of facades. An explosive-driven shock tube, combined with a retroreflective shadowgraph technique, was used to [...] Read more.
In this paper, protective barriers made of perforated plates with or without a water cover were investigated. In urban areas, such barriers could be envisaged for the protection of facades. An explosive-driven shock tube, combined with a retroreflective shadowgraph technique, was used to visualize the interaction of a blast wave profile with one or two plates made of expanded metal. Free-field air blast experiments were performed in order to evaluate the solution under real conditions. Configurations with either one or two grids were investigated. The transmitted pressure was measured on a wall placed behind the plate(s). It was observed that the overpressure and the impulse downstream of the plate(s) were reduced and that the mitigation performance increased with the number of plates. Adding a water layer on one grid contributed to enhance its mitigation capacity. In the setup with two plates, the addition of a water cover on the first grid induced only a modest improvement. This blast mitigation solution seems interesting for protection purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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15 pages, 3850 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of Pressure Attenuation Effect on Tunnel Structures Subjected to Blast Loads
by Cheng-Wei Hung, Ying-Kuan Tsai, Tai-An Chen, Hsin-Hung Lai and Pin-Wen Wu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5646; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125646 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
This study used experimental and numerical simulation methods to discuss the attenuation mechanism of a blast inside a tunnel for different forms of a tunnel pressure reduction module under the condition of a tunnel near-field explosion. In terms of the experiment, a small-scale [...] Read more.
This study used experimental and numerical simulation methods to discuss the attenuation mechanism of a blast inside a tunnel for different forms of a tunnel pressure reduction module under the condition of a tunnel near-field explosion. In terms of the experiment, a small-scale model was used for the explosion experiments of a tunnel pressure reduction module (expansion chamber, one-pressure relief orifice plate, double-pressure relief orifice plate). In the numerical simulation, the pressure transfer effect was evaluated using the ALE fluid–solid coupling and mapping technique. The findings showed that the pressure attenuation model changed the tunnel section to diffuse, reduce, or detour the pressure transfer, indicating the blast attenuation effect. In terms of the effect of blast attenuation, the double-pressure relief orifice plate was better than the one-pressure relief orifice plate, and the single-pressure relief orifice plate was better than the expansion chamber. The expansion chamber attenuated the blast by 30%, the one-pressure relief orifice plate attenuated the blast by 51%, and the double-pressure relief orifice plate attenuated the blast by 82%. The blast attenuation trend of the numerical simulation result generally matched that of the experimental result. The results of this study can provide a reference for future protective designs and reinforce the U.S. Force regulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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21 pages, 10275 KiB  
Article
Study on Rock Damage Mechanism for Lateral Blasting under High In Situ Stresses
by Xiaofeng Huo, Xiuzhi Shi, Xianyang Qiu, Hui Chen, Jian Zhou, Shian Zhang and Dijun Rao
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4992; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114992 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2470
Abstract
A 3D numerical model was presented to investigate the blast-induced damage characteristics of highly stressed rock mass. The RHT (Riedel, Hiermaier, and Thoma) model in LS-DYNA was used to simulate the blast-induced damage and its parameters were calibrated by a physical model test. [...] Read more.
A 3D numerical model was presented to investigate the blast-induced damage characteristics of highly stressed rock mass. The RHT (Riedel, Hiermaier, and Thoma) model in LS-DYNA was used to simulate the blast-induced damage and its parameters were calibrated by a physical model test. Based on the calibrated numerical model, the influences of confining pressure and free surface span on the blast-induced damage characteristics were investigated. The results show that under uniaxial loading, the crater volume increases with confining pressure increases. The uniaxial static load can change the optimal burden and the critical embedding depth of charge. In stressed rock, the variation law of the crater shape affected by radial tensile fractures is opposite to that affected by reflected tensile fractures. Under the biaxial static load, the crater volume of the borehole placed on the side of the max static load is greater than the other side. The explosion crater can be improved by increasing the free surface span on the same side. Finally, it is suggested that the blasting efficiency can be improved by preferentially detonating the charge on the side of the max static load, and then the charge on the other side can be detonated with a wider free surface span. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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14 pages, 11520 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis and Experimental Test for the Development of a Small Shaped Charge
by Piotr Malesa, Grzegorz Sławiński and Karolina Pęcherzewska
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2578; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062578 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
Currently, shaped charges are widely used in many fields of science and industry. Due to the high efficiency of piercing materials with high strength and hardness, shaped charges are commonly used in mining, military and for structural damage. The main application area of [...] Read more.
Currently, shaped charges are widely used in many fields of science and industry. Due to the high efficiency of piercing materials with high strength and hardness, shaped charges are commonly used in mining, military and for structural damage. The main application area of shaped charges is the military industry, where they are used in missiles with warheads (torpedoes, rocket launchers) and for piercing vehicle armor or bunker walls. When analyzing the existing solutions of shaped charges, one can find many typical solutions designed for specific applications. However, there are no universal constructions which, after appropriate regulation, will fulfil their role in a wide range of applications. The subject of this article is a new solution for a shaped charge that is characterized by compact dimensions and a short preparation time. This article presents the results of experimental research and the numerical analyses of such a charge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

28 pages, 10978 KiB  
Review
Blast Loaded Columns—State of the Art Review
by Sanja Lukić and Hrvoje Draganić
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7980; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177980 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4227
Abstract
The ever-present threat of terrorist attacks in recent decades gives way to research towards blast-resistant design of structures. Columns, as one of the main load-bearing elements in residential buildings and bridges, are becoming interesting targets in bombing attacks. Research of column blast load [...] Read more.
The ever-present threat of terrorist attacks in recent decades gives way to research towards blast-resistant design of structures. Columns, as one of the main load-bearing elements in residential buildings and bridges, are becoming interesting targets in bombing attacks. Research of column blast load behavior leads toward increased safety by identifying shortcomings and problems of those elements and acting accordingly. Field tests and numerical simulations lead to the development of new blast load mitigation technics, either in the design process or as a retrofit and strengthening of existing elements. The article provides a state-of-the-art literature review of filed blast load tests and numerical simulations of a bridge and building columns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blast and Impact Engineering on Structures and Materials)
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