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Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 13816

Special Issue Editors

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
Interests: rock mechanics; fracture mechanics; constitutive model; direct shear
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Interests: rock mechanics; tunnelling technology; ground improvement; carbon capture and storage; underground infrastructures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The design and construction of rock engineering, such as chambers, tunnels, mines and nuclear waste repositories, have exploded in scale and quantity. In the past century, rockbursts, landslides, slabbing and other geological disasters frequently occur during the construction and operation of these large-scale engineering projects. To reduce the risk of rock engineering under complex conditions, a comprehensive understanding of the failure mechanisms related to rock deformation, strength and failure should be obtained. New theories, new methods and new technologies related to constitutive models, numerical simulation methods and test methods will provide great help for the scientific design and safe operation of rock engineering. In addition, an in-depth understanding of rock failure mechanisms could accelerate the development of excavation machines, including tunnel-boring machines and roadheaders.

This Special Issue aims to provide a specific platform for all rock failure research. This topical Issue could serve as the missing link between applied and fundamental research journals. Thus, “Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks” is dedicated to, and thus welcomes, all rock-based scientific research in order to deepen the understanding of rock failure behaviors and the improvement of excavation machines. Authors are invited to submit their relevant research contributions to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Hang Lin
Dr. Shijie Xie
Dr. Rihong Cao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mechanical and cracking behaviors of rocks
  • deformation and damage fracture mechanism
  • observing methods
  • optimal configurations for excavation machines
  • constitutive models
  • engineering applications
  • prediction and prevention techniques for disaster
  • numerical simulation and intelligent algorithms

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 9747 KiB  
Article
Shearing Characteristics of Mortar–Rock Binary Medium Interfaces with Different Roughness
by Yanlin Zhao, Minzhen Zhang, Wenyu Tang and Yifan Chen
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(15), 8930; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158930 - 3 Aug 2023
Viewed by 815
Abstract
This study focuses on the crucial role of the shear characteristics of the mortar–rock interface (MRI) in geotechnical engineering. These properties largely determine the effectiveness of engineering reinforcement measures such as anchoring and grouting. The mechanical and deformation properties of the MRI with [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the crucial role of the shear characteristics of the mortar–rock interface (MRI) in geotechnical engineering. These properties largely determine the effectiveness of engineering reinforcement measures such as anchoring and grouting. The mechanical and deformation properties of the MRI with different roughness characteristics will be investigated. To achieve this, an indoor direct shear test was conducted on the mortar–rock binary medium (MRBM). The interface was numerically modeled from the test data using finite difference fractional value software. Direct shear simulation of the MRI by changing the normal stress (σn) and the sawtooth angle (α) was carried out. The results showed that as the normal stress and sawtooth angle increased, the shear stiffness of the MRI also increased. The shear stiffness was found to have a linear relationship with both the normal stress and the sawtooth angle. The peak shear displacement was identified as an indirect indicator of the shear failure mode of the binary medium interface (BMI). Quantitative relationships between the shear strength (τ), cohesion (c), angle of internal friction (ϕ), residual shear strength (τr), residual angle of internal friction (ϕr ), and degradation rate of the shear strength of the BMI were established based on the two influencing factors. Additionally, the study investigates how the sawtooth angle and the normal stress affect the variation in the normal displacement during direct shear testing of the MRBM. The findings revealed a correlation between the peak dilation angle of the BMI and the normal stress and sawtooth angle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks)
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12 pages, 6024 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of Cyclic Impact Damage Evolution of Rock Materials under Confining Pressure
by Pu Yuan, Qinghe Zhang and Aobo Li
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(15), 8822; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158822 - 31 Jul 2023
Viewed by 873
Abstract
To study the effect of cyclic impacts and confining pressure on the damage evolution of rock materials, numerical simulations of cyclic impact tests on rock materials under confining pressure were carried out by LS-DYNA using dynamic relaxation and full restart analysis. The static [...] Read more.
To study the effect of cyclic impacts and confining pressure on the damage evolution of rock materials, numerical simulations of cyclic impact tests on rock materials under confining pressure were carried out by LS-DYNA using dynamic relaxation and full restart analysis. The static confining pressure was applied by dynamic relaxation, and cyclic impacts were realized by full restart analysis. As the crack generation and propagation result in the failure of elements in the finite element model, the damage variable defined by the crack density method was characterized by volume reduction. Numerical simulation indicates that both the confining pressure and amplitude of incident stress waves significantly affect the damage evolution of rock materials. High incident stress waves lead to severe damage, while large confining pressure results in minor damage. Under confining pressure, the damage to rock materials is alleviated due to the constraint effect on crack propagation. The number of cyclic impacts before macroscopic fracture increases as the confining pressure increases and decreases when the amplitude of the incident stress waves increases. The cumulative damage of rock materials under confining pressure progressively increases with the number of cyclic impacts, and the damage evolution exhibits three distinct stages: rapid rising, steady development, and sharp rising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks)
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17 pages, 5952 KiB  
Article
Study on the Internal Mechanics and Energy Characteristics of Soil under Different Failure Modes
by Lian-Sheng Tang and Yu-Xi Wang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(15), 8648; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13158648 - 27 Jul 2023
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Under uniaxial compression, the soil mass may be subjected to transverse tensile splitting or swelling failure. This failure is caused by the tensile stress in the soil; that is, part of the vertical stress is converted into lateral stress. In order to investigate [...] Read more.
Under uniaxial compression, the soil mass may be subjected to transverse tensile splitting or swelling failure. This failure is caused by the tensile stress in the soil; that is, part of the vertical stress is converted into lateral stress. In order to investigate the factors that influence the stress transfer phenomenon, the failure mode of the soil mass can be predicted more accurately, and the internal force of the soil mass can be analyzed. This paper begins with the definition of the stress conversion coefficient and measures it by combining macroscopic mechanical properties with microscopic structure analyses. By carrying out a uniaxial compression test on a large soil sample, an equivalent tensile test was carried out according to the equivalent transverse displacement measured using the S-type tension sensor in order to explore the change law of the stress conversion coefficient. The arrangement and distribution of pores and particles at different positions in the samples before and after compression were further observed and analyzed using the SEM test to explore the formation mechanism of the stress transition phenomenon, and the following research results were obtained: (1) The stress conversion coefficient of the soil under compression is not invariable. An increase in the loading rate and a decrease in water content cause brittleness, and the stress conversion coefficient of the soil decreases. (2) Shear failure is more likely to occur in large samples of brittle soils under uniaxial compression. (3) The tensile stress in the compressed soil is caused by the invasion and extrusion of soil particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks)
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14 pages, 3910 KiB  
Article
Study on Rock Failure Criterion Based on Elastic Strain Energy Density
by Yang Cheng and Liangliang Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(14), 8435; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13148435 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 845
Abstract
Uniaxial and five conventional triaxial compression tests were conducted on sandstone to obtain the evolution laws of the input energy density, elastic strain energy density, and dissipative energy density. The input and dissipative energy densities increased with increasing axial strain; the elastic strain [...] Read more.
Uniaxial and five conventional triaxial compression tests were conducted on sandstone to obtain the evolution laws of the input energy density, elastic strain energy density, and dissipative energy density. The input and dissipative energy densities increased with increasing axial strain; the elastic strain energy density increased with increasing axial strain at the pre-peak stage and decreased after the peak. According to the linear change rule between the peak elastic strain energy density and confining pressure, the energy density failure criterion of sandstone was established, and the criterion has high precision and few parameters, and the parameters have clear physical meaning. Moreover, the expression of the energy density failure criterion was similar to the classical Hoek-Brown criterion, but its adaptability was more extensive. The strength calculation results for seven different rocks under different confining pressures calculated using the energy density failure criterion were consistent with the experimental values, and the calculation error was smaller than that of the Mohr–Coulomb criterion and Drucker–Prager criterion, verifying the accuracy and applicability of the criterion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks)
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13 pages, 4481 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Mechanical Properties of Xinyang Red Clay Improved by Lime and Fly Ash
by Hui Tang, Ziquan Yang, Hongtao Zhu and Haoqiang Dong
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 6271; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13106271 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
There is limited research on the utilization of lime and fly ash for improving the mechanical properties of red clay soils. This study investigates the physical and mechanical properties of modified red clay with single fly ash, single lime, and mixed cases using [...] Read more.
There is limited research on the utilization of lime and fly ash for improving the mechanical properties of red clay soils. This study investigates the physical and mechanical properties of modified red clay with single fly ash, single lime, and mixed cases using various experimental tests, such as direct shear tests, unconfined compression tests, etc. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to analyze the microstructure of the modified red clay. The findings indicate that the incorporation of lime and fly ash resulted in a decrease in the liquid limit, plasticity index, and maximum dry density of the modified soils, while increasing the plastic limit and optimum water content. The enhancement of lateritic soils by lime and fly ash was primarily attributed to the generation of gel substances from the active ingredients, which improved the soil microstructure and increased its strength. The case study in this paper provides a new perspective on soil improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks)
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18 pages, 6624 KiB  
Article
Reloading Mechanical Properties and Particle Flow Simulation of Pre-Peak Confining Pressure Unloading Sandstone
by Bin Ma, Xinchao Ding and Xingzhou Chen
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 5775; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095775 - 7 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
The excavation-unloading damage effects of western high-geostress slopes on rock were explored by testing the pre-peak confining pressure unloading sandstone reloading mechanical properties. The deformation and failure mechanisms were studied from a mesoscopic perspective using the particle discrete-element method. (1) Approaching the unloading [...] Read more.
The excavation-unloading damage effects of western high-geostress slopes on rock were explored by testing the pre-peak confining pressure unloading sandstone reloading mechanical properties. The deformation and failure mechanisms were studied from a mesoscopic perspective using the particle discrete-element method. (1) Approaching the unloading failure, confining pressure increased the specimen bearing capacity attenuation. (2) The confining pressure unloading promoted microdefect propagation and development; the specimens increased rapidly to the damage stress value after reaching the initiation stress value. The penetration fracture zone was more evident and expansive in the model, and the distribution of the dense crack areas was more concentrated in the fracture zone and area. (3) The average interval of the tangential contact force was the largest in the direction of crack expansion and propagation. The strong force chains were shown to primarily bear external loads, whereas the weak force chains played a key auxiliary role in maintaining stability. (4) The number of cracks developing in the confining pressure unloading damage process indicated that the loading process did not cause damage to the specimens. The fracture zones further propagated and formed on the dominant fractures based on the damage caused by the confining pressure unloading disturbance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks)
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18 pages, 8702 KiB  
Article
Temperature Variation of Rock during Deformation and Fracturing: Particle Flow Modeling Method and Mechanism Analyses
by Xiaojie Jiao, Cheng Cheng, Yubing Song, Gang Wang and Linjuan He
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 3321; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13053321 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1471
Abstract
The rock deformation and failure characteristics and mechanisms are very important for stability evaluation and hazard control in rock engineering. The process of rock deformation and failure is often accompanied by temperature changes. It is of great significance to study the characteristics and [...] Read more.
The rock deformation and failure characteristics and mechanisms are very important for stability evaluation and hazard control in rock engineering. The process of rock deformation and failure is often accompanied by temperature changes. It is of great significance to study the characteristics and mechanism of temperature variation in rock under deformation and fracturing for a better understanding of rock failure and to obtain some probable precursor information for guiding the prediction of the mechanical behavior of rock. However, most of the studies are based on observations in the field and laboratory tests, while it is still required to develop an effective method for modeling and calculating the temperature variation of rock during the deformation and failure processes. In this paper, a particle flow modeling method based on energy analyses is proposed for simulating the temperature variation of rocks, considering four temperature effects, including the thermoelastic effect, friction effect, damping effect, and heat conduction effect. The four effects are analyzed, and the theoretical equations have been provided. On this basis, the numerical model is built and calibrated according to the laboratory uniaxial compressive experiment on a marble specimen, and a comparison study has been conducted between the laboratory and numerical experiment results. It is found that the numerical model can well simulate the average value and distribution of the temperature variation of rock specimens, so this method can be applied for studying the mechanism of temperature variation more comprehensively during the whole process of rock deformation and fracturing compared with the continuous modeling methods. With this method, it is shown that the temperature change has three different stages with different characteristics during the uniaxial compression experiments. In the different stages, the different effects play different roles in temperature variation, and stress distribution and crack propagation have obvious influences on the local distribution of temperature. Further investigations have also been conducted in a series of sensitive analyses on the influences of four factors, including the thermal conductivity, friction coefficient, thermal expansion coefficient, and particle size ratio. The results show that they have different influences on the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the rock specimens during the deformation and failure process, while the thermal expansion coefficient and the particle size ratio have more significant impacts than the other two factors. These findings increase our knowledge on the characteristics and mechanism of temperature variation in rock during the deformation and fracturing process, and the proposed modeling method can be used in more studies for deformation and fracturing analyses in rock experiments and engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks)
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16 pages, 3016 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Cutting Performance of a TBM Disc Cutter and Cerchar Abrasivity Index Based on the Brittleness and Properties of Rock
by Hoyoung Jeong, Seungbeom Choi and Yong-Ki Lee
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042612 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
The brittleness of rock is known to be an important property that affects the fragmentation characteristics of rock in mechanized rock cutting. As the interaction between the cutting tool and the rock (i.e., cutter forces, cutting efficiency, s/p ratio, and abrasivity) during mechanical [...] Read more.
The brittleness of rock is known to be an important property that affects the fragmentation characteristics of rock in mechanized rock cutting. As the interaction between the cutting tool and the rock (i.e., cutter forces, cutting efficiency, s/p ratio, and abrasivity) during mechanical rock cutting is strongly influenced by the characteristics of rock fragmentation, the cutting tools (i.e., disc cutter and pick cutter) experience different cutting behaviors depending on the rock brittleness. In this study, the relationships between the rock brittleness and the abrasivity of rock, and the cutting efficiency of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) disc cutter were investigated for Korean rock types. The brittleness was calculated by the mathematical relations between the uniaxial compressive and Brazilian tensile strengths of the rock. The cutting efficiency and abrasivity were evaluated by the cutter forces and specific energy from the linear cutting machine (LCM) test and the Cerchar abrasivity index (CAI) test, respectively. The results show that rock brittleness is significantly correlated with cutting efficiency and CAI values. Consequently, some prediction models for cutter forces, specific energy, and the CAI were proposed as functions of the rock brittleness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks)
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12 pages, 5237 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation into the Mechanical Behaviours and Energy Characteristics of Hard Coal Subjected to Coupled Static-Dynamic Loads
by Jiachuan Sun, Linming Dou, Guifeng Wang, Lihai Tan and Huaide Peng
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13020892 - 9 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
In practical engineering, coal burst is usually caused by the combination of high geo-stress and dynamic loading. To study the dynamic response of coal in geo-stress conditions, numerical models of a coupled static–dynamic split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test system were established, based [...] Read more.
In practical engineering, coal burst is usually caused by the combination of high geo-stress and dynamic loading. To study the dynamic response of coal in geo-stress conditions, numerical models of a coupled static–dynamic split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test system were established, based on which impact tests for coal specimens at different impact speeds and static pre-stress levels were conducted. The mechanical properties, energy characteristics and failure patterns of coal specimens under coupled static and dynamic loads were analyzed. The results show that when the pre-stress is constant, peak stress, the maximum strain energy and the maximum kinetic energy increase significantly with impact speed. Nevertheless, they are less affected by the static pre-stress, increasing linearly with a pre-stress level under lower impact speeds but becoming stable under higher impact speeds. In addition, weak dynamic loads may trigger the instability of the coal specimen in a high pre-stress condition. Overall, both the impact speed and static pre-stress have influence on the mechanical behavior and energy characteristics of coal specimens under coupled static and dynamic loads, but the influence of the impact speed outweighs that of the static pre-stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks)
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19 pages, 7279 KiB  
Article
Progressive Formation of Retrogressive Landslide and the Lateral Length of Instability
by Xiongpeng Zhu, Linglin Xie, Yi Tang, Yifan Chen, Huihua Hu, Guangyin Lu, Changfu Chen and Hang Lin
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13020799 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
Retrogressive landslide is caused by the lower rock mass sliding, so that the upper part loses support, is deformed, and starts to slide. In the process of highway construction, the incised slope often leads to retrogressive landslide, and the determination of the damage [...] Read more.
Retrogressive landslide is caused by the lower rock mass sliding, so that the upper part loses support, is deformed, and starts to slide. In the process of highway construction, the incised slope often leads to retrogressive landslide, and the determination of the damage range of retrogressive landslide is of great significance for the control of the slope. Taking a highway retrogressive landslide in Hunan Province as the research object, the particle flow discrete element is used to numerically simulate the entire failure process of the slope. According to the complex geological conditions of the slope, the rock mass of each part of the slope model is divided, the displacement of key parts of the landslide is monitored, the whole failure process of the retrogressive landslide is simulated, and the lateral length of traction instability is calculated through the stability theory of the sliding pull-crack failure slope. The research shows that the incised slope is the root cause of the retrogressive landslide, and the rainfall is the direct cause. When the retrogressive landslide is treated in engineering practice, the lateral length of traction instability can be obtained according to the stability theory of the sliding pull-crack failure slope, to realize the accurate judgment of the traction failure range of the sliding body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks)
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19 pages, 13263 KiB  
Article
Failure Behaviour of Jointed Rock Masses with 3D Nonpenetrating Joints under Uniaxial Compression: Insights from Discrete Element Method Modelling
by Rihong Cao, Hua Dai, Rubing Yao, Hang Lin and Kaihui Li
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 11027; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122111027 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1401
Abstract
It is well known that joints or fissures have an important effect on the failure mechanism of natural rocks. Previously, many numerical and experimental papers have been carried out to study the strength anisotropy and failure characteristics of jointed rocks. However, few studies [...] Read more.
It is well known that joints or fissures have an important effect on the failure mechanism of natural rocks. Previously, many numerical and experimental papers have been carried out to study the strength anisotropy and failure characteristics of jointed rocks. However, few studies have been carried out on the failure mechanism of nonpersistent jointed rock masses with different persistence, especially for nonpersistent joints in three dimensions. In the present study, the failure characteristics of a 3D nonpersistent jointed rock mass with different inclinations (θ) and persistence (K) are studied by numerical simulation. For the 3D digital elevation model (DEM), the linear parallel bond model (LPBM) and smooth-joint model (S-J) were used to model the rock-like material and joint interface, respectively. The connections between the geometric parameters of joints and peak strength are revealed. For the peak strength, the joint persistence only plays a minor role in specimens with inclinations of 0° and 90°, and its influence on strength is mainly reflected in the specimens with shear failure (θ = 45°, 60°, and 75°). Based on microcrack accumulation and evolution, four typical failure processes (shear failure, split failure, mixed failure, and intact failure) are analysed from the micro perspective. The shear stress evolution process on the 3D nonpersistent joint of the specimen with different inclinations under K1 = 0.42 was monitored by the measurement circle, and it was found that the distribution of shear stress inside the rock bridge is related to the failure mode of the specimen. For the specimens with θ = 0° and 90°, the shear stress had little change, indicating that there is slight shear slip behaviour on the joint surface. When the inclination is 45°, 60°, and 75°, the shear stress changes obviously during loading, indicating that the shear action is strong in this failure mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Failure Behavior of Rocks)
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