Recent Research on Tunneling and Underground Engineering

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 December 2024 | Viewed by 6850

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tunnels and underground projects are an effective and direct way to expand land use space, reduce population congestion, ease traffic, and improve urban ecological environment. The vigorous development of underground space has become an inevitable trend of urban development. Currently, tunnels and underground projects have presented characteristics such as micro-deformation, small spacing, large cross-section, large burial depth, high precision, long distance, ultra-large scale, etc. Constructions are often influenced by the geotechnical engineering problems of hydrology and groundwater, underground geotechnical stability, and urban area safety, which seriously restrict the development and utilization of urban underground space, and even lay serious safety hazards for the construction of tunnels and underground projects. In particular, the high-stress surrounding rock of deeply buried tunnels is highly susceptible to collapse, rock explosion, and sudden water and mud, which not only seriously endangers the lives of people and equipment but also interferes with the construction schedule. Therefore, further research is needed from various related aspects, such as tunnel and underground engineering mechanics models, rock deformation process simulation, surrounding rock monitoring and support, etc.

In recent years, various research methods from theoretical, experimental, and numerical perspectives have been proposed to solve the three major technical problems of "water, soft rock and unpredictable deformation", effectively promoting the research progress in the field of tunneling and underground engineering. However, there are still large gaps in tunneling and underground engineering research due to the complex stress field‒temperature, field‒seepage, and field‒chemical field coupling relationships in the rock mass of tunnels and underground engineering.

The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together papers on different topics related to risk assessment, disaster prediction, advance warning, destabilization control, and post-disaster reconstruction in tunneling and underground engineering, such as three-dimensional similar model tests, multi-field coupled mechanics analytical models, and their engineering applications. Submissions relating to theory, experiments, techniques, numerical methods, and engineering projects are all welcomed, including both original research and review articles.

Prof. Dr. Hang Lin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • excavation unloading
  • hydraulic coupling
  • thermodynamic coupling
  • lining supports
  • rheological behavior
  • constitutive models
  • numerical techniques
  • reinforcement and monitoring techniques

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 10351 KiB  
Article
A Recognition and Classification Method for Underground Acoustic Emission Signals Based on Improved CELMD and Swin Transformer Neural Networks
by Xuebin Xie and Yunpeng Yang
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(10), 4188; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14104188 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 418
Abstract
To address the challenges in processing and identifying mine acoustic emission signals, as well as the inefficiency and inaccuracy issues prevalent in existing methods, an enhanced CELMD approach is adopted for preprocessing the acoustic emission signals. This method leverages correlation coefficient filtering to [...] Read more.
To address the challenges in processing and identifying mine acoustic emission signals, as well as the inefficiency and inaccuracy issues prevalent in existing methods, an enhanced CELMD approach is adopted for preprocessing the acoustic emission signals. This method leverages correlation coefficient filtering to extract the primary components, followed by classification and recognition using the Swin Transformer neural network. The results demonstrate that the improved CELMD method effectively extracts the main features of the acoustic emission signals with higher decomposition accuracy and reduced occurrences of mode mixing and end effects. Furthermore, the Swin Transformer neural network exhibits outstanding performance in classifying acoustic emission signals, surpassing both convolutional neural networks and ViT neural networks in terms of accuracy and convergence speed. Moreover, utilizing preprocessed data from the improved CELMD enhances the performance of the Swin Transformer neural network. With an increase in data volume, the accuracy, stability, and convergence speed of the Swin Transformer neural network continuously improve, and using preprocessed data from the enhanced CELMD yields superior training results compared to those obtained without preprocessing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research on Tunneling and Underground Engineering)
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20 pages, 6579 KiB  
Article
The Bolt Anchorage Performance of Fractured Rock under a Freeze–Thaw Cycle Load
by Fengyan Han and Yu Chen
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(10), 4152; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14104152 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 398
Abstract
In circumstances influenced by freeze–thaw cycles, the strength of rock diminishes, necessitating an in-depth investigation into its corresponding anchoring support schemes. This study conducted experiments on rocks with and without fractures at angles of 0°, 45°, and 90° subjected to freeze–thaw cycles of [...] Read more.
In circumstances influenced by freeze–thaw cycles, the strength of rock diminishes, necessitating an in-depth investigation into its corresponding anchoring support schemes. This study conducted experiments on rocks with and without fractures at angles of 0°, 45°, and 90° subjected to freeze–thaw cycles of 0, 10, 20, and 30 iterations. It explored the effects of fracture inclination, anchoring conditions, and freeze–thaw cycles on the mechanical properties of rock. The primary findings from the experiments are as follows: (1) fracture inclination significantly impacts rock strength, with the most pronounced deterioration observed in samples with a 45° fracture, exhibiting strengths and elastic moduli at 28.4% and 73.4%, respectively, of those of fracture-free samples; (2) anchoring effectively controls deformation but concurrently induces stress concentrations, resulting in Y-shaped crack formation around the anchoring rod; (3) the degree of strength reduction due to freeze–thaw cycles is angle-dependent, with fracture-free and 90° fracture samples exhibiting diminished strength post freezing, while the 45° fracture samples’ strength remains largely unchanged. Additionally, this study employed a numerical model, coupling a discrete element method (DEM) with a finite difference method (FDM), to simulate experimental conditions, yielding conclusions consistent with experimental outcomes, and notably revealing a prevalence of tensile cracks over shear cracks within samples under uniaxial compression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research on Tunneling and Underground Engineering)
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23 pages, 19304 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation Study on Deformation Mechanism of Tunnel–Landslide Orthogonal Systems and Early Warnings of Imminent Sliding
by Meng Mi, Zhigang Tao, Shihui Pang, Keyuan Liu and Ke Qin
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 2790; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14072790 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 423
Abstract
This paper takes a tunnel through a landslide in Northwest China as an example, constructs a mechanical model of a tunnel–landslide orthogonal system, and explores the deformation mechanism of a tunnel–landslide system and the technology of early warnings of near-slips. Given the problem [...] Read more.
This paper takes a tunnel through a landslide in Northwest China as an example, constructs a mechanical model of a tunnel–landslide orthogonal system, and explores the deformation mechanism of a tunnel–landslide system and the technology of early warnings of near-slips. Given the problem that it is difficult to accurately monitor the deformation and damage characteristics of the tunnel–landslide system using conventional methods, FLAC3D was used to analyze the deformation mechanism of the tunnel–landslide orthogonal system and numerical simulation of the NPR constant resistance large deformation anchors for the early warning of near-slips. Based on the strength reduction method, by reducing the mechanical parameters of the shear strength of the slip zone and simulating different degrees of landslides, we obtained the change rules of the displacement and the axial force of the NPR constant-resistance large deformation anchor cable in the tunnel–landslide orthogonal system, established the warning mode of the Newtonian force tunnel–landslide orthogonal system, and successfully issued a near-slip warning in actual engineering applications. The above research is of great significance to the stability monitoring and risk assessment of tunnel–landslide systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research on Tunneling and Underground Engineering)
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20 pages, 6928 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Effects of Hob Temperature on the Rock-Breaking Characteristics of Sandstone Strata
by Yun-Gui Pan, You-Liang Chen, Xi Du, Hui-Dong Tong, Fei-Yu Tang, Xiao-Jian Wu, Su-Ran Wang, Shao-Ming Liao and Bin Peng
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 2258; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14062258 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
To explore the effect of hob temperature on the rock-breaking characteristics of full-section tunnel boring machines (TBMs) in sandstone strata, high-temperature furnace heating experiments of sandstone and physical and mechanical experiments at room temperature and high temperatures were conducted to obtain the mechanical [...] Read more.
To explore the effect of hob temperature on the rock-breaking characteristics of full-section tunnel boring machines (TBMs) in sandstone strata, high-temperature furnace heating experiments of sandstone and physical and mechanical experiments at room temperature and high temperatures were conducted to obtain the mechanical properties of sandstone at different temperatures. The mechanical properties at different temperatures were calibrated using PFC3D to obtain micro-mechanical and thermodynamic parameters and establish a rock-breaking model. The orthogonal experiments were used to establish the simulation experiments of rock breaking under different temperatures, confining pressure conditions, knife tip distances, and penetration degrees. The results show that the hob tip force is gradually increasing with an increase in the confining pressure. When below 600 °C, there is little temperature transfer from particle to particle as the temperature increases. At this time, with the two sides of the rock slag flaking, the hob knife tip force is the first to reduce. After 600 °C, with the expansion of the rock extrusion hob, the temperature rises on both sides; at this time, the hob tip force also increased. The hob tip force is minimal at a tip distance of 70 mm and an S/P of 14. As the surrounding pressure increases, the rock-breaking efficiency of the hobber decreases. The highest rock-breaking efficiency is achieved at 25 °C and 600 °C. The rock-breaking efficiency is highest when the knife tip distance is designed to be 70 mm, and when the S/P is 14. The three-dimensional constitutive analysis of rock-breaking particles showed that the increment caused by the hob temperature is mainly distributed in the normal force direction in the surrounding rock without any confining pressure, and the increment caused by the hob temperature exposed to the confining pressure occurs in all directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research on Tunneling and Underground Engineering)
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16 pages, 6372 KiB  
Article
Research on a Grading Evaluation System for Water Inflow in Three-Hole Parallel Subsea Tunnels Considering Inter-Tunnel Influence
by Zhiming Han, Keyu Yan, Zhengguo Zhu and Huimin Cui
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(23), 12761; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132312761 - 28 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 698
Abstract
Water inflow analysis is critical for subsea tunnel construction. However, existing studies largely concentrate on the inflow issues pertaining to single-hole tunnels. To address current practical engineering problems, a three-hole parallel configuration is common for subsea tunnels, which may alter water inflow patterns [...] Read more.
Water inflow analysis is critical for subsea tunnel construction. However, existing studies largely concentrate on the inflow issues pertaining to single-hole tunnels. To address current practical engineering problems, a three-hole parallel configuration is common for subsea tunnels, which may alter water inflow patterns due to the influence of their seepage fields. Herein, numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the water inflow characteristics of a three-hole parallel subsea tunnel. Specifically, the impact of various factors on the water inflow phenomenon, including the permeability coefficient of the surrounding rock, the depth of the seawater, the depth of the tunnel, the spacing between tunnels, and the relative size of the tunnels, are comprehensively studied. Furthermore, based on the principles of the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy mathematics, an exhaustive assessment framework is developed to evaluate the water inflow of three-hole parallel subsea tunnels. The results indicate that there is a mutual influence between the three parallel tunnels, differing from the predicted water inflow, which is overestimated in a single-hole tunnel model. Therefore, the water inflow assessment for a three-hole parallel subsea tunnel system should account for the inter-tunnel influences. The findings of this study offer valuable insights for the design of waterproofing and drainage systems in three-hole subsea tunnels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research on Tunneling and Underground Engineering)
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16 pages, 5668 KiB  
Article
The Inversion Method Applied to the Stress Field around a Deeply Buried Tunnel Based on Surface Strain
by Xiaobing Yan, Qiqi Hao, Rui Yang, Jianyu Peng, Fengpeng Zhang and Sanyuan Tan
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(22), 12507; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132212507 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 787
Abstract
To identify the magnitude and direction of in situ stress in deeply buried tunnels, an inversion method for the stress field was proposed based on a finite number of measurement points of surface strain. Firstly, elastic strain data of finite points on the [...] Read more.
To identify the magnitude and direction of in situ stress in deeply buried tunnels, an inversion method for the stress field was proposed based on a finite number of measurement points of surface strain. Firstly, elastic strain data of finite points on the surface of tunnel surrounding rock were acquired using the borehole stress relief method at the engineering site. Secondly, a finite element model of the tunnel surrounding rock with plastic damage was established, and the parameters of the finite element model were substituted using the SIGINI subroutine. Then, an improved Surrogate Model Accelerated Random Search (SMARS) was developed using genetic algorithm programming on the MATLAB™ platform to invert and attain the globally optimal boundary conditions. Finally, the obtained optimal boundary conditions were applied to the numerical model to calculate the stress distribution in the engineering site. The reliability of this method was validated through a three-dimensional example. The method has been successfully applied to the stress-field analysis of deep tunnels in Macheng Iron Mine, Hebei Province, China. The research results show that this method is a low-cost, reliable approach for stress-field inversion in the rock around a tunnel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research on Tunneling and Underground Engineering)
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23 pages, 4882 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Testing and Analysis of Clay Soil Stabilization Using Waste Marble Powder
by Ibrahim Haruna Umar, Hang Lin and Awaisu Shafiu Ibrahim
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(16), 9274; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13169274 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2782
Abstract
Soil stabilization is a critical step in numerous engineering projects, preventing soil erosion, increasing soil strength, and reducing the risk of subsidence. Due to its inexpensive cost and potential environmental benefits, waste materials, such as waste marble powder (WMP), have been used as [...] Read more.
Soil stabilization is a critical step in numerous engineering projects, preventing soil erosion, increasing soil strength, and reducing the risk of subsidence. Due to its inexpensive cost and potential environmental benefits, waste materials, such as waste marble powder (WMP), have been used as additives for soil stabilization in recent years. This study investigates waste marble powder’s effects on unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and clayey soil’s ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) at different water contents and curing times, and artificial neural networks (ANNs) are also used to predict the UCS and UPV values based on three input variables (percentage of waste marble dust, curing time, and moisture content). Geo-engineering experiments (Atterberg limits, compaction characteristics, specific gravity, UCS, and UPV) and analytical methods (ANNs) are used. The study results indicate that the soil is high-plasticity clay (CH) using the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS), and adding waste marble powder (WMP) can significantly improve the UCS and UPV of clay soils, especially at optimal water content, curing times of 28 days, and 60% WMP. It is found that the ANN models accurately predict the UCS and UPV values with high correlation coefficients approaching 1. In addition, this study shows that the optimum water content and curing time for stabilized clay soils depend on the grade and amount of waste marble powder utilized. Overall, the study demonstrates the potential of waste marble dust as a soil stabilization additive and the usefulness of ANNs in predicting UCS and UPV values. This study’s results are relevant to engineers and researchers working on soil stabilization projects, such as foundations and backfills. They can contribute to the development of sustainable and cost-effective soil stabilization solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research on Tunneling and Underground Engineering)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS OF COLLAPSE IN LA HIGUERA HYDROPOWER TUNNEL, CHILE
Author: Schlotfeldt
Highlights: Advances in in understanding durability problems due to laumontite in tunnels in volcanic rocks Advances in design methods in tunnel design in volcanic rock with laumontite rich zones

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