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Geological Disaster Forecast and Prevention for Tunneling and Underground Engineering

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 18049

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: rock/manipulative mechanics; engineering safety; numerical simulation; mining; ecological restoration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tunneling and underground engineering are an important part of infrastructure has and have high geological conditions and mountain lithology requirements during construction. Improper construction measures and harsh environmental conditions may cause geological disasters such as collapse, water gushing, rock bursts and regional fracture, threatening the safety of people’s lives and property.

In recent years, various test methods, including laboratory tests, numerical simulations, and theoretical analysis derivation, have been used to forecast and prevent geological disasters in tunneling and underground engineering. However, deep understanding of tunneling and underground engineering is often hampered due to the coupling of complex geological conditions and other external factors. Therefore, further research is necessary on the stability of tunneling and underground engineering, such as the mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock under excavation unloading, hydraulic coupling, lining support and rheological behavior, and nonlinear flow of water in fractures, as well as effective reinforcement and monitoring techniques.

The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together papers on different topics related to forecasting and preventing geological disasters in tunneling and underground engineering, such as laboratory tests, constitutive models, and their engineering applications. Submissions relating to theory, experiments, techniques, numerical methods, and engineering projects are all welcomed, including both original research and review articles.

Prof. Dr. Hang Lin
Dr. Chunyang Zhang
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • excavation unloading
  • hydraulic coupling
  • lining supports
  • rheological behavior
  • constitutive models
  • numerical techniques
  • reinforcement and monitoring techniques

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 4801 KiB  
Article
A New Quantitative Evaluation Index System for Disaster-Causing Factors of Mud Inrush Disasters in Water-Rich Fault Fracture Zone
by Jianguo Liu, Xiao Zhang, Xianghui Li, Zihan Li and Chuanyu Sun
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 6199; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13106199 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
The Yonglian tunnel in China has experienced 15 instances of severe water and mud inrush disasters, resulting in a total volume of 53,000 m3 of gushing water and mud. These disasters have caused irreversible environmental damage, including hilltop collapse and soil erosion. [...] Read more.
The Yonglian tunnel in China has experienced 15 instances of severe water and mud inrush disasters, resulting in a total volume of 53,000 m3 of gushing water and mud. These disasters have caused irreversible environmental damage, including hilltop collapse and soil erosion. To achieve early warning and early management of such disasters, the paper introduced the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method into the Analytic Hierarchy Process to establish a new quantitative evaluation index system for the causal factors. As the evaluation method involves expert participation in scoring, it inherently presents certain subjective elements. To further substantiate the validity of our approach, we conducted a series of model tests. Then, the accuracy of the quantitative evaluation indexes was verified through these model tests, indicating that the quantitative evaluation system has important guiding significance for safe tunnel construction, allowing for early warning and management of potential disasters. Full article
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15 pages, 1532 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Crystalline Blockages in Mountain Tunnel Drainage Systems Based on Decision Analysis Methods
by Chen Lu, Jinhua Xu, Long Wang, Hongjie Wang, Biao He, Chongming Tian and Wangping Qian
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3721; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063721 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Crystalline blockages in mountain tunnel drainage systems are becoming a common environmental problem. Considering the lack of research on the influence degree of the factors affecting crystalline blockages in mountain tunnel drainage systems, this paper classified and evaluated the importance of relevant factors [...] Read more.
Crystalline blockages in mountain tunnel drainage systems are becoming a common environmental problem. Considering the lack of research on the influence degree of the factors affecting crystalline blockages in mountain tunnel drainage systems, this paper classified and evaluated the importance of relevant factors through decision analysis methods. Our purpose is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the primary factors causing crystalline blockages in tunnels. The influence factors are selected and categorized through a literature review, and then the influence factors are screened twice by the expert scoring method and the gray-whitening weighted function clustering method to eliminate the less important influence factors. Finally, the influence factors are evaluated systematically according to the hierarchical analysis method. The results indicate that the factors affecting the crystalline blockage of the drainage system can be divided into five categories: hydrology, geology, shotcrete materials, drainage facilities, and the cave environment. Among these factors, shotcrete materials are the key factors affecting the problem of crystalline blockages. Specifically, the density of shotcrete and the content of calcium in cement have a significant impact on the crystalline blockages, which have the following comprehensive weights: 0.221 and 0.152, respectively. Since the shotcrete materials are human controllable factors, they can be taken as the key research objects to solve the problem of crystalline blockages. Full article
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20 pages, 5468 KiB  
Article
A Strain Hardening and Softening Constitutive Model for Hard Brittle Rocks
by Junchi Chen, Weihua Wang and Longfeng Chen
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 2764; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13052764 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4627
Abstract
To study the strain hardening and softening mechanism for hard brittle rocks, a strain hardening and softening constitutive model for hard brittle rocks is developed. First, the normalised hardening and softening factors are defined, which characterise the yield state of rock at the [...] Read more.
To study the strain hardening and softening mechanism for hard brittle rocks, a strain hardening and softening constitutive model for hard brittle rocks is developed. First, the normalised hardening and softening factors are defined, which characterise the yield state of rock at the stages of pre-peak hardening and post-peak softening, respectively. Then, a unified strength parameter evolution model is established that can describe the nonlinear characteristics of cohesion and the internal friction angle under different confining pressures. Based on the Mohr–Coulomb criterion, a strain hardening and softening constitutive model is proposed. Finally, the proposed model was implemented in FLAC3D, and triaxial compression numerical tests of granite and diabase were conducted. The results show that the constitutive model can characterise the nonlinear mechanical behaviour of the pre-peak hardening stage and post-peak softening stage of hard brittle rock. The model was also able to satisfactorily capture the transition from brittle failure to plastic failure for hard brittle rock under high confining pressures. Full article
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19 pages, 6195 KiB  
Article
Study on Blasting Vibration Control of Brick-Concrete Structure under Subway Tunnel
by Yangyong Wu, Chaomin Mu, Qi Zong, Jiehao Wu and Hui Zhou
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 10960; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122110960 - 29 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
In order to study the impact of the blasting vibration of subway tunnels on adjacent buildings, taking the tunnel mining method construction of the section between Zhifang Street Station and Metro Town Station of Wuhan Metro Line 27 as the engineering background, the [...] Read more.
In order to study the impact of the blasting vibration of subway tunnels on adjacent buildings, taking the tunnel mining method construction of the section between Zhifang Street Station and Metro Town Station of Wuhan Metro Line 27 as the engineering background, the blasting scheme is optimized by reducing the maximum single section charge, multi-section and densifying the surrounding holes. The HHT method and wavelet analysis are used to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the optimization scheme from the perspective of energy. The results show that the peak velocity of the blasting vibration is significantly reduced and the frequency is significantly increased after the blasting scheme is optimized. After the blasting scheme is optimized, when the working face is directly below the external wall of the building, the peak vibration velocity is the largest; from the back of the working face to the front of the working face, the peak velocity of the surface particle vibration first increases and then decreases. The frequency band of the optimized blasting vibration signal energy distribution is wider and the energy is more dispersed. This study can provide some practical experience for the design and construction of similar projects. Full article
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16 pages, 3835 KiB  
Article
Influence of Small Radius Curve Shield Tunneling on Settlement of Ground Surface and Mechanical Properties of Surrounding Rock and Segment
by Ping Lou, Yonghe Li, Hongbo Xiao, Zhengang Zhang and Shide Lu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(18), 9119; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12189119 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Compared with straight tunnels, over-excavation occurs on the inner side of the curved section during shield construction of small radius curved tunnels, and the disturbance to the ground surface and mechanical properties of surrounding rock and segment are more severe. This paper establishes [...] Read more.
Compared with straight tunnels, over-excavation occurs on the inner side of the curved section during shield construction of small radius curved tunnels, and the disturbance to the ground surface and mechanical properties of surrounding rock and segment are more severe. This paper establishes the numerical models of small radius curve tunnels and straight tunnels to study the characteristics of surface deformation caused by the shield excavation of small radius curved tunnels and the influence of shield construction parameters on ground settlement, surrounding rock deformation, and segment force. The maximum error between the numerical simulation results and the measured surface settlement curve is 7.3%, which is in good agreement. The results show that: (1) The maximum value of the surface settlement of the small radius curve tunnel appears inside the curve section, and with the decrease in the curve radius, the surface settlement increases, and the distance between the peak settlement point and the tunnel center is larger. (2) When the curve radius of the tunnel is smaller, the lateral displacement of the ground surface moves farther to the inner side, and the range of soil mass with lateral displacement in the inner side is also wider. (3) Increasing the heading face pressure and grouting pressure can reduce surface settlement, but the heading face pressure should not exceed 350 kPa, and the grouting pressure should not exceed 250 kPa. (4) When the curve radius is smaller, the deformation of surrounding rock and the segment stress is larger. Full article
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18 pages, 4264 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of Ground Settlement Patterns Resulting from Tunnel Excavation in Composite Strata
by Huijuan Deng, Ping Cao, Yinzhu Liu, Zhizhen Liu, Gang Meng, Zhi Fan and Weiping Xie
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 5479; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115479 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Cross-river twin tunnels are prone to deformation and uneven settlement of the surrounding soil due to the complexity of the strata crossed, which has a negative impact on the tunnel structure. A numerical calculation model was established using the COMSOL Multiphysics to study [...] Read more.
Cross-river twin tunnels are prone to deformation and uneven settlement of the surrounding soil due to the complexity of the strata crossed, which has a negative impact on the tunnel structure. A numerical calculation model was established using the COMSOL Multiphysics to study the effects of twin tunnel excavation in composite strata on the ground settlement and the ground settlement pattern. The results indicated that after the construction of the twin tunnels is completed, the ground settlement above the first tunnel is slightly larger than the ground settlement above the second tunnel. The further the spacing between the two tunnels before and after excavation, the smaller the amount of ground settlement and the impact on the surrounding soil. The ground settlement value increases with the increase in burial depth, and the ground settlement curve gradually changes from a W-shaped curve to a V-shaped curve. As the distance between the two tunnels increases, the maximum settlement value of the settlement curve gradually decreases, and the ground lateral settlement curve changes from V-shaped to W-shaped. The higher the water level on the riverbed side, the greater the settlement value of the ground. Full article
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16 pages, 4674 KiB  
Article
Deformation Characteristics of Bolted Rock Joints under Compression-Shear Load
by Bo Liu, Hang Lin and Yifan Chen
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(10), 5226; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12105226 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1374
Abstract
Joints exist widely in tunnel engineering. Studying the deformation characteristics of the bolted joint is beneficial for preventing rock mass disasters. To reveal the deformation characteristics of bolted rock joints, the elastic solutions of the radial deformation characteristics of bolted rock joints under [...] Read more.
Joints exist widely in tunnel engineering. Studying the deformation characteristics of the bolted joint is beneficial for preventing rock mass disasters. To reveal the deformation characteristics of bolted rock joints, the elastic solutions of the radial deformation characteristics of bolted rock joints under compression-shear load were derived, which were based on the Lame solution in elastic mechanics and the displacement coordination condition of the interface between the bolt and the joint (assuming that the displacement at the interface between the bolt and joint is equal). Then, the distance from any point of the compression-shear side of the joint to the center of the bolt was denoted as r. The minimum of the radial displacement of the joint at the compression-shear side urmin was calculated. Numerical simulation verified the correctness of the elastic solutions by calculating the influence range and distance. In addition, the variation law of the value of the radial displacement (ur) was analyzed and discussed by changing the elastic modulus of the rock block (Er), radius (R), and elastic modulus (Eb) of the bolt. The results indicate the following: (1) The radial displacement will decrease as r decreases; the influence range of the bolt on the joint is approximately an ellipse, whereas the long axis of the ellipse is equal to the influence distance of the bolt. (2) The influence distance of the bolt is roughly six times the bolt radius (6R). (3) The radial displacement shows an exponential relationship with the elastic modulus of the rock and a nonlinear negative correlation with the radius and elastic modulus of the bolt. The increase in the elastic modulus of the rock, the elastic modulus, and the radius of the bolt will make the radial displacement smaller. Full article
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Review

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25 pages, 2217 KiB  
Review
Review of Research Progresses and Application of Geothermal Disaster Prevention on Large-Buried Tunnels
by Yifan Chen, Hang Lin and Baohua Liu
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(21), 10950; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122110950 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
Geothermal disaster caused by high geotemperature is a commonly encountered geological problem in tunnel engineering, especially in large-buried tunnels, which is directly related to the safety, technology, and economy of tunnel construction. It seriously affects the personnel security and the performances of construction [...] Read more.
Geothermal disaster caused by high geotemperature is a commonly encountered geological problem in tunnel engineering, especially in large-buried tunnels, which is directly related to the safety, technology, and economy of tunnel construction. It seriously affects the personnel security and the performances of construction equipment and building materials, greatly increasing the construction difficulty, and extending the total construction period, which has become a major issue to be urgently solved in the tunnel construction. This paper first briefly introduces the formation mechanism of the high-geotemperature environment of a large-buried tunnel and analyzes the significant influences of high-temperature on personnel, equipment, and materials in the construction process of tunnel engineering. Then, the worldwide research progress of rock mechanics in high-temperature large-buried tunnels is systematically described, including the thermo-mechanical properties of rock mass, the thermo-mechanical properties of shotcrete, and the rheological mechanism and control technology of surrounding rock. Subsequently, the previous geothermal disaster classification of large-buried tunnels is summarized and evaluated. Finally, the research findings of the key technologies of geothermal disaster prevention and control are presented in detail from three aspects of temperature reduction, thermal insulation, and personal protection, which are of great theoretical and practical significance for ensuring the safety design and construction of tunnels in similar geological environment. Full article
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