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Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019) | Viewed by 53444

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Head of Nano Hybrid BioInterfaces Lab (NHBIL), Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Interests: physical chemistry of surfaces; soft wet hybrid interfaces; biomaterials; sensors; nano- biointerfaces
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Point-of-care biosensor nanodevices have shown tremendous potentialities to revolutionize future personalized health-care diagnostics and therapy practices. With the rapid growth of nanotechnology, there has been an increased interest toward the development of engineered nanomaterials that can be used for triggered interactions with biological surfaces. In particular, nanomaterials-based biosensors play an increasing role in the construction of biosensing systems for different biological molecules (enzymes, antibodies, proteins, etc.).

Functionalized nanomaterials, due to their unique and tunable electrochemical and optical properties, are being used as immobilization platforms, catalytic tools, optical and electroactive labels to enhance biosensing characteristics with the goal to obtain high sensitivity, stability, and selectivity. Nanostructured sensors offer several advantages such as enhanced loading of desired biomolecules due to their larger surface area, the multifunctional properties of nanostructured materials and thus capability for simultaneous measurements of multiple biomarkers, and detection of minute concentration of desired biomolecules.

Based on the design of the nanoplatfom, target recognition can be performed in a biological environment, and the nano–bio interaction can be transduced into amplified readouts. Biosensing applications are intended for nano–bio-interfaces constructed, e.g., with biopolymeric nanostructured materials, two-dimensional nanohybrid membrane-mimetic surfaces, carbon nanomaterials (including nanotubes, nanofibers, graphene sheets, and their derivatives such as graphene oxide), nanostructured metal/metal oxide, plasmonic nanostructures and microfluidic-based systems.  

This Special Issue deals with the fundamentals of nanomaterials-based biosensors, addressing the different components of transducers, such as electrochemical, optical, piezoelectric, thermal, surface plasmon resonance, and their response at the hybrid biointerface.

Prof. Dr. Cristina Satriano
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Nanomaterials
  • Biomolecule Immobilization
  • Nanotechnology
  • Electrochemical biosensors
  • Optical biosensors
  • Acoustic biosensors
  • Functionalization
  • Nanoparticle

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

5 pages, 174 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue on Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing
by Cristina Satriano
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(21), 4504; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214504 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
Point-of-care nanobiosensors have tremendous potential to revolutionize the future of personalized nanomedicine, especially for the simultaneous diagnosis and therapy, which takes the name of theranostics [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

13 pages, 2144 KiB  
Article
Study of a Miniaturizable System for Optical Sensing Application to Human Cells
by Emanuele Luigi Sciuto, Giusy Villaggio, Maria Francesca Santangelo, Samuele Laudani, Concetta Federico, Salvatore Saccone, Fulvia Sinatra and Sebania Libertino
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050975 - 7 Mar 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2512
Abstract
Conventional approaches to human intracellular optical sensing, generally, require dedicated laboratories with bulky detection systems. They are performed by cell labeling procedures based on the use of fluorophores that are, mostly, phototoxic, invasive, bleached in case of prolonged light exposures, which require carriers [...] Read more.
Conventional approaches to human intracellular optical sensing, generally, require dedicated laboratories with bulky detection systems. They are performed by cell labeling procedures based on the use of fluorophores that are, mostly, phototoxic, invasive, bleached in case of prolonged light exposures, which require carriers and/or structural modifications for the cellular uptake. These issues, together with the sensitivity of the eukaryotic cell model, could be problematic towards the development of a robust sensing system suitable for biomedical screening. In this work, we studied a sensing system resulting from the combination of the commercial tris(2,2’bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) fluorophore, for cell labeling, with a potentially miniaturizable optical system composed by a laser source and a photomultiplier tube, for the fluorescence analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing)
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16 pages, 2307 KiB  
Article
Metallic Nanoparticles Obtained via “Green” Synthesis as a Platform for Biosensor Construction
by Galina Z. Gayda, Olha M. Demkiv, Nataliya Ye. Stasyuk, Roman Ya. Serkiz, Maksym D. Lootsik, Abdelhamid Errachid, Mykhailo V. Gonchar and Marina Nisnevitch
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040720 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 4048
Abstract
Novel nanomaterials, including metallic nanoparticles obtained via green synthesis (gNPs), have a great potential for application in biotechnology, industry and medicine. The special role of gNPs is related to antibacterial agents, fluorescent markers and carriers for drug delivery. However, application of gNPs for [...] Read more.
Novel nanomaterials, including metallic nanoparticles obtained via green synthesis (gNPs), have a great potential for application in biotechnology, industry and medicine. The special role of gNPs is related to antibacterial agents, fluorescent markers and carriers for drug delivery. However, application of gNPs for construction of amperometric biosensors (ABSs) is not well documented. The aim of the current research was to study potential advantages of using gNPs in biosensorics. The extracellular metabolites of the yeast Ogataea polymorpha were used as reducing agents for obtaining gNPs from the corresponding inorganic ions. Several gNPs were synthesized, characterized and tested as enzyme carriers on the surface of graphite electrodes (GEs). The most effective were Pd-based gNPs (gPdNPs), and these were studied further and applied for construction of laccase- and alcohol oxidase (AO)-based ABSs. AO/GE, AO-gPdNPs/GE, laccase/GE and laccase-gPdNPs/GE were obtained, and their analytical characteristics were studied. Both gPdNPs-modified ABSs were found to have broader linear ranges and higher storage stabilities than control electrodes, although they are less sensitive toward corresponding substrates. We thus conclude that gPdNPs may be promising for construction of ABSs for enzymes with very high affinities to their substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing)
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14 pages, 2777 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Nanoplatform of Graphene Oxide/Nanogold for Plasmonic Sensing and Cellular Applications at the Nanobiointerface
by Lorena Maria Cucci, Irina Naletova, Giuseppe Consiglio and Cristina Satriano
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040676 - 16 Feb 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4635
Abstract
In this study, nanocomposites of spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were fabricated by a simple one-step reduction method. The characterisation by UV-visible spectroscopy of the plasmonic sensing properties pointed out to a strong interaction between graphene and metal nanoparticles [...] Read more.
In this study, nanocomposites of spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were fabricated by a simple one-step reduction method. The characterisation by UV-visible spectroscopy of the plasmonic sensing properties pointed out to a strong interaction between graphene and metal nanoparticles in the hybrid GO-AuNP, as confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Moreover, atomic force microscopy analyses demonstrated that the gold nanoparticles were mostly confined to the basal planes of the GO sheets. The response of the nanoassemblies at the biointerface with human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line was investigated in terms of nanotoxicity as well as of total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Confocal microscopy imaging of cellular internalization highlighted the promising potentialities of GO-AuNP nanoplatforms for theranostic (i.e., sensing/imaging + therapy) applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing)
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18 pages, 3252 KiB  
Article
Influence of Chip Materials on Charge Generation in Flowing Solution in Nanobiosensors
by Yuri D. Ivanov, Andrey F. Kozlov, Rafael A. Galiullin, Vadim Yu. Tatur, Nina D. Ivanova and Vadim S. Ziborov
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040671 - 16 Feb 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
Nowadays, nanobiosensors are being intensively developed due to the potential possibilities of their use for early diagnosis of diseases. This interest is enhanced by the fact that, as is known, a pathological process at an early stage is characterized by the appearance of [...] Read more.
Nowadays, nanobiosensors are being intensively developed due to the potential possibilities of their use for early diagnosis of diseases. This interest is enhanced by the fact that, as is known, a pathological process at an early stage is characterized by the appearance of marker proteins at very low (10−15 M and lower) concentrations in blood. Highly-sensitive nanobiosensor systems (including those based on an atomic force microscope, AFM) allows one to detect proteins at such low concentrations. The influence of the charge generated in the analyte solution flowing through the biosensor injector into the measuring cell during measurements is considered to be an important factor conditioning such a high detection sensitivity. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the presence of an AFM chip (made of mica and graphite) near the nozzle of the injector supplying an analyte solution into the measuring cell of the AFM-based fishing system (AFM-based nanobiosensors) causes an increase in charge generation upon the injection of the solution. Moreover, the influence of polymer materials (which are widely used in nanobiosensors) and communications on charge generation in the flow-based section of AFM-based nanobiosensors was studied. A stimulating influence of a low (femtomolar) concentration of proteins on the charge generation in polymeric injectors of flow-based nanobiosensors was demonstrated. Besides, a stimulating influence of an external low-frequency AC electric field on the charge generation in the nanobiosensor injector was found. Measurements were carried out in the temperature range corresponding to the physiological temperature (35 °C). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing)
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12 pages, 5090 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Impedance Characterization of Cell Growth on Reduced Graphene Oxide–Gold Nanoparticles Electrodeposited on Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes
by Somasekhar R. Chinnadayyala, Jinsoo Park, Yonghyun Choi, Jae-Hee Han, Ajay Kumar Yagati and Sungbo Cho
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020326 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4130
Abstract
The improved binding ability of graphene–nanoparticle composites to proteins or molecules can be utilized to develop new cell-based assays. In this study, we fabricated reduced graphene oxide–gold nanoparticles (rGO-AuNP) electrodeposited onto a transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and investigated the feasibility of [...] Read more.
The improved binding ability of graphene–nanoparticle composites to proteins or molecules can be utilized to develop new cell-based assays. In this study, we fabricated reduced graphene oxide–gold nanoparticles (rGO-AuNP) electrodeposited onto a transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and investigated the feasibility of the electrochemical impedance monitoring of cell growth. The electrodeposition of rGO–AuNP on the ITO was optically and electrochemically characterized in comparison to bare, rGO-, and AuNP-deposited electrodes. The cell growth on the rGO–AuNP/ITO electrode was analyzed via electrochemical impedance measurement together with the microscopic observation of HEK293 cells transfected with a green fluorescent protein expression vector. The results showed that rGO–AuNP was biocompatible and induced an increase in cell adherence to the electrode when compared to the bare, AuNP-, or rGO-deposited ITO electrode. At 54 h cultivation, the average and standard deviation of the saturated normalized impedance magnitude of the rGO–AuNP/ITO electrode was 3.44 ± 0.16, while the value of the bare, AuNP-, and rGO-deposited ITO electrode was 2.48 ± 0.15, 2.61 ± 0.18, and 3.01 ± 0.25, respectively. The higher saturated value of the cell impedance indicates that the impedimetric cell-based assay has a broader measurement range. Thus, the rGO–AuNP/ITO electrode can be utilized for label-free and real-time impedimetric cell-based assays with wider dynamic range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing)
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16 pages, 2924 KiB  
Article
The Characterisation and Quantification of Immobilised Concanavalin A on Quartz Surfaces Based on The Competitive Binding to Glucose and Fluorescent Labelled Dextran
by Trinh Bich Hoang, Bjørn Torger Stokke, Ulrik Hanke, Agne Johannessen and Erik Andrew Johannessen
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020318 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3851
Abstract
The competition between various carbohydrates in the binding to Concanavalin A (Con A) can be exploited in gravimetric microsensors that detect changes in mass or viscoelasticity as a function of glucose concentration. Such sensors are based on the immobilisation of Con A as [...] Read more.
The competition between various carbohydrates in the binding to Concanavalin A (Con A) can be exploited in gravimetric microsensors that detect changes in mass or viscoelasticity as a function of glucose concentration. Such sensors are based on the immobilisation of Con A as the ligand specific element, and a successful application requires that the binding property of Con A is retained. This paper presents a simplified immobilisation procedure of Con A on a quartz surface, a common material for gravimetric microsensors. Structural assessment with atomic force microscopy confirmed that the surface was covered with a layer of macromolecules. This layer shows the presence of entities of various sizes, presumably monomers, dimers and tetramers among which dimers of the Con A are the most dominant structure. Functional assessment using fluorescent labelled dextran (FITC and Alexa 488) suggests a surface coverage ranging from 1.8 × 1011 to 2.1 × 1012 immobilised fluorescent molecules per cm2. The assay was responsive to glucose over a concentration range from 0–40 mM, but became gradually saturated above 20 mM. Hence, the immobilised Con A is able to bind dextran, which is displaced by glucose in a concentration dependent manner, thus triggering a mass change proportional to the MW of dextran. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing)
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15 pages, 1719 KiB  
Article
Development of an Electrochemical Biosensor for Rapid and Effective Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Licorice Extract
by Haixia Wang, Yuwen Zhao, Songtao Bie, Tongchuan Suo, Guangcheng Jia, Boshi Liu, Ruiping Ye and Zheng Li
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020295 - 15 Jan 2019
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4128
Abstract
An aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor was successfully developed and applied in the rapid detection of pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) in licorice extract. The thiolated capture probes were firstly immobilized on a gold electrode, and then the biotinylated aptamer probes for E. [...] Read more.
An aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor was successfully developed and applied in the rapid detection of pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) in licorice extract. The thiolated capture probes were firstly immobilized on a gold electrode, and then the biotinylated aptamer probes for E. coli were introduced by hybridization with the capture probes. Due to the stronger interaction between the aptamer and the E. coli, a part of the biotinylated aptamers will dissociate from the capture probes in the presence of E. coli. The residual biotinylated aptamer probes can quantitatively bind with streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase. Subsequently, α-naphthyl phosphate substrate was catalytically hydrolyzed to generate electrochemical response, which could be recorded by a differential pulse voltammetry. The dependence of the peak current on the logarithm of E. coli concentration in the range from 5.0 × 102 colony forming units (CFU)/mL to 5.0 × 107 CFU/mL exhibited a linear trend with a detection limit of 80 CFU/mL. The relative standard deviation of 5 successive scans was 5.3%, 4.5% and 1.1% for 5.0 × 102, 5.0 × 105 and 5.0 × 107 CFU/mL E. coli, respectively. In the detection of the licorice extract samples, the results obtained from the proposed strategy and traditional culture counting method were close to each other, but the time consumption was only ~1/30 compared with the traditional method. These results demonstrate that the designed biosensor can be potentially utilized for rapid microbial examination in traditional Chinese medicine and relevant fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing)
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12 pages, 2017 KiB  
Article
Study of the Stability of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles for the Colorimetric Detection of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV
by Hasan Aldewachi, Nicola Woodroofe and Philip Gardiner
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2589; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122589 - 12 Dec 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 6503
Abstract
In this report, we investigated three stabilization strategies of gold nanoparticles and their practical application for the visual detection of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). Citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are generally unstable in high-ionic-strength samples. Au NPs are easily tagged with various proteins [...] Read more.
In this report, we investigated three stabilization strategies of gold nanoparticles and their practical application for the visual detection of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). Citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are generally unstable in high-ionic-strength samples. Au NPs are easily tagged with various proteins and biomolecules rich in amino acids, leading to important biomedical applications including targeted drug delivery, cellular imaging, and biosensing. The investigated assays were based on different modes of stabilization, such as the incorporation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) groups, stabilizer peptide, and bifunctionalization. Although all approaches provided highly stable Au NP platforms demonstrated by zeta potential measurements and resistance to aggregation in a high-ionic-strength saline solution, we found that the Au NPs modified with a separate stabilizer ligand provided the highest stability and was the only platform that demonstrated sensitivity to the addition of DPP-IV, whilst PEGylated and peptide-stabilized Au NPs showed no significant response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

40 pages, 8847 KiB  
Review
Biosensor Applications of Electrodeposited Nanostructures
by Keith J. Stine
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9040797 - 24 Feb 2019
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 7039
Abstract
The development of biosensors for a range of analytes from small molecules to proteins to oligonucleotides is an intensely active field. Detection methods based on electrochemistry or on localized surface plasmon responses have advanced through using nanostructured electrodes prepared by electrodeposition, which is [...] Read more.
The development of biosensors for a range of analytes from small molecules to proteins to oligonucleotides is an intensely active field. Detection methods based on electrochemistry or on localized surface plasmon responses have advanced through using nanostructured electrodes prepared by electrodeposition, which is capable of preparing a wide range of different structures. Supported nanoparticles can be prepared by electrodeposition through applying fixed potentials, cycling potentials, and fixed current methods. Nanoparticle sizes, shapes, and surface densities can be controlled, and regular structures can be prepared by electrodeposition through templates. The incorporation of multiple nanomaterials into composite films can take advantage of the superior and potentially synergistic properties of each component. Nanostructured electrodes can provide supports for enzymes, antibodies, or oligonucleotides for creating sensors against many targets in areas such as genomic analysis, the detection of protein antigens, or the detection of small molecule metabolites. Detection can also be performed using electrochemical methods, and the nanostructured electrodes can greatly enhance electrochemical responses by carefully designed schemes. Biosensors based on electrodeposited nanostructures can contribute to the advancement of many goals in bioanalytical and clinical chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing)
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19 pages, 1619 KiB  
Review
A Review on Nanoparticles as Boon for Biogas Producers—Nano Fuels and Biosensing Monitoring
by Shah Faisal, Fauzia Yusuf Hafeez, Yusuf Zafar, Sabahat Majeed, Xiaoyun Leng, Shuai Zhao, Irfan Saif, Kamran Malik and Xiangkai Li
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010059 - 25 Dec 2018
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 5699
Abstract
Nanotechnology has an increasingly large impact on a broad scope of biotechnological, pharmacological and pure technological applications. Its current use in bioenergy production from biomass is very restricted. The present study is based on the utilization of nanoparticles as an additive to feed [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology has an increasingly large impact on a broad scope of biotechnological, pharmacological and pure technological applications. Its current use in bioenergy production from biomass is very restricted. The present study is based on the utilization of nanoparticles as an additive to feed bacteria that break down natural substances. The novel notion of dosing ions using modified nanoparticles can be used to progress up biogas production in oxygen free digestion processes. While minute nanoparticles are unstable, they can be designed to provide ions in a controlled approach, so that the maximum enhancement of biogas production that has been reported can be obtained. Nanoparticles are dissolved in a programmed way in an anaerobic atmosphere and are supplied in a sustainable manner to microbiotic organisms responsible for the degradation of organic material, which is a role that fits them well. Therefore, biogas fabrication can be increased up to 200%, thereby increasing the degradation of organic waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing)
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28 pages, 6252 KiB  
Review
Nanomaterials-Based Electrochemical Sensors for In Vitro and In Vivo Analyses of Neurotransmitters
by Sharmila Durairaj, Boopathi Sidhureddy, Joseph Cirone and Aicheng Chen
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1504; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091504 - 1 Sep 2018
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 6276
Abstract
Neurotransmitters are molecules that transfer chemical signals between neurons to convey messages for any action conducted by the nervous system. All neurotransmitters are medically important; the detection and analysis of these molecules play vital roles in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Among [...] Read more.
Neurotransmitters are molecules that transfer chemical signals between neurons to convey messages for any action conducted by the nervous system. All neurotransmitters are medically important; the detection and analysis of these molecules play vital roles in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Among analytical strategies, electrochemical techniques have been identified as simple, inexpensive, and less time-consuming processes. Electrochemical analysis is based on the redox behaviors of neurotransmitters, as well as their metabolites. A variety of electrochemical techniques are available for the detection of biomolecules. However, the development of a sensing platform with high sensitivity and selectivity is challenging, and it has been found to be a bottleneck step in the analysis of neurotransmitters. Nanomaterials-based sensor platforms are fascinating for researchers because of their ability to perform the electrochemical analysis of neurotransmitters due to their improved detection efficacy, and they have been widely reported on for their sensitive detection of epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, acetylcholine, nitric oxide, and purines. The advancement of electroanalytical technologies and the innovation of functional nanomaterials have been assisting greatly in in vivo and in vitro analyses of neurotransmitters, especially for point-of-care clinical applications. In this review, firstly, we focus on the most commonly employed electrochemical analysis techniques, in conjunction with their working principles and abilities for the detection of neurotransmitters. Subsequently, we concentrate on the fabrication and development of nanomaterials-based electrochemical sensors and their advantages over other detection techniques. Finally, we address the challenges and the future outlook in the development of electrochemical sensors for the efficient detection of neurotransmitters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biointerface for Biosensing)
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