Neurotransmitters are molecules that transfer chemical signals between neurons to convey messages for any action conducted by the nervous system. All neurotransmitters are medically important; the detection and analysis of these molecules play vital roles in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Among analytical strategies, electrochemical techniques have been identified as simple, inexpensive, and less time-consuming processes. Electrochemical analysis is based on the redox behaviors of neurotransmitters, as well as their metabolites. A variety of electrochemical techniques are available for the detection of biomolecules. However, the development of a sensing platform with high sensitivity and selectivity is challenging, and it has been found to be a bottleneck step in the analysis of neurotransmitters. Nanomaterials-based sensor platforms are fascinating for researchers because of their ability to perform the electrochemical analysis of neurotransmitters due to their improved detection efficacy, and they have been widely reported on for their sensitive detection of epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, acetylcholine, nitric oxide, and purines. The advancement of electroanalytical technologies and the innovation of functional nanomaterials have been assisting greatly in in vivo and in vitro analyses of neurotransmitters, especially for point-of-care clinical applications. In this review, firstly, we focus on the most commonly employed electrochemical analysis techniques, in conjunction with their working principles and abilities for the detection of neurotransmitters. Subsequently, we concentrate on the fabrication and development of nanomaterials-based electrochemical sensors and their advantages over other detection techniques. Finally, we address the challenges and the future outlook in the development of electrochemical sensors for the efficient detection of neurotransmitters.
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