Special Issue "Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018).

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Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Simone Morais
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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since their discovery, Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received tremendous attention due to their unique electrical, optical, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Remarkable advances have been made in the synthesis, purification, structural characterization, functionalization, and application of MWCNTs. Their particular characteristics make them well-matched for a plethora of application areas, namely nanoelectronics, energy management, (electro)catalysis, materials science, the construction of (bio)sensors based on different detection schemes, multifunctional nanoprobes for biomedical imaging, sorbents for sample preparation or removal of contaminants from wastewater, as anti-bacterial agents, drug delivery nanocarriers, etc.; current relevant application areas are countless.

The aim of this Special Issue is to publish original research and review articles that address advances, trends, challenges, and future perspectives regarding synthetic routes, structural features, properties, behaviors, and industrial or scientific applications of MWCNTs in established and emerging areas.

Prof. Dr. Simone Morais
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Multi-walled carbon nanotubes

  • Catalysis

  • Characterization

  • Drug delivery systems

  • Energy management

  • Functionalization

  • Nanoelectronics

  • Nanoprobes and (bio)sensors

  • Purification

  • Synthesis

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(13), 2696; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9132696 - 02 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Since their discovery, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received tremendous attention because of their unique electrical, optical, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Improvement in EMI Shielding Properties of Silicone Rubber/POE Blends Containing ILs Modified with Carbon Black and MWCNTs
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1774; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091774 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Silicone rubber (SR)/polyolefin elastomer (POE) blends containing ionic liquids modified with carbon blacks (CB-IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT-IL) were prepared by melt-blending and hot pressing. SR/POE/CB-IL and SR/POE/CB-CNT-IL composites showed co-continuous structural morphologies. The cation–π interactions between ILs and CNTs were stronger [...] Read more.
Silicone rubber (SR)/polyolefin elastomer (POE) blends containing ionic liquids modified with carbon blacks (CB-IL) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT-IL) were prepared by melt-blending and hot pressing. SR/POE/CB-IL and SR/POE/CB-CNT-IL composites showed co-continuous structural morphologies. The cation–π interactions between ILs and CNTs were stronger than those between ILs and CBs due to the large length and high surface area of CNTs, which promoted better dispersion of carbon fillers. SR/POE/CB-CNT-IL composites showed higher EMI SE than SR/POE/CB-IL composites containing identical filler contents because the CNTs with larger aspect ratios helped form more electrically-conductive networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Controlling the Dissolution Rate of Hydrophobic Drugs by Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes with Different Levels of Carboxylation
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071475 - 09 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
We present the anti-solvent precipitation of hydrophobic drugs griseofulvin (GF) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) in the presence of carboxylated carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs). The aqueous dispersed f-CNTs were directly incorporated into the drug particles during the precipitation process. f-CNTs with different levels of carboxylation were [...] Read more.
We present the anti-solvent precipitation of hydrophobic drugs griseofulvin (GF) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) in the presence of carboxylated carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs). The aqueous dispersed f-CNTs were directly incorporated into the drug particles during the precipitation process. f-CNTs with different levels of carboxylation were tested where the hydrophilicity was varied by altering the C:COOH ratio. The results show that the hydrophilic f-CNTs dramatically enhanced the dissolution rate for both drugs, and the enhancement corresponded to the hydrophilicity of f-CNTs. The time to reach 80% dissolution (t80) reduced from 52.5 min for pure SMZ to 16.5 min when incorporated f-CNTs that had a C:COOH ratio of 23.2 were used, and to 11.5 min when the ratio dropped to 16. A corresponding decrease was observed for SMZ for the above-mentioned f-CNTs. The study clearly demonstrates that it is possible to control the dissolution rate of hydrophobic drugs by altering the level of carboxylation of the incorporated CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Chloride Penetration in Cement Mortars
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9051032 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The study investigates the effect of carbon nanotubes on chloride penetration in nano-modified mortars and reports on the physical, electrical, and mechanical performance of the material. Mortars were artificially corroded and their surface electrical surface conductivity as well as flexural and compressive strength [...] Read more.
The study investigates the effect of carbon nanotubes on chloride penetration in nano-modified mortars and reports on the physical, electrical, and mechanical performance of the material. Mortars were artificially corroded and their surface electrical surface conductivity as well as flexural and compressive strength were measured. The influence of variable nanotube concentration in accelerated corrosion damage was evaluated. Nanotube concentration was found to significantly affect the permeability of the mortars; improvements in flexural and compressive response of mortars exposed to salt spray fog, compared to virgin specimens, were rationalized upon decreases in the apparent porosity of the materials due to filling of the pores with sodium chloride. Electrical resistivity was found to increase up to two orders of magnitude with respect to the surface value; above the percolation threshold, the property impressively increased up to five orders of magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessCommunication
Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Composites for Microwave Absorbing Applications
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050851 - 27 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The response of materials to impinging electromagnetic waves is mainly determined by their dielectric (complex permittivity) and magnetic (complex permeability). In particular, radar absorbing materials are characterized by high complex permittivity (and eventually large values of magnetic permeability), Indeed, energy dissipation by dielectric [...] Read more.
The response of materials to impinging electromagnetic waves is mainly determined by their dielectric (complex permittivity) and magnetic (complex permeability). In particular, radar absorbing materials are characterized by high complex permittivity (and eventually large values of magnetic permeability), Indeed, energy dissipation by dielectric relaxation and carrier conduction are principally responsible for diminishing microwave radiation reflection and transmission in non-magnetic materials. Therefore, the scientific and technological community has been investigating lightweight composites with high dielectric permittivity in order to improve the microwave absorption (i.e., radar cross-section reduction) in structural materials for the aerospace industry. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes films and their composites with different kind of polymeric resins are regarded as promising materials for radar absorbing applications because of their high permittivity. Nanocomposites based on commercial multi-wall carbon nano-tube (MWCNT) fillers dispersed in an epoxy resin matrix were fabricated. The morphology of the filler was analyzed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy, while the complex permittivity and the radiation reflection coefficient of the composites was measured in the radio frequency range. The reflection coefficient of a single-layer structure backed by a metallic plate was simulated based on the measured permittivity. Simulation achievements were compared to the measured reflection coefficient. Besides, the influence of morphological MWCNT parameters (i.e., aspect ratio and specific surface area) on the reflection coefficient was evaluated. Results verify that relatively low weight percent of MWCNTs are suitable for microwave absorption applications when incorporated into polymer matrixes (i.e., epoxy resin). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes via a Combination of RAFT and Alkyne-Azide Click Reaction
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030603 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
An efficient synthesis route was developed for the preparation of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanohybrids using azide-terminated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via a combination of reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) and the click reaction. A novel azido-functionalized chain transfer agent (DMP-N3) [...] Read more.
An efficient synthesis route was developed for the preparation of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanohybrids using azide-terminated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via a combination of reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) and the click reaction. A novel azido-functionalized chain transfer agent (DMP-N3) was prepared and subsequently employed to mediate the RAFT polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The RAFT polymerizations exhibited first-order kinetics and a linear molecular weight dependence with the conversion. The kinetic results show that the grafting percentage of PMMA on the MWCNTs surface grows along with the increase of the reaction time. Even at 50 °C, the grafting rate of azide-terminated PMMA is comparatively fast in the course of the click reaction, with the alkyne groups adhered to MWCNTs in less than 24 h. The successful functionalization of PMMA onto MWCNT was proved by FTIR, while TGA was employed to calculate the grafting degree of PMMA chains (the highest GP = 21.9%). Compared with the pristine MWCNTs, a thicker diameter of the MWCNTs-g-PMMA was observed by TEM, which confirmed the grafted PMMA chain to the surface of nanotubes. Therefore, the MWCNTs-g-PMMA could be dispersed and stably suspended in water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Novel CeO2/GO/CNTs Ternary Nanocomposites with Enhanced Tribological Performance
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010170 - 04 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Increasing demands of multi-functional lubricant materials with well distributed nanoparticles has been generated in the field of oil lubrication. In this study, one-dimensional (1-D) acidified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional (2-D) graphene oxide (GO) sheets were dispersed together under an ultra-sonication condition [...] Read more.
Increasing demands of multi-functional lubricant materials with well distributed nanoparticles has been generated in the field of oil lubrication. In this study, one-dimensional (1-D) acidified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional (2-D) graphene oxide (GO) sheets were dispersed together under an ultra-sonication condition to form CNTs/GO hybrids and the corresponding CNTs/GO hybrids decorated with uniform zero-dimensional (0-D) cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles were prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. The tribological performance of CeO2/CNTs/GO ternary nanocomposite was systematically investigated using a MS-T3000 ball-on-disk tester. The results demonstrated that CeO2/GO/CNTs nanocomposites can effectively reduce the friction of sliding pairs in paraffin oil. Moreover, the oil with 1 wt% of CeO2/GO/CNTs exhibited the best lubrication properties with the lowest friction coefficient and wear scar diameters (WSD) compared with adding only GO nanosheet, CeO2, and CeO2/CNTs hybrid nanocomposite as lubricant additives. It is concluded that due to the synergistic effect of 0D CeO2, 1D CNTs, and 2D GO during sliding process, a dimensionally mixed CeO2/GO/CNTs nanocomposite exhibits excellent lubricating properties, providing innovative and effective additives for application in the field of lubrication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Adsorption of Nonylphenol to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Kinetics and Isotherm Study
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112295 - 19 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
We explored the occurrence and distribution of nonylphenol (NP) in 13 Taiwanese source waters. From all the surveyed waters, NP was detected at a high concentration, which could be attributed to contamination by wastewater discharges. In this study, we applied modified multi-walled carbon [...] Read more.
We explored the occurrence and distribution of nonylphenol (NP) in 13 Taiwanese source waters. From all the surveyed waters, NP was detected at a high concentration, which could be attributed to contamination by wastewater discharges. In this study, we applied modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for removing NP from aqueous solution. The impact of a few experimental factors, i.e., pH, contact time, MWCNTs dose, and temperature on the NP removal efficiency of modified MWCNTs was studied. The maximum adsorption capacity of the MWCNTs was observed to be 1040 mg NP/g when the initial NP concentration was 2.5 mg/L, and the solution pH was 4. The adsorption process followed the Elovich kinetics and the Elovich isotherm, indicating it is multilayer adsorption. The thermodynamic analysis demonstrated the NP adsorption by MWCNTs was thermodynamically satisfactory and, for the most part, endothermic as in the case of phenol adsorption. The result of the current study demonstrated the significance of free binding sites and the pore size of MWCNTs in the NP adsorption. This paper will help to better comprehend the adsorption behavior and mechanism of alkyl phenolic compounds onto MWCNTs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adsorption of Gold(I) and Gold(III) Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112264 - 16 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes are materials that have been investigated for diverse applications including the adsorption of metals. However, scarce literature has described their behavior in the case of the adsorption of precious metals. Thus, this work reports the efficient adsorption of gold from cyanide [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes are materials that have been investigated for diverse applications including the adsorption of metals. However, scarce literature has described their behavior in the case of the adsorption of precious metals. Thus, this work reports the efficient adsorption of gold from cyanide or chloride media on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In a cyanide medium, gold was adsorbed from alkaline pH values decreasing the adsorption as the pH values were increased to more acidic values. In a chloride medium, the MWCNTs were able to load the precious metal and an increased HCl concentration (0.1–10 M), in the aqueous solution, had no effect on the gold uptake onto the nanotubes. From both aqueous media, the metal adsorption was well represented by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. In the cyanide medium, the film-diffusion controlled process best fitted the rate law governing the adsorption of gold onto the nanotubes, whereas in the chloride medium, the adsorption of the metal onto the nanotubes is best represented, both at 20 °C and 60 °C, by the particle-diffusion controlled process. With respect to the elution step, in cyanide medium gold loaded onto the nanotubes can be eluted with acidic thiourea solutions, whereas in the chloride medium, and due to that the adsorption process involved the precipitation of zero valent gold onto the multiwalled carbon nanotubes, the elution has been considered as a leaching step with aqua regia. From the eluates, dissolved gold can be conveniently precipitated as zero valent gold nanoparticles. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
New Generation of Electrochemical Sensors Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1925; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101925 - 15 Oct 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have provided unprecedented advances in the design of electrochemical sensors. They are composed by sp2 carbon units oriented as multiple concentric tubes of rolled-up graphene, and present remarkable active surface area, chemical inertness, high strength, and low charge-transfer [...] Read more.
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have provided unprecedented advances in the design of electrochemical sensors. They are composed by sp2 carbon units oriented as multiple concentric tubes of rolled-up graphene, and present remarkable active surface area, chemical inertness, high strength, and low charge-transfer resistance in both aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. MWCNT are very versatile and have been boosting the development of a new generation of electrochemical sensors with application in medicine, pharmacology, food industry, forensic chemistry, and environmental fields. This work highlights the most important synthesis methods and relevant electrochemical properties of MWCNT for the construction of electrochemical sensors, and the numerous configurations and successful applications of these devices. Thousands of studies have been attesting to the exceptional electroanalytical performance of these devices, but there are still questions in MWCNT electrochemistry that deserve more investigation, aiming to provide new outlooks and advances in this field. Additionally, MWCNT-based sensors should be further explored for real industrial applications including for on-line quality control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Functional Group Polarity in Palladium Immobilized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Catalysis: Application in Carbon–Carbon Coupling Reaction
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091511 - 01 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are effective supports for nanometals and together they represent hybrids that combine the unique properties of both. A microwave-induced reaction was used to deposit nanopalladium on carboxylated and octadecylamine functionalized multiwall CNTs, which were used to carry out C–C coupling [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are effective supports for nanometals and together they represent hybrids that combine the unique properties of both. A microwave-induced reaction was used to deposit nanopalladium on carboxylated and octadecylamine functionalized multiwall CNTs, which were used to carry out C–C coupling reactions in dimethylformamide (DMF) and toluene. These hybrids showed excellent catalytic activity with yield as high as 99.8%, while its enhancement with respect to commercially available Pd/C catalyst reached as high as 109%, and the reaction times were significantly lower. The polarity of the functionalized form was found to be a significant factor with the polar carboxylated CNT showing better activity in DMF while the relatively nonpolar octadecyl amine was better in toluene. The results suggest the possibility of tailor making functionalized CNTs when used as catalyst supports. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks Based on Magnetic Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides from Agricultural Irrigation Water Samples
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060959 - 12 Jun 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Magnetic solid-phase extraction is an effective and convenient sample pretreatment technique that has received considerable interest in recent years. A lot of research indicated that magnetic nanocarbon-material-based composites have good application prospects as adsorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction of pesticides. Herein, a novel [...] Read more.
Magnetic solid-phase extraction is an effective and convenient sample pretreatment technique that has received considerable interest in recent years. A lot of research indicated that magnetic nanocarbon-material-based composites have good application prospects as adsorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction of pesticides. Herein, a novel zeolitic imidazolate framework based on magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (M-M-ZIF-67) has been prepared as an adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of nine organochlorine pesticides from agricultural irrigation water samples. The obtained M-M-ZIF-67 material possessed porous surfaces and super-paramagnetism due to the utilization of magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes as the magnetic kernel and support. To evaluate the extraction performance of the M-M-ZIF-67, the main parameters that affected the extraction efficiency were researched. Under the optimal conditions, a good linearity for the nine organochlorine pesticides was achieved with the determination coefficients (R2) higher than 0.9916. The limits of detection (signal/noise = 3:1) were in the range 0.07–1.03 µg L−1. The recoveries of all analytes for the method at spiked levels of 10 and 100 µg L−1 were 74.9–116.3% and 75.1–112.7%, respectively. The developed M-M-ZIF-67 based magnetic solid-phase extraction method has a potential application prospect for the monitoring of trace level of organochlorine pesticides in environmental water samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Rotating Flow of Magneto Hydrodynamic Carbon Nanotubes over a Stretching Sheet with the Impact of Non-Linear Thermal Radiation and Heat Generation/Absorption
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040482 - 22 Mar 2018
Cited by 32
Abstract
The aim of this research work is to investigate the innovative concept of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional rotational flow of nanoparticles (single-walled carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes). This flow occurs in the presence of non-linear thermal radiation along with heat generation or absorption [...] Read more.
The aim of this research work is to investigate the innovative concept of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional rotational flow of nanoparticles (single-walled carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes). This flow occurs in the presence of non-linear thermal radiation along with heat generation or absorption based on the Casson fluid model over a stretching sheet. Three common types of liquids (water, engine oil, and kerosene oil) are proposed as a base liquid for these carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The formulation of the problem is based upon the basic equation of the Casson fluid model to describe the non-Newtonian behavior. By implementing the suitable non-dimensional conditions, the model system of equations is altered to provide an appropriate non-dimensional nature. The extremely productive Homotopy Asymptotic Method (HAM) is developed to solve the model equations for velocity and temperature distributions, and a graphical presentation is provided. The influences of conspicuous physical variables on the velocity and temperature distributions are described and discussed using graphs. Moreover, skin fraction coefficient and heat transfer rate (Nusselt number) are tabulated for several values of relevant variables. For ease of comprehension, physical representations of embedded parameters such as radiation parameter ( R d ) , magnetic parameter ( M ) , rotation parameter ( K ), Prandtl number ( P r ), Biot number ( λ ) , and heat generation or absorption parameter ( Q h ) are plotted and deliberated graphically. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Analysis of Nanofluid Flow over a Curved Stretching Surface Suspended by Carbon Nanotubes with Internal Heat Generation
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030395 - 08 Mar 2018
Cited by 19
Abstract
We have investigated a two-dimensional radiative flow of a boundary layer nature. The fluid under consideration is carbon nanotube (CNT)-based nanofluid and it flows over a curved surface. The heat transfer through the flow is analyzed under the influence of internal heat generation. [...] Read more.
We have investigated a two-dimensional radiative flow of a boundary layer nature. The fluid under consideration is carbon nanotube (CNT)-based nanofluid and it flows over a curved surface. The heat transfer through the flow is analyzed under the influence of internal heat generation. Water (base fluid) along with single or multi-walled carbon nanotubes is taken to compose the nanofluid. After introducing the suitable similarity variables, the consequent equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The solution to the system is computed by using the shooting method accompanied by Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg algorithm. Various parameters, emerging in the governing equations, influences the flow and heat transfer distribution. These changes are captured and portrayed in the form of graphs. The changes in local rate of heat transfer and skin friction coefficient are also enlisted. To ensure the correctness of applied numerical scheme, the results are compared with some already existing studies. Full article
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