Special Issue "BIM in the Construction Industry"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (27 February 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hee Sung Cha
Website
Guest Editor
Ajou University, South Korea
Interests: building information modeling, construction economics and management, risk-based decision making, information systems
Prof. Dr. Shaohua Jiang
Website
Guest Editor
Dalian University of Technology, China
Interests: Construction project information and knowledge management, Smart construction and management based on BIM, Decision support Decision support tools for construction project management, Construction project risk management, Infrastructure sustainability.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, the term of building information modeling (BIM) has been mentioned in a wide spectrum of construction research endeavors. BIM is considered to be a new solution for unprecedented downfalls in the construction industry, i.e, productivity loss, labor shortage, cost overrun, and severe competitiveness.

Many benefits from BIM technologies are evident: prompt design clash detection, automatic deign regulatory check algorithm, augmented/virtual reality visualization, and collaboration work environment are good examples. Not only the experts of BIM but also industry practitioners are stressing the importance of BIM applications in the field of construction.

Due to the rapid development and adoption of BIM in the AEC (architecture, engineering, and construction) industry, new trends related to the research of BIM are emerging that are very helpful not only for scholars but also for practitioners. These new trends include open BIM research to solve the problem of information interoperability between different types of BIM software, and project lifecycle management enabled by BIM such as facility management, which is being paid increasing attention.

However, BIM technologies in our industry are still developing. Our world is experiencing unprecedented challenges in the era of the 4th industrial revolution. Conventional business practices are no longer sustainable. The owners, contractors, suppliers, and manufacturers are no longer divisible. Information is shared among them and flows on real-time basis. Still, although it is taken for granted that computer and information technology (ICT) has played a crucial role in the advent of BIM technology, the fruits of these the technologies cannot ripen without proper applications and “ways-of-doing.” Technology is one thing; how we adapt it to our industry is another.

This Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences, “BIM in the construction industry” aims to cover recent advances in the development of BIM technologies and applications of BIM technologies in the fields of architecture, engineering, construction, and facility management, as well as relevant theoretical research endeavors in this area.

Prof. Dr. Hee Sung Cha
Prof. Dr. Shaohua Jiang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Open BIM
  • AR/VR
  • Construction productivity
  • Sustainability
  • Green building/construction
  • Risk management
  • Safety management
  • Lifecycle management.

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue on BIM in the Construction Industry
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4306; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124306 - 23 Jun 2020
Abstract
In recent decades, the term Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been mentioned in a wide range of construction research endeavors [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Behavior and Performance of BIM Users in a Collaborative Work Environment
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 2199; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062199 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Collaborative work in Building Information Modeling (BIM) projects is frequently understood as the interaction of modelers in an asynchronous way through modification requests or via e-mail/telephone. However, alternative work methodologies based on creating a common and synchronous environment allow solving issues instantaneously during [...] Read more.
Collaborative work in Building Information Modeling (BIM) projects is frequently understood as the interaction of modelers in an asynchronous way through modification requests or via e-mail/telephone. However, alternative work methodologies based on creating a common and synchronous environment allow solving issues instantaneously during the design process. This study aimed to analyze the behavior and performance of BIM users with different specialties who were subjected to an experimental exercise in a collaborative environment. For this purpose, a process was devised to collect, sort, and select the data from the log files generated by the BIM software. A timeline of the experiment was populated with data on the intensity and types of commands used by each specialist, which allowed determining behavioral patterns, preferred commands, indicators of their experience, further training needs, and possible strategies for improving the team’s performance. In the experiment, the mechanical designer’s performance was 49% and the rest approximately 64%, with respect to that of the architect. An average rate of 1.66 necessary or auxiliary commands for each contributory command was detected. The average performance was 200–400 commands per hour, which intensified by the end of the experiment. Further training needs were detected for the plumbing designer to reduce the use of backwards commands. Conversely, the electrical designer showed a positive evolution regarding this aspect during the experiment. The analysis methods here described become useful for the aforementioned purposes. Nevertheless, combinations with methods from existing research might improve the outcomes and therefore the specificity of recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
A Deep Learning-Based Method to Detect Components from Scanned Structural Drawings for Reconstructing 3D Models
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 2066; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10062066 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Among various building information model (BIM) reconstruction methods for existing building, image-based method can identify building components from scanned as-built drawings and has won great attention due to its lower cost, less professional operators and better reconstruction performance. However, this kind of method [...] Read more.
Among various building information model (BIM) reconstruction methods for existing building, image-based method can identify building components from scanned as-built drawings and has won great attention due to its lower cost, less professional operators and better reconstruction performance. However, this kind of method will cost a great deal of time to design and extract features. Moreover, the manually extracted features have poor robustness and contain less non-geometric information. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a deep learning-based method to detect building components from scanned 2D drawings. Taking structural drawings as an example, in this article, 1500 images of structural drawings were firstly collected and preprocessed to guarantee the quality of data. After that, the neural network model—You Only Look Once (YOLO) was trained, verified and tested. In addition, a series of metrics were utilized to evaluate the performance of recognition. The results of test experiments show that the components in structural drawings (e.g., grid reference, column and beam) can be successfully detected, while the average detection accuracy of the whole image is over 80% and the average detection time for each image is 0.71 s. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and timesaving, which provides a good basis for the reconstruction of BIM from 2D drawings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Generic Language for Partial Model Extraction from an IFC Model Based on Selection Set
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(6), 1968; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10061968 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
During data sharing and exchange of building projects, the particular business task generally requires a part of the complete model. This paper adopted XML schema to develop a generic language to extract the partial model from an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) model based [...] Read more.
During data sharing and exchange of building projects, the particular business task generally requires a part of the complete model. This paper adopted XML schema to develop a generic language to extract the partial model from an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) model based on the proposed Selection Set (called PMESS). In this method, the Selection Set was used to integrate users’ requirements, which could be mapped into IFC data. To ensure the validity of the generated partial IFC models in syntax and semantics, seven rules—including three basic rules for a valid IFC file, three extraction rules based on the Selection Set, and a processing rule for redundant information—were defined. Through defining PMESS-based configuration files, the required data can be extracted and formed as a partial IFC model. Compared with the existing methods, the proposed PMESS method can flexibly extract the user-defined required information. In addition, these PMESS-based configuration files can be stored as templates and reused in other tasks, which prevents duplicated work for defining extraction requirements. Finally, a practical project was used to illustrate the utility of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Language-Aided Construction Fire Safety Planning Approach in Building Information Modeling
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1704; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051704 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Fires pose an enormous threat to human safety and many spectacular fires in under-construction buildings were reported over the past few years. Many construction sites only rely on fire extinguishers, as under-construction buildings do not contain a permanent fire protection system. Traditional safety [...] Read more.
Fires pose an enormous threat to human safety and many spectacular fires in under-construction buildings were reported over the past few years. Many construction sites only rely on fire extinguishers, as under-construction buildings do not contain a permanent fire protection system. Traditional safety planning lacks a justified approach for the firefighting equipment installation planning in the construction job site. Even though many government agencies made safety regulations for firefighting equipment installations, it is still a challenge to translate and execute these rules at the job site. Currently, the construction industry is devoted to discovering all the possible applications of Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology in the entire phases of the project life cycle. BIM technology enables the presentation of facilities in 3-D and offers rule-based modeling through visual programming tools. Therefore, this paper focuses on a visual language approach for rule translation and a multi-agent-based construction fire safety planning simulation in BIM. The proposed approach includes three core modules, namely: (a) Rule Extraction and Logic Development (RELD) Module, (b) Design for Construction Fire Safety (DCFS) Module, and (c) Con-fire Safety Plan Simulation (CSPS) Module. In addition, the DCFS module further includes three submodules, named as (1) Firefighting Equipment Installation (FEI) Module, (2) Bill of Quantities (BoQs) for firefighting Equipment (BFE) Module, and (3) Escape Route Plan (ERP) Module. The RELD module converts the OSHA fire safety rule into mathematical logic, and the DCFS module presents the development of the Con-fire Safety Planning approach by translating the rules from mathematical logic into computer-readable language. The three sub-modules of the DCFS module visualize the outputs of this research work. The CSPS module uses a multi-agent simulation to verify the safety rule compliance of the portable firefighting equipment installation plan the system in a BIM environment. A sample project case study has been implemented to validate the proof of concept. It is anticipated that the proposed approach has the potential to helps the designers through its effectiveness and convenience while it could be helpful in the field for practical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Extending BIM Interoperability for Real-Time Concrete Formwork Process Monitoring
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10031085 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The concrete formwork process is a critical component of construction project control because failing to gain the necessary concrete strength can lead to reworks and, consequently, project delays and cost overruns during the project’s execution. The goal of this study is to develop [...] Read more.
The concrete formwork process is a critical component of construction project control because failing to gain the necessary concrete strength can lead to reworks and, consequently, project delays and cost overruns during the project’s execution. The goal of this study is to develop a novel method of monitoring the maturity of concrete and providing reduced formwork removal time with the strength ensured in real-time. This method addresses the wireless sensors and building information modeling (BIM) needed to help project management personnel monitor the concrete’s status and efficiently decide on the appropriate formwork removal timing. Previous studies have focused only on the monitoring of concrete’s status using sensor data or planning the formwork layout by integrating the BIM environment into the design process. This study contributes to extending BIM’s interoperability for monitoring concrete’s maturity in real-time during construction, as well as determining the formwork removal time for project control. A case study was conducted at a building construction project to validate the developed framework. It was concluded that BIM can interoperate with the data collected from sensors embedded in concrete, and that this system can reduce formwork removal time while retaining sufficient strength in the concrete, rather than adhering to the removal time given in building code standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing a Building Fire Information Management System Based on 3D Object Visualization
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030772 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In a building fire disaster, a variety of information on hazardous factors is crucial for emergency responders, facility managers, and rescue teams. Inadequate information management limits the accuracy and speed of fire rescue activities. Furthermore, a poor decision-making process, which is solely dependent [...] Read more.
In a building fire disaster, a variety of information on hazardous factors is crucial for emergency responders, facility managers, and rescue teams. Inadequate information management limits the accuracy and speed of fire rescue activities. Furthermore, a poor decision-making process, which is solely dependent on the experiences of emergency responders, negatively affects the fire response activities. Building information modeling (BIM) enables the sharing of locations of critical elements and key information necessary for effective decision-making on disaster prevention. However, it is non-trivial to integrate and link the relevant information generated during the life cycle of the building. In particular, the information requirements for building fires should be retrieved in the BIM software because most of them have spatial characteristics. This paper proposes a prototype system for a building’s fire information management using three-dimensional (3D) visualization by deriving the relevant information required for mitigating building fire disasters. The proposed system (i.e., Building Fire Information Management System (BFIMS)) automatically provides reliable fire-related information through a computerized and systematic approach in conjunction with a BIM tool. It enables emergency responders to intuitively identify the location data of indoor facilities with its pertinent information based on 3D objects. Through scenario-based applications, the system has effectively demonstrated that it has contributed to an improvement of rapid access to relevant information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Filtering of Irrelevant Clashes Detected by BIM Software Using a Hybrid Method of Rule-Based Reasoning and Supervised Machine Learning
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5324; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245324 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Construction projects are usually designed by different professional teams, where design clashes may inevitably occur. With the clash detection tools provided by Building Information Modeling (BIM) software, these clashes can be discovered at an early stage. However, the number of clashes detected by [...] Read more.
Construction projects are usually designed by different professional teams, where design clashes may inevitably occur. With the clash detection tools provided by Building Information Modeling (BIM) software, these clashes can be discovered at an early stage. However, the number of clashes detected by BIM software is often huge. The literature states that the majority of those clashes are found to be irrelevant, i.e., harmless to the building and its construction. How to filter out these irrelevant clashes from the detection report is one of the issues to be resolved urgently in the construction industry. This study develops a method that automatically screens for irrelevant clashes by combining the two techniques of rule-based reasoning and supervised machine learning. First, we acquire experts’ knowledge through interviews to compile rules for the preliminary classification of clash types. Subsequently, the results of the initial classification inferred by the rules are added into the training dataset to improve the predictive performance of the classifiers implemented by supervised machine learning. The average predictive performance obtained by using the hybrid method is up to 0.96, which has been improved from the traditional machine learning process only using individual or ensemble learning classifiers by 6%–17%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Taking Advantage of Collective Intelligence and BIM-Based Virtual Reality in Fire Safety Inspection for Commercial and Public Buildings
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5068; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235068 - 24 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Commercial and public buildings are more vulnerable to fires because of their complex use functions, large number of centralized occupants, and the dynamic nature of the use of space. Due to the large number of these types of buildings and the limited availability [...] Read more.
Commercial and public buildings are more vulnerable to fires because of their complex use functions, large number of centralized occupants, and the dynamic nature of the use of space. Due to the large number of these types of buildings and the limited availability of manpower, annual fire inspections cannot ensure the continuous compliance of fire codes. A crowdsourcing application, iInspect, is proposed in this paper to harvest collective intelligence in order to conduct mass inspection tasks. This approach is supported by building information modeling (BIM) based virtual reality (VR) and an indoor real-time localization system. Based on the International Fire Code and 27 fire inspection checklists compiled by various local authorities, a generic list of inspection items suitable for iInspect is proposed, along with a reputation-based monetary incentive model. A prototype of iInspect was created for Android mobile phones, and a case study was performed in an office building in Tianjin, China, for verification of this crowdsourcing inspection approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
A Two-Stage Building Information Modeling Based Building Design Method to Improve Lighting Environment and Increase Energy Efficiency
by Sha Liu and Xin Ning
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 4076; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9194076 - 29 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Buildings are one of the largest energy consumers in the world, and have great energy saving potential. Thermal systems and lighting systems take most of the energy in a building. Comparing with the optimization solutions developed for a thermal system, the research of [...] Read more.
Buildings are one of the largest energy consumers in the world, and have great energy saving potential. Thermal systems and lighting systems take most of the energy in a building. Comparing with the optimization solutions developed for a thermal system, the research of improving the lighting system is insufficient. This study aims to improve the lighting environment and reduce the energy by optimizing the building design, which has the largest potential for cutting energy economically compared with the other stages in the life cycle of a building. Although many approaches have been developed for building design optimization, there is still one big problem obstructing their successful practices, in that the designers who take the responsibility of making building designs are not experts in building physics, thus they are not capable of calculating the most appropriate parameters and operating the professional software to optimize their designs. Therefore, this study proposes a user-friendly method for designers to improve building designs. Firstly, Building Information Modeling (BIM) and particle swarm optimization algorithm are applied to build an intelligent optimal design search system. The optimized design from this system can largely use daylighting for internal illumination and save energy. Secondly, different types of lighting control systems are compared and the one which can save maximal energy is added to the selected optimal design. A case study demonstrates that optimized designs generated by the proposed design method can save large amounts of life cycle energy and costs, and is effective and efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
A Web-Based BIM–AR Quality Management System for Structural Elements
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(19), 3984; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9193984 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
This paper investigates quality management (QM) during the execution phase of structural elements by proposing, developing, and testing a complete framework by integrating building information modeling (BIM) and augmented reality (AR) technology. QM during execution is boosted by BIM–AR integration through a dedicated [...] Read more.
This paper investigates quality management (QM) during the execution phase of structural elements by proposing, developing, and testing a complete framework by integrating building information modeling (BIM) and augmented reality (AR) technology. QM during execution is boosted by BIM–AR integration through a dedicated web-based system aimed at reducing the occurrence of omissions and negligence. With such a system, efficiency is improved by allowing the entering of inspection data directly in a shared digital environment, where people involved in QM have permanent access to updated information and inspection results, clearly organized, and entered in real time. The system has been developed in the asp.net framework using C# language where, by generating a web-based checklist and establishing its link to AR, it can enhance the process of information extraction from industry foundation class (IFC) 4D BIM models and the recording of inspection data. A test has been performed on a real case study in Budapest, to assess the effectiveness of the system in the field. Results demonstrate the following benefits brought by such a type of QM system: improved understanding of the design, access to information, and overview of the quality status of the project, leading to reductions in defects and reworking, as well as improved and quicker response and decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Reducing Critical Hindrances to Building Information Modeling Implementation: The Case of the Singapore Construction Industry
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3833; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183833 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The Singaporean government has made building information modeling (BIM) implementation mandatory in new building projects with gross floor areas over 5000 m2, but the implementation is still plagued with hindrances such as lacking project-wide collaboration. The purposes of this study are [...] Read more.
The Singaporean government has made building information modeling (BIM) implementation mandatory in new building projects with gross floor areas over 5000 m2, but the implementation is still plagued with hindrances such as lacking project-wide collaboration. The purposes of this study are to identify critical factors hindering BIM implementation in Singapore’s construction industry, analyze their interrelationships, and identify strategies for reducing these hindrances. The results from a survey of 87 experts and five post-survey interviews in the Singaporean construction industry identified 21 critical hindrances, among which “need for all key stakeholders to be on board to exchange information” was ranked top. These hindrances were categorized into lack of collaboration and model integration (LCMI), lack of continuous involvement and capabilities (LCIC), and lack of executive vision and training (LEVT). LEVT and LCIC contributed to LCMI; LEVT caused LCIC. The proposed framework implying the key hindrances and their corresponding managerial strategies can help practitioners identify specific adjustments to their BIM implementation activities, which enables to efficiently achieve enhanced BIM implementation. The hindrances identified in this study facilitate overseas BIM implementers to customize their own lists of hindrances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Acceptance Model for Mobile Building Information Modeling (BIM)
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3668; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183668 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Mobile Building Information Modeling (BIM) is noted for tools that enable the systematic interchange of information and contribute to enhancing collaborative performance through BIM. BIM programs, which are continuously available in the mobile environment, have been developed. Moreover, in some sites, mobile BIM [...] Read more.
Mobile Building Information Modeling (BIM) is noted for tools that enable the systematic interchange of information and contribute to enhancing collaborative performance through BIM. BIM programs, which are continuously available in the mobile environment, have been developed. Moreover, in some sites, mobile BIM is applied to generate benefits in projects. Various efforts are being made to use mobile BIM; however, its utilization is low. Also, mobile BIM has lacked an analysis of the factors that affect actual users’ acceptance of mobile BIM. Therefore, this study analyzes the factors that affect the acceptance of mobile BIM by construction practitioners and presents the association of factors as a model to activate mobile BIM use. To this end, this study analyzed a literature review for suggesting the factors that were expected to affect mobile BIM acceptance. The assessment items were decided based on the analysis result. Second, 111 copies were received by surveying the construction practitioners. Third, it identified factors that significantly affected the acceptance of mobile BIM and proposed models through factor analysis and structural equation models. Finally, based on the analysis, it presented the findings. This study expects to contribute to enhanced acceptance of mobile BIM technology by managing the significant factors properly. Also, it is expected that the result can be used to develop a variety of mobile BIM that is more easily acceptable to them. This study presented a model for accepting mobile BIM based on the survey results of Korean practitioners; therefore, it is necessary to explore ways to generalize the model in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Industry 4.0 for the Construction Industry—How Ready Is the Industry?
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(14), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9142819 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 16
Abstract
Technology and innovations have fueled the evolution of Industry 4.0, the fourth industrial revolution. Industry 4.0 encourages growth and development through its efficiency capacity, as documented in the literature. The growth of the construction industry is a subset of the universal set of [...] Read more.
Technology and innovations have fueled the evolution of Industry 4.0, the fourth industrial revolution. Industry 4.0 encourages growth and development through its efficiency capacity, as documented in the literature. The growth of the construction industry is a subset of the universal set of the gross domestic product value; thus, Industry 4.0 has a spillover effect on the engineering and construction industry. In this study, we aimed to map the state of Industry 4.0 in the construction industry, to identify its key areas, and evaluate and interpret the available evidence. We focused our literature search on Web of Science and Scopus between January 2015 and May 2019. The search was dependent on the following keywords: “Industry 4.0” OR “Industrial revolution 4.0” AND TOPIC: “construction” OR “building”. From the 82 papers found, 20 full-length papers were included in this review. Results from the targeted papers were split into three clusters: technology, security, and management. With building information modelling (BIM) as the core in the cyber-physical system, the cyber-planning-physical system is able to accommodate BIM functionalities to improve construction lifecycle. This collaboration and autonomous synchronization system are able to automate the design and construction processes, and improve the ability of handling substantial amounts of heterogeneity-laden data. Industry 4.0 is expected to augment both the quality and productivity of construction and attract domestic and foreign investors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Automatically Generating a MEP Logic Chain from Building Information Models with Identification Rules
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9112204 - 29 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems, logic chains refer to the upstream and downstream connections between MEP components. Generating the logic chains of MEP systems can improve the efficiency of facility management (FM) activities, such as locating components and retrieving relevant maintenance [...] Read more.
In mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems, logic chains refer to the upstream and downstream connections between MEP components. Generating the logic chains of MEP systems can improve the efficiency of facility management (FM) activities, such as locating components and retrieving relevant maintenance information for prompt failure detection or for emergency responses. However, due to the amount of equipment and components in commercial MEP systems, manually creating such logic chains is tedious and fallible work. This paper proposes an approach to generate the logic chains of MEP systems using building information models (BIMs) semi-automatically. The approach consists of three steps: (1) the parametric and nonparametric spatial topological analysis within MEP models to generate a connection table, (2) the transformation of MEP systems and custom information requirements to generate the pre-defined and user-defined identification rules, and (3) the logic chain completion of MEP model based on the graph data structure. The approach was applied to a real-world project, which substantiated that the approach was able to generate logic chains of 15 MEP systems with an average accuracy of over 80%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Automated Generation of Daily Evacuation Paths in 4D BIM
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091789 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Spatial movements of workers and equipment should be carefully planned according to project plans. In particular, it is crucial for workers’ safety to prepare emergency evacuation paths according to changing construction site configurations and construction progress. However, creating evacuation paths for all crews [...] Read more.
Spatial movements of workers and equipment should be carefully planned according to project plans. In particular, it is crucial for workers’ safety to prepare emergency evacuation paths according to changing construction site configurations and construction progress. However, creating evacuation paths for all crews for each day can be an extremely labor-intensive task if it is done manually. Consequently, in most construction projects, evacuation plans are not provided to managers and crews throughout the entire construction. Even state-of-the-art technologies do not suggest ways to generate evacuation paths according to changing progresses presented in 4-Dimensional Building Information Model (4D BIM). This research proposes a framework to automatically analyze, generate, and visualize the evacuation paths of multiple crews in 4D BIM, considering construction activities and site conditions at the specific project schedule. This research develops a prototype that enables users to define parameters for pathfinding, such as workspaces, material storage areas, and temporary structures to automatically identify the accessible evacuation paths. This prototype shows the secured evacuation paths in the 4D BIM environment and allows the users to organize the automatically generated evacuation paths. A case study using the BIM model of a real construction project involved in this paper demonstrates the potential of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of BIM-Based Construction of Prefabricated Steel Framework from the Perspective of SMEs
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(9), 1732; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9091732 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are part of the building construction industry. Although many effect analyses of applying building information modeling (BIM) to projects have been conducted, analyses from the perspective of SMEs are lacking. We propose a BIM-based construction of prefabricated steel [...] Read more.
Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are part of the building construction industry. Although many effect analyses of applying building information modeling (BIM) to projects have been conducted, analyses from the perspective of SMEs are lacking. We propose a BIM-based construction of prefabricated steel framework from the perspective of SMEs. We derive the essential functions of the system from the viewpoint of SMEs and verify the qualitative effect through a case analysis of prefabricated steel frame construction that is based on BIM. The following system functions and qualitative effects are analyzed according to project stages that are based on interviews of working groups participating in system development and case projects. (1) Preconstruction stage: extraction of fabrication drawing and review of shop drawing, (2) fabrication stage: prefabrication review, steel member removal, and field loading review, and (3) construction phase: integrated management of cost and schedule and quality management. The expected effects of applying the system are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed through expert group interviews and surveys. For the quantitative analysis, an evaluation index is used for the end-user computing satisfaction survey. Further analysis of the finishing and installation work is required. Future research should also analyze the effect of system application on human resource management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Combined MvdXML and Semantic Technologies for Green Construction Code Checking
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071463 - 08 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The construction process plays a key role in sustainable development of the environment. With the concept of sustainable construction being put forward in the world, some countries released green construction standards to strengthen the requirements in the construction phase. Green construction code checking [...] Read more.
The construction process plays a key role in sustainable development of the environment. With the concept of sustainable construction being put forward in the world, some countries released green construction standards to strengthen the requirements in the construction phase. Green construction code checking needs to integrate semantic information embedded in green construction standards and model information involved in Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) and/or Model View Definition (MVD), which are generated separately and lead to difficulty in information integration for green construction code checking. At present, the existing code-checking methods cannot be directly used for green construction. Related practitioners need an efficient and convenient method for green construction code checking urgently. To ameliorate this situation, this research proposes an innovative approach to organize, store, and re-use green construction knowledge by combining mvdXML and semantic technologies. The code checking of green construction is classified into four types based on the difficulty level to meet the requirements of the clauses in green construction standard. Depending on the characteristics of each inspection type, mvdXML or semantic technology is adopted for the appropriate inspection type. This paper demonstrates the deployment and validation of such automated checking procedures in a case study. Based on these experiences, a detailed discussion about the identified issues is provided as the starting point for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Last Planner® System and Building Information Modeling in Construction Execution: From an Integrative Review to a Conceptual Model for Integration
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10030821 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Many researchers have stated that lean and building information modeling (BIM) have positive synergies. This integrative literature review aims at exploring this body of knowledge within the scope of combinations of BIM and the Last Planner® System, as an important Lean construction [...] Read more.
Many researchers have stated that lean and building information modeling (BIM) have positive synergies. This integrative literature review aims at exploring this body of knowledge within the scope of combinations of BIM and the Last Planner® System, as an important Lean construction method, in the phase of construction execution. The research motivation is to find out whether a comprehensive understanding of how to take advantage of these synergies exists. Eventually, the question arises of how to condense this understanding—if existing—into a robust conceptual model for integration. As a theoretical backbone, we will make use of the original BIM-Lean interaction matrix. The hypothesis is that new BIM functionalities have been evolved since the first formulation of this interaction matrix almost 10 years ago. These new BIM functionalities cause new interactions with existing lean principles. We will focus on interactions that refer directly or indirectly to production planning and control and use them to find the most relevant literature for this review. Within the content analysis, as a part of this review, we focus on existing conceptual models and frameworks for integration of BIM and the Last Planner® System and reveal their shortcomings. Eventually, we will propose a new conceptual model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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Open AccessReview
OpenBIM: An Enabling Solution for Information Interoperability
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5358; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245358 - 08 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The expansion of scale and the increase of complexity of construction projects puts higher requirements on the level of collaboration among different stakeholders. How to realize better information interoperability among multiple disciplines and different software platforms becomes a key problem in the collaborative [...] Read more.
The expansion of scale and the increase of complexity of construction projects puts higher requirements on the level of collaboration among different stakeholders. How to realize better information interoperability among multiple disciplines and different software platforms becomes a key problem in the collaborative process. openBIM (building information model), as a common approach of information exchange, can meet the needs of information interaction among different software well and improve the efficiency and accuracy of collaboration. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no comprehensive survey of openBIM approach in the context of the AEC (Architecture, Engineering & Construction) industry, this paper fills the gap and presents a literature review of openBIM. In this paper, the openBIM related standards, software platforms, and tools enabling information interoperability are introduced and analyzed comprehensively based on related websites and literature. Furthermore, engineering information interoperability research supported by openBIM is analyzed from the perspectives of information representation, information query, information exchange, information extension, and information integration. Finally, research gaps and future directions are presented based on the analysis of existing research. The systematic analysis of the theory and practice of openBIM in this paper can provide support for its further research and application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in the Construction Industry)
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