Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 April 2023) | Viewed by 41371

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, National Institute of Cardiology, Alpejska 42, 04-628 Warsaw, Poland
2. Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Lodz, Hallera 1, 90-001 Lodz, Poland
Interests: cardiovascular diseases prevention; health promotion; metabolic diseases; obesity, physical activity; dietary antioxidants; oxidative stress; population studies; public health
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Lodz, Hallera 1, 90-001 Lodz, Poland
Interests: preventive cardiology; metabolic syndrome; health promotion; physical activity; dietary antioxidants; population studies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, National Institute of Cardiology, Alpejska 42, 04-628 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: dietary antioxidants; dietary habits; polyphenols; cvd epidemiology; NCD prevention; health promotion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Extensive studies have indicated that dietary antioxidants are important in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Dietary antioxidants, such as polyphenols, antioxidant vitamins (C, E, A), and minerals (zinc, iron, copper, manganese, selenium), support the internal antioxidant system in reducing oxidative stress, which is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. A large body of evidence suggests that adequate intake of various antioxidants may contribute to better clinical outcomes, including morbidity, mortality, as well as quality of life.

In this Special Issue entitled “Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health”, we invite all researchers interested in sharing their latest research findings or review articles in this field. Our aim is for this issue to provide a comprehensive discussion of potential epigenetic, metabolic, and physiological mechanisms of antioxidant compounds in modifying cardiovascular risk. Since the bioavailability of nutrients has been shown to be affected by several processes, studies focused on the potential effect of food structure and processing on the bioavailability of dietary antioxidants will be considered as well. Due to inconsistency in findings concerning health benefits of supplements containing antioxidants, new research is of special interest. There is also a need for epidemiological data, preferably from large representative studies or prospective observations, presenting the intake of antioxidants in different sociodemographic groups in the context of cardiovascular health.

This issue aims to gather professionals from different fields, including biochemistry, genetics, physiology, nutrition, epidemiology, public health, and cardiology.

We look forward to your contribution.

Prof. Dr. Wojciech Drygas
Prof. Dr. Magdalena Kwasniewska
Dr. Anna Waśkiewicz
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • dietary antioxidants
  • food antioxidants
  • dietary polyphenols
  • flavonoids
  • antioxidant-rich diet
  • cardiovascular health
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • hypertension

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 205 KiB  
Editorial
Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health—Editorial Comments and Summary
by Magdalena Kwaśniewska, Anna Waśkiewicz and Wojciech Drygas
Antioxidants 2023, 12(8), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12081598 - 11 Aug 2023
Viewed by 763
Abstract
The influence of dietary antioxidants on health is supported by a large body of evidence [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

15 pages, 2098 KiB  
Article
Red Quinoa Hydrolysates with Antioxidant Properties Improve Cardiovascular Health in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats
by Miguel López-Moreno, Estefanía Jiménez-Moreno, Antonio Márquez Gallego, Gema Vera Pasamontes, José Antonio Uranga Ocio, Marta Garcés-Rimón and Marta Miguel-Castro
Antioxidants 2023, 12(6), 1291; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12061291 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1668
Abstract
In recent years, quinoa has been postulated as an emerging crop for the production of functional foods. Quinoa has been used to obtain plant protein hydrolysates with in vitro biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effect [...] Read more.
In recent years, quinoa has been postulated as an emerging crop for the production of functional foods. Quinoa has been used to obtain plant protein hydrolysates with in vitro biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of red quinoa hydrolysate (QrH) on oxidative stress and cardiovascular health in an in vivo experimental model of hypertension (HTN) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). The oral administration of QrH at 1000 mg/kg/day (QrHH) showed a significant reduction in SBP from baseline (−9.8 ± 4.5 mm Hg; p < 0.05) in SHR. The mechanical stimulation thresholds did not change during the study QrH groups, whereas in the case of SHR control and SHR vitamin C, a significant reduction was observed (p < 0.05). The SHR QrHH exhibited higher antioxidant capacity in the kidney than the other experimental groups (p < 0.05). The SHR QrHH group showed an increase in reduced glutathione levels in the liver compared to the SHR control group (p < 0.05). In relation to lipid peroxidation, SHR QrHH exhibited a significant decrease in plasma, kidney and heart malondialdehyde (MDA) values compared to the SHR control group (p < 0.05). The results obtained revealed the in vivo antioxidant effect of QrH and its ability to ameliorate HTN and its associated complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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13 pages, 5110 KiB  
Article
Effects of Antioxidants in Fermented Beverages in Tissue Transcriptomics: Effect of Beer Intake on Myocardial Tissue after Oxidative Injury
by Alex Gallinat, Gemma Vilahur, Teresa Padro and Lina Badimon
Antioxidants 2023, 12(5), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12051096 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
Fermented beverages, such as wine and beer, are rich in polyphenols that have been shown to have protective effects against oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, the potential benefits of fermented beverages [...] Read more.
Fermented beverages, such as wine and beer, are rich in polyphenols that have been shown to have protective effects against oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays a central role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, the potential benefits of fermented beverages on cardiovascular health need to be fully investigated at a molecular level. In this study, we aimed at analyzing the effects of beer consumption in modulating the transcriptomic response of the heart to an oxidative stress challenge induced by myocardial ischemia (MI) in the presence of hypercholesterolemia in a pre-clinical swine model. Previous studies have shown that the same intervention induces organ protective benefits. We report a dose-dependent up-regulation of electron transport chain members and the down-regulation of spliceosome-associated genes linked to beer consumption. Additionally, low-dose beer consumption resulted in a down-regulation of genes associated with the immune response, that was not shown for moderate-dose beer consumption. These findings, observed in animals having demonstrated beneficial effects at the organ-level, indicate that the antioxidants in beer differentially affect the myocardial transcriptome in a dose-dependent manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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19 pages, 2499 KiB  
Article
Berberis microphylla G. Forst Intake Reduces the Cardiovascular Disease Plasmatic Markers Associated with a High-Fat Diet in a Mice Model
by Lia Olivares-Caro, Daniela Nova-Baza, Claudia Radojkovic, Luis Bustamante, Daniel Duran, Daniela Mennickent, Victoria Melin, David Contreras, Andy J. Perez and Claudia Mardones
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020304 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1646
Abstract
Polyphenols are bioactive substances that participate in the prevention of chronic illnesses. High content has been described in Berberis microphylla G. Forst (calafate), a wild berry extensively distributed in Chilean–Argentine Patagonia. We evaluated its beneficial effect through the study of mouse plasma metabolome [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are bioactive substances that participate in the prevention of chronic illnesses. High content has been described in Berberis microphylla G. Forst (calafate), a wild berry extensively distributed in Chilean–Argentine Patagonia. We evaluated its beneficial effect through the study of mouse plasma metabolome changes after chronic consumption of this fruit. Characterized calafate extract was administered in water, for four months, to a group of mice fed with a high-fat diet and compared with a control diet. Metabolome changes were studied using UHPLC-DAD-QTOF-based untargeted metabolomics. The study was complemented by the analysis of protein biomarkers determined using Luminex technology, and quantification of OH radicals by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thirteen features were identified with a maximum annotation level-A, revealing an increase in succinic acid, activation of tricarboxylic acid and reduction of carnitine accumulation. Changes in plasma biomarkers were related to inflammation and cardiovascular disease, with changes in thrombomodulin (−24%), adiponectin (+68%), sE-selectin (−34%), sICAM-1 (−24%) and proMMP-9 (−31%) levels. The production of OH radicals in plasma was reduced after calafate intake (−17%), especially for the group fed with a high-fat diet. These changes could be associated with protection against atherosclerosis due to calafate consumption, which is discussed from a holistic and integrative point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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18 pages, 350 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Intake of Food Groups Based on Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Middle-Age Population of Lower Silesia: Results of the PURE Poland Study
by Alicja Szypowska, Bożena Regulska-Ilow, Katarzyna Zatońska and Andrzej Szuba
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020285 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2727
Abstract
Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of many non-infectious diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD), a leading cause of death in Europe. The aim of the study was to assess the inflammatory potential of the diets of participants enrolled in the Polish arm [...] Read more.
Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of many non-infectious diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD), a leading cause of death in Europe. The aim of the study was to assess the inflammatory potential of the diets of participants enrolled in the Polish arm of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, evaluate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) score with the dietary content, and to determine the correlation of DII score with selected anthropometric parameters and biochemical risk factors for CVD. Diets were assessed with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Among participants with pro-inflammatory diets, we reported higher mean values of triglycerides (TG), fasting glucose (FG), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), and the Castelli’s risk index (CRI) in the group of men and women, and higher waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in the group of women. Pro-inflammatory diets were associated with higher intake of refined grains, sweets, juices, red meat, high-fat cheese and cream, alcohol, fats except for vegetable oils, potatoes, sugar and honey, French fries, fried fish, and processed/high-fat poultry. Moreover, study participants with pro-inflammatory diets consumed more milk, low-fat dairy, and eggs associated with unhealthy dietary habits, but this should not be considered as an independent CVD risk factor. Anthropometric and biochemical outcomes were more favorable among study participants who consumed more vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, raisins, pulses, low-fat poultry, and tea. However, association of beverage consumption with dietary inflammatory potential requires further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
12 pages, 1686 KiB  
Article
The Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Impact of Dietary Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Protection in Older Adults May Be Related to Vitamin C Intake
by Anna Gawron-Skarbek, Agnieszka Guligowska, Anna Prymont-Przymińska, Dariusz Nowak and Tomasz Kostka
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020267 - 25 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2074
Abstract
Polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), or linoleic acid (LA), have a particular role in counteracting cardiovascular diseases. They may regulate antioxidant potential and inflammatory reactions. Little is known whether other fatty acids, such as [...] Read more.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), or linoleic acid (LA), have a particular role in counteracting cardiovascular diseases. They may regulate antioxidant potential and inflammatory reactions. Little is known whether other fatty acids, such as saturated fatty acids (e.g., short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as butyric or caproic acid) or monounsaturated fatty acids, may be involved and whether the level of Vitamin C intake may affect these processes. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fatty acid intake on plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and the salivary inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP). Eighty older adults (60–79 years old) were divided into two groups with high (n = 39) and low (n = 41) Vitamin C intake. In the group with high Vitamin C intake SCFA, ALA, LA positively correlated with the plasma TAC indices, and in the group with low Vitamin C intake, the salivary TAC was decreased in subjects with a higher SCFA intake. Salivary CRP negatively corresponded to SCFA, EPA, and DHA in the whole study group (p < 0.05 for all). Fatty acids and Vitamin C intake may influence antioxidant potential and salivary CRP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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14 pages, 967 KiB  
Article
Dietary Zinc Is Associated with Cardiac Function in the Older Adult Population
by Iwona Szadkowska, Tomasz Kostka, Rafał Nikodem Wlazeł, Łukasz Kroc, Anna Jegier and Agnieszka Guligowska
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020265 - 24 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4295
Abstract
The elderly is a group at particularly high cardiovascular risk. The coexistence of chronic diseases and use of multiple medications creates the need to look for non-pharmacological agents to improve cardiovascular health in that population. In view of reports on the potential role [...] Read more.
The elderly is a group at particularly high cardiovascular risk. The coexistence of chronic diseases and use of multiple medications creates the need to look for non-pharmacological agents to improve cardiovascular health in that population. In view of reports on the potential role of zinc in enhancing pathways of myocardial tissue repair, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary zinc intake and cardiac structure and function in individuals of advanced age. The study group included 251 community-dwelling patients, with a median age of 80 years. Dieta 6.0 software was used for calculation of zinc consumption. Percentage of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (r = 0.196, p < 0.05), left ventricular mass index (r = −0.137, p < 0.05) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) (r = 0.153, p < 0.05), while zinc density did so with E/E’ ratio (r = −0.127, p < 0.05). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the best determinants of LVEF were %RDA for zinc (p = 0.014; β = 0.143), presence of coronary artery disease (p < 0.001; β = −0.39) and age (p = 0.036; β = −0.12). Furthermore, %RDA for zinc (p = 0.009; β = 0.16), female sex (p = 0.005; β = −0.171), beta-blocker use (p = 0.024; β = −0.136), body mass index (p = 0.008; β = 0.16) and heart rate (p = 0.0006; β = −0.209) had an independent effect on TAPSE. In conclusion, in individuals of very advanced age, lower zinc intake is associated with poorer cardiac function. Therefore, increasing the recommended zinc intake in this group deserves consideration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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17 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
Dietary Antioxidants, Quality of Nutrition and Cardiovascular Characteristics among Omnivores, Flexitarians and Vegetarians in Poland—The Results of Multicenter National Representative Survey WOBASZ
by Magdalena Kwaśniewska, Małgorzata Pikala, Oliwia Grygorczuk, Anna Waśkiewicz, Urszula Stepaniak, Andrzej Pająk, Krystyna Kozakiewicz, Paweł Nadrowski, Tomasz Zdrojewski, Aleksandra Puch-Walczak, Andrzej Tykarski and Wojciech Drygas
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020222 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3178
Abstract
Several reports have shown that more plant-based dietary patterns provide a higher intake of antioxidants compared to diets rich in meat and animal products. Data on the intake of key nutrients in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in relation to particular diets in countries [...] Read more.
Several reports have shown that more plant-based dietary patterns provide a higher intake of antioxidants compared to diets rich in meat and animal products. Data on the intake of key nutrients in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in relation to particular diets in countries of Central and Eastern Europe are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess quality of nutrition and CVD characteristics in a representative sample of Polish adults following different dietary patterns. Special regard was paid to the intake of natural antioxidants. The study comprised 13,318 (7159 females) randomly selected adults aged ≥ 20 years participating in the National Multicentre Health Surveys WOBASZ and WOBASZ II. The subjects were categorized into groups of omnivores (92.4%), flexitarians (7.4%) and vegetarians (0.16%) according to type of diet using the Food Frequency Questionnaire and 24 h dietary recall. The obtained results showed that neither flexitarians nor vegetarians represented better dietary habits or lifestyle behaviors compared to omnivores. Flexitarians had significantly lower daily energy intake than omnivores, but their diet was rich in total fat (above 30% of daily energy consumption) and low in fiber. Omnivores declared a higher consumption of fresh vegetables (p < 0.001), fresh fruit (p < 0.01), coffee (p < 0.01) and tea (p < 0.05, in women only) than flexitarians. Omnivores had significantly higher intake of natural antioxidants (vitamin C, E, zinc in both genders and vitamin A in men) as compared with flexitarians. Among women, the highest adherence to the intake of recommended amounts of antioxidant nutrients was noted among omnivores. Among men, vegetarians had the highest proportion of meeting the guidelines for vitamin A (77.8%), E (66.7%) and C (66.7%), while the lowest proportions were found in flexitarians (69.9%, 39.5% and 32.4%, respectively). The groups did not differ in terms of smoking and physical activity level. There were no significant differences in the analyzed CVD characteristics between omnivores and flexitarians. In women, vegetarians had substantially lower BMI than omnivores (p < 0.05) and flexitarians (p < 0.05) and a lower mean serum glucose compared with omnivores (p < 0.01) and flexitarians (p < 0.05). Vegetarians had lower prevalence of hypertension and obesity than meat eaters. In conclusion, the results of the current research showed an inappropriate intake of several nutrients, including highly potent antioxidants, irrespective of the dietary regimen. Flexitarians did not have a more favorable CVD profile than omnivores. Taking into account the growing popularity of diets with reduced animal products, there is a need to elaborate strategies providing Polish adults with guidance regarding properly balanced nutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
15 pages, 1015 KiB  
Article
Modulation of Lipid Profile and Lipoprotein Subfractions in Overweight/Obese Women at Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases through the Consumption of Apple/Berry Juice
by Marta Habanova, Maria Holovicova, Hana Scepankova, Marta Lorkova, Jan Gazo, Martina Gazarova, Carlos A. Pinto, Jorge A. Saraiva and Leticia M. Estevinho
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2239; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112239 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2062
Abstract
Polyphenol-rich foods protect the cellular systems of the human body from oxidative damage, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the effect of phenolic-rich apple/berry juice (chokeberry, blueberry, and cranberry) on lipidemic profiles in overweight/obese women. [...] Read more.
Polyphenol-rich foods protect the cellular systems of the human body from oxidative damage, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the effect of phenolic-rich apple/berry juice (chokeberry, blueberry, and cranberry) on lipidemic profiles in overweight/obese women. The 6 week single-arm pre–post intervention study involved 20 women (mean age 52.95 ± 5.8 years, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and ≥1 CVD risk factors) consuming 300 mL/day of the apple/berry juice. Lipid profile, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions assessed using Lipoprint® electrophoresis, and other parameters related to cardiovascular risk (C-reactive protein, glucose, blood pressure) were analyzed before and again after the intervention in the monitored group of women. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased from 1.30 ± 0.29 to 1.55 ± 0.32, magnesium from 0.85 ± 0.03 to 0.90 ± 0.05, and total antioxidant status from 1.68 ± 0.08 to 1.81 ± 0.10. The LDL/HDL ratio significantly decreased from 3.40 ± 0.99 to 2.66 ± 0.63 mmol/L, and the glucose from 5.50 ± 0.72 to 5.24 ± 0.74 mmol/L. However, the hs-CRP did not change significantly. Women with atherogenic subfractions LDL3-7 at baseline (n = 6) showed a significant reduction from 0.45 ± 0.19 to 0.09 ± 0.07 mmol/L. Overweight/obese women may benefit from apple/berry juice as part of a healthy lifestyle to improve their lipid profile, and thus, contribute to cardiovascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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15 pages, 3550 KiB  
Article
Vitamin C Deficiency Exacerbates Dysfunction of Atherosclerotic Coronary Arteries in Guinea Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet
by Gry Freja Skovsted, Josephine Skat-Rørdam, Amalie Pihl Frøkiær, Henrik Elvang Jensen, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg and Jens Lykkesfeldt
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2226; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112226 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1860
Abstract
Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease; while several putative mechanistic links have been proposed, functional evidence supporting a causal relationship is scarce. In this study, we investigated how vitC deficiency affects coronary artery vasomotor function [...] Read more.
Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease; while several putative mechanistic links have been proposed, functional evidence supporting a causal relationship is scarce. In this study, we investigated how vitC deficiency affects coronary artery vasomotor function and the development of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in guinea pigs subjected to chronic dyslipidemia by a high-fat diet regime. Female Hartley guinea pigs were fed either a control (low-fat diet and sufficient vitC) (N = 8) or a high-fat diet with either sufficient (N = 8) or deficient (N = 10) vitC for 32 weeks. Guinea pigs subjected to the high-fat diet developed significant atherosclerotic plaques in their coronary arteries, with no quantitative effect of vitC deficiency. In isolated coronary arteries, vasomotor responses to potassium, carbachol, nitric oxide, or bradykinin were studied in a wire myograph. Carbachol, bradykinin, and nitric oxide mediated relaxation in the coronary arteries of the control group. While vasorelaxation to carbachol and nitric oxide was preserved in the two high-fat diet groups, bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation was abolished. Interestingly, bradykinin induced a significant contraction in coronary arteries from vitC-deficient guinea pigs (p < 0.05). The bradykinin-induced contraction was unaffected by L-NAME but significantly inhibited by both indomethacin and vitC, suggesting that, during vitC deficiency, increased release of arachidonic acid metabolites and vascular oxidative stress are involved in the constrictor effects mediated by bradykinin. In conclusion, the present study shows supporting evidence that poor vitC status negatively affects coronary artery function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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14 pages, 588 KiB  
Article
Urinary Nitric Oxide Levels Are Associated with Blood Pressure, Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Total Polyphenol Excretion in Adolescents from the SI! Program
by Sonia L. Ramírez-Garza, Emily P. Laveriano-Santos, Camila Arancibia-Riveros, Jose C. Carrasco-Jimenez, Patricia Bodega, Amaya de Cos-Gandoy, Mercedes de Miguel, Gloria Santos-Beneit, Juan Miguel Fernández-Alvira, Rodrigo Fernández-Jiménez, Jesús Martínez-Gómez, Ramón Estruch, Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós and Anna Tresserra-Rimbau
Antioxidants 2022, 11(11), 2140; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112140 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is important to cardiovascular health (CVH), and its bioavailability could be regulated by the antioxidant effect of polyphenols, improving endothelial function and consequently blood pressure (BP). However, scant research has been carried out on NO and CVH correlates in adolescent [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is important to cardiovascular health (CVH), and its bioavailability could be regulated by the antioxidant effect of polyphenols, improving endothelial function and consequently blood pressure (BP). However, scant research has been carried out on NO and CVH correlates in adolescent populations. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the association between NO and the CVH status and other health factors in adolescents. NO, total polyphenol excretion (TPE), anthropometric measurements, BP, blood lipid profile, blood glucose, diet, physical activity, and smoking status were recorded, while CVH score was classified as ideal, intermediate, and poor. Negative associations were observed between NO and body mass index, body fat percentage, BP, and triglycerides; and positive associations between NO and skeletal muscle percentage, HDL-cholesterol, fruit and vegetable intake, and TPE was observed. To capture more complex interactions among different factors, multiple linear regression was performed, obtaining a significant association between NO and fruit and vegetable intake (β = 0.175), TPE (β = 0.225), and systolic BP (β = −0.235). We conclude that urinary NO levels are positively associated with the consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants such as polyphenols and negatively associated with systolic BP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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29 pages, 1935 KiB  
Article
Single and Combined Associations of Plasma and Urine Essential Trace Elements (Zn, Cu, Se, and Mn) with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Mediterranean Population
by Rocío Barragán, Cristina Sánchez-González, Pilar Aranda, José V. Sorlí, Eva M. Asensio, Olga Portolés, Carolina Ortega-Azorín, Laura V. Villamil, Oscar Coltell, Juan Llopis, Lorenzo Rivas-García and Dolores Corella
Antioxidants 2022, 11(10), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11101991 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2378
Abstract
Trace elements are micronutrients that are required in very small quantities through diet but are crucial for the prevention of acute and chronic diseases. Despite the fact that initial studies demonstrated inverse associations between some of the most important essential trace elements (Zn, [...] Read more.
Trace elements are micronutrients that are required in very small quantities through diet but are crucial for the prevention of acute and chronic diseases. Despite the fact that initial studies demonstrated inverse associations between some of the most important essential trace elements (Zn, Cu, Se, and Mn) and cardiovascular disease, several recent studies have reported a direct association with cardiovascular risk factors due to the fact that these elements can act as both antioxidants and pro-oxidants, depending on several factors. This study aims to investigate the association between plasma and urine concentrations of trace elements and cardiovascular risk factors in a general population from the Mediterranean region, including 484 men and women aged 18–80 years and considering trace elements individually and as joint exposure. Zn, Cu, Se, and Mn were determined in plasma and urine using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Single and combined analysis of trace elements with plasma lipid, blood pressure, diabetes, and anthropometric variables was undertaken. Principal component analysis, quantile-based g-computation, and calculation of trace element risk scores (TERS) were used for the combined analyses. Models were adjusted for covariates. In single trace element models, we found statistically significant associations between plasma Se and increased total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure; plasma Cu and increased triglycerides and body mass index; and urine Zn and increased glucose. Moreover, in the joint exposure analysis using quantile g-computation and TERS, the combined plasma levels of Zn, Cu, Se (directly), and Mn (inversely) were strongly associated with hypercholesterolemia (OR: 2.03; 95%CI: 1.37–2.99; p < 0.001 per quartile increase in the g-computation approach). The analysis of urine mixtures revealed a significant relationship with both fasting glucose and diabetes (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.01–3.04; p = 0.046). In conclusion, in this Mediterranean population, the combined effect of higher plasma trace element levels (primarily Se, Cu, and Zn) was directly associated with elevated plasma lipids, whereas the mixture effect in urine was primarily associated with plasma glucose. Both parameters are relevant cardiovascular risk factors, and increased trace element exposures should be considered with caution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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13 pages, 3080 KiB  
Article
Grapefruit Flavonoid Naringenin Sex-Dependently Modulates Action Potential in an In Silico Human Ventricular Cardiomyocyte Model
by Henry Sutanto, Decsa Medika Hertanto, Hendri Susilo and Citrawati Dyah Kencono Wungu
Antioxidants 2022, 11(9), 1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11091672 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2170
Abstract
Recent in vitro studies showed that grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) flavonoid naringenin alters the function of cardiac ion channels. Here, we explored the effect of naringenin on cardiomyocyte action potentials (APs) using a detailed in silico model of ventricular electrophysiology. Concentration-dependent [...] Read more.
Recent in vitro studies showed that grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) flavonoid naringenin alters the function of cardiac ion channels. Here, we explored the effect of naringenin on cardiomyocyte action potentials (APs) using a detailed in silico model of ventricular electrophysiology. Concentration-dependent effects of naringenin on seven major cardiac ion channels were incorporated into the Tomek–Rodriguez modification of O’Hara–Rudy (ToR-ORd) human ventricular endocardium model. To investigate the sex-dependent effect of naringenin, previously reported sex-specific ionic modifications were implemented into the model. Next, populations of 1000 models accommodating intercellular variability were generated. The results show, naringenin at various concentrations prolonged AP duration (APD) in male and female cardiomyocytes. Pacing cells at higher frequencies abbreviated APD differently in males versus females; for example, at 3 Hz, 50 μM naringenin induced AP and calcium alternans only in the female cardiomyocyte. Finally, a population modeling approach corroborated that naringenin significantly prolonged APD in a concentration-dependent manner, with a larger effect in females than in males. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the APD-prolonging effect of naringenin was larger in females, and that pacing at faster rates induces AP alternation earlier in females, suggesting a potentially higher proarrhythmic risk of naringenin in females than in males. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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15 pages, 785 KiB  
Article
Identification and Quantification of Urinary Microbial Phenolic Metabolites by HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-HRMS and Their Relationship with Dietary Polyphenols in Adolescents
by Emily P. Laveriano-Santos, María Marhuenda-Muñoz, Anna Vallverdú-Queralt, Miriam Martínez-Huélamo, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Elefterios Miliarakis, Camila Arancibia-Riveros, Olga Jáuregui, Ana María Ruiz-León, Sara Castro-Baquero, Ramón Estruch, Patricia Bodega, Mercedes de Miguel, Amaya de Cos-Gandoy, Jesús Martínez-Gómez, Gloria Santos-Beneit, Juan M. Fernández-Alvira, Rodrigo Fernández-Jiménez and Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós
Antioxidants 2022, 11(6), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11061167 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2424
Abstract
This study aimed to develop and validate a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-HRMS) method to identify and quantify urinary microbial phenolic metabolites (MPM), as well as to explore the relationship between MPM and dietary (poly)phenols in Spanish adolescents. A [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop and validate a liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-HRMS) method to identify and quantify urinary microbial phenolic metabolites (MPM), as well as to explore the relationship between MPM and dietary (poly)phenols in Spanish adolescents. A total of 601 spot urine samples of adolescents aged 12.02 ± 0.41 years were analyzed. The quantitative method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision, as well as postpreparative stability according to the criteria established by the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists International. A total of 17 aglycones and 37 phase II MPM were identified and quantified in 601 spot urine samples. Phenolic acids were the most abundant urinary MPM, whereas stilbenes, hydroxytyrosol, and enterodiol were the least abundant. Urinary hydroxycoumarin acids (urolithins) were positively correlated with flavonoid and total (poly)phenol intake. An HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-HRMS method was developed and fully validated to quantify MPM. The new method was performed accurately and is suitable for MPM quantification in large epidemiological studies. Urinary lignans and urolithins are proposed as potential biomarkers of grain and nut intake in an adolescent population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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Review

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30 pages, 2494 KiB  
Review
Potential Role of Quercetin Glycosides as Anti-Atherosclerotic Food-Derived Factors for Human Health
by Junji Terao
Antioxidants 2023, 12(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox12020258 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3660
Abstract
Quercetin is a monomeric polyphenol of plant origin that belongs to the flavonol-type flavonoid subclass. Extensive studies using cultured cells and experimental model animals have demonstrated the anti-atherosclerotic effects of dietary quercetin in relation to the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As quercetin [...] Read more.
Quercetin is a monomeric polyphenol of plant origin that belongs to the flavonol-type flavonoid subclass. Extensive studies using cultured cells and experimental model animals have demonstrated the anti-atherosclerotic effects of dietary quercetin in relation to the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As quercetin is exclusively present in plant-based foods in the form of glycosides, this review focuses on the bioavailability and bioefficacy of quercetin glycosides in relation to vascular health effects. Some glucose-bound glycosides are absorbed from the small intestine after glucuronide/sulfate conjugation. Both conjugated metabolites and deconjugated quercetin aglycones formed by plasma β-glucuronidase activity act as food-derived anti-atherogenic factors by exerting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering effects. However, most quercetin glycosides reach the large intestine, where they are subject to gut microbiota-dependent catabolism resulting in deglycosylated aglycone and chain-scission products. These catabolites also affect vascular health after transfer into the circulation. Furthermore, quercetin glycosides may improve gut microbiota profiles. A variety of human cohort studies and intervention studies support the idea that the intake of quercetin glycoside-rich plant foods such as onion helps to prevent CVD. Thus, quercetin glycoside-rich foods offer potential benefits in terms of cardiovascular health and possible clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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19 pages, 992 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effect of Herbal Supplements on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Anna Lipert, Iwona Szadkowska, Ewelina Matusiak-Wieczorek and Ewa Kochan
Antioxidants 2022, 11(8), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081419 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5049
Abstract
Herbal supplements rich in phenolic compounds are evidenced to have a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, they are suggested to be included in diets for people with hypertension (HT). HT is a global health problem and is estimated to affect billions of [...] Read more.
Herbal supplements rich in phenolic compounds are evidenced to have a protective effect against cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, they are suggested to be included in diets for people with hypertension (HT). HT is a global health problem and is estimated to affect billions of people until the end of 2025. For this reason, every possible and effective solution preventing HT should be considered. The aim was to perform an updated meta-analysis and review of recently published studies to evaluate the effect of selected herbal supplements on blood pressure reduction. We searched the PubMed database with specified selection criteria, analysing the RCT studies from 2011 to 2021. A total of 31 studies were included in the analysis, and the meta-analysis was conducted on the data from 16 of them. The general effect size of all the supplements via placebo was d = 1.45, p < 0.05 for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and d = 0.31, p < 0.05 for diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The meta-analysis and review of the literature demonstrated that herbal supplements, such as resveratrol, cherry juice, beetroot juice, bergamot extracts, barberry, and pycnogenol, can be effective in blood pressure reduction and cardiovascular prevention, but attention should be paid to their appropriate dosage due to the possibility of side effects from the digestive system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Health)
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