Special Issue "Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Dietary Supplementation and Lifestyle Factors"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Katsuhiko Suzuki
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa 359-1192, Japan
Interests: immunology; inflammation; muscle damage
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Llion Roberts
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Lecturer of Human Physiology, School of Allied Health Sciences & Menzies Health Institute, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia
Interests: exercise; adaptation; metabolism; inflammation; hormesis; adaptive-based redox control
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over recent years, a greater understanding has been obtained surrounding the sole and combined abilities of nutritional supplementation and lifestyle factors to influence chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. However, a more detailed understanding is required to optimise approaches. As inflammation and oxidative stress responses are themselves very complex and multi-faceted processes, further information is required to decipher the underlying mechanisms of how dietary and lifestyle changes, independently or in combination with each other, influence these processes. Importantly, a key lifestyle factor to consider is physical (in)activity. This is of relevance from both a health perspective, e.g., considering the association between chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress and multiple clinical conditions, and an athletic perspective, e.g., considering the undulating periods of stress experienced by athletes related to optimal performance and recovery. Therefore, the importance of physical (in)activity as a key lifestyle characteristic that requires further exploration alongside dietary supplementation cannot be overstated. As a result, additional benefits could be experienced by individuals from a combined diet and lifestyle approach, over and above those obtained from these factors individually.

After the sucess of the previous Special Issue "Exercise and Inflammation", this Special Issue will include both original research papers and reviews relating to the effects of nutritional supplementation and lifestyle factors on subsequent inflammatory and antioxidant responses. Articles involving human and/or animal models are welcome. Relevant and acceptable topics include, but are not limited to, the following examples: phenotypical and physiological effects of dietary interventions, e.g., pre/probiotics, chronic low-carbohydrate and high-fat diets, effects of nutraceuticals, such as sulforaphane, Montmorency tart cherry juice, beetroot juice, and phytochemical-rich food supplementation. The evaluation of the role of these factors in exercise adaptation and physical (in)activity will be favourably considered.

Prof. Dr. Katsuhiko Suzuki
Dr. Llion Roberts
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Dietary Supplementation and Lifestyle Factors
Antioxidants 2021, 10(3), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030371 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Trends relating to specific diets and lifestyle factors like physical (in) activity have formed in recent times [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Urinary Biomarkers of Organ Damage, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Bone Turnover Following a 3000-m Time Trial
Antioxidants 2021, 10(1), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010079 - 09 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 644
Abstract
Strenuous exercise induces organ damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Currently, to monitor or investigate physiological conditions, blood biomarkers are frequently used. However, blood sampling is perceived to be an invasive method and may induce stress. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a non-invasive [...] Read more.
Strenuous exercise induces organ damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Currently, to monitor or investigate physiological conditions, blood biomarkers are frequently used. However, blood sampling is perceived to be an invasive method and may induce stress. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a non-invasive assessment method that reflects physiological conditions. In the present study, we aimed to search for useful biomarkers of organ damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, and bone turnover in urine following exercise. Ten male runners participated in this study and performed a 3000-m time trial. We measured biomarkers in urine collected before and immediately after exercise. Renal damage markers such as urea protein, albumin, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), and an intestinal damage marker, intestine-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), increased following exercise (p < 0.05). However, a muscle damage marker, titin N-terminal fragments, did not change (p > 0.05). Inflammation-related factors (IRFs), such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6, complement (C) 5a, myeloperoxidase (MPO), calprotectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), increased whereas IRFs such as IL-4 and IL-10 decreased following exercise (p < 0.05). IRFs such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-2, IL-8, IL-12p40, and interferon (IFN)-γ did not change (p > 0.05). Oxidative stress markers, such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitrotyrosine, did not change following exercise (p > 0.05) whereas 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) decreased (p < 0.05). Bone resorption markers, such as cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD), did not change following exercise (p > 0.05). These results suggest that organ damage markers and IRFs in urine have the potential to act as non-invasive indicators to evaluate the effects of exercise on organ functions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Outcomes Assessment of Sustainable and Innovatively Simple Lifestyle Modification at the Workplace-Drinking Electrolyzed-Reduced Water (OASIS-ERW): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070564 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1063
Abstract
Oxidative stress has been associated with many diseases as well as aging. Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) has been suggested to reduce oxidative stress and improve antioxidant potential. This study investigated the effects of drinking ERW on biomarkers of oxidative stress and health-related indices in [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress has been associated with many diseases as well as aging. Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) has been suggested to reduce oxidative stress and improve antioxidant potential. This study investigated the effects of drinking ERW on biomarkers of oxidative stress and health-related indices in healthy adults. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 65 participants, who were allocated into two groups. Of these, 61 received intervention (32 with ERW and 29 MW [mineral water]). All participants were instructed to drink 1.5 L/day of ERW or MW for eight weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and health-related indices were assessed at baseline as well as after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of intervention. Of the primary outcome variables assessed, diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential showed a significant interaction between the groups and time, with d-ROMs levels significantly decreased at 8 weeks in ERW compared to those in MW. Among the secondary outcome variables, total, visceral, and subcutaneous fat mass significantly changed over time, with a significant association observed between the group and time. Thus, daily ERW consumption may be a potential consideration for a sustainable and innovatively simple lifestyle modification at the workplace to reduce oxidative stress, increase antioxidant potential, and decrease fat mass. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Higher Blood Uric Acid in Female Humans and Mice as a Protective Factor against Pathophysiological Decline of Lung Function
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050387 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3382
Abstract
The oxidant/antioxidant imbalance plays a pivotal role in the lung. Uric acid (UA), an endogenous antioxidant, is highly present in lung tissue, however, its impact on lung function under pathophysiological conditions remains unknown. In this work, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of UA metabolism [...] Read more.
The oxidant/antioxidant imbalance plays a pivotal role in the lung. Uric acid (UA), an endogenous antioxidant, is highly present in lung tissue, however, its impact on lung function under pathophysiological conditions remains unknown. In this work, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of UA metabolism in experimental mouse models of acute and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) revealed that increased plasma UA levels improved emphysematous phenotype and lung dysfunction in accordance with reduced oxidative stress specifically in female but not in male mice, despite no impact of plasma UA induction on the pulmonary phenotypes in nondiseased mice. In vitro experiments determined that UA significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in female donor-derived primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in the absence of estrogen, implying that the benefit of UA is limited to the female airway in postmenopausal conditions. Consistently, our clinical observational analyses confirmed that higher blood UA levels, as well as the SLC2A9/GLUT9 rs11722228 T/T genotype, were associated with higher lung function in elderly human females. Together, our findings provide the first unique evidence that higher blood UA is a protective factor against the pathological decline of lung function in female mice, and possibly against aging-associated physiological decline in human females. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Oxidative Stress Markers in the Erythrocytes and Heart Muscle of Obese Rats: Relate to a High-Fat Diet but Not to DJOS Bariatric Surgery
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020183 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
Obesity and high-fat diet (HF) are prevalent causes of oxidative stress (OS). Duodenal-jejunal omega switch (DJOS) is a bariatric procedure used for body mass reduction, extensively tested in animal models. We studied the long-term impact of bariatric surgery and an HF diet on [...] Read more.
Obesity and high-fat diet (HF) are prevalent causes of oxidative stress (OS). Duodenal-jejunal omega switch (DJOS) is a bariatric procedure used for body mass reduction, extensively tested in animal models. We studied the long-term impact of bariatric surgery and an HF diet on the oxidative stress markers in erythrocytes and heart muscles of rats. We analyzed superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in DJOS or SHAM (control) operated rats fed with different dietary protocols (control diet (CD) and high-fat diet (HF)), before and after the surgery (CD/CD, HF/HF, CD/HF, and HF/CD). We observed higher erythrocytes CAT, GST and GPx activity in DJOS-operated (vs. SHAM) rats fed with an HF/HF diet. For DJOS-operated rats, erythrocytes CAT and GPx activity and MDA concentration were significantly lower in CD/CD group. We observed increased heart muscle GR activity in SHAM-operated rats (vs. DJOS bariatric surgery) fed with an HF/HF diet. Change from HF to CD diet increased heart muscle GPx activity after DJOS bariatric surgery. Heart muscle SOD activity was lower in HF/HF and CD/CD groups after DJOS bariatric surgery (vs. SHAM). DJOS surgery significantly reduced heart muscle MDA concentration in HF/HF and HF/CD groups (vs. SHAM). We conclude that the selected dietary patterns had a stronger impact on oxidative stress markers in erythrocytes and heart muscle than DJOS bariatric surgery. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Antioxidant Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in 6-Hydroxydopamine Unilateral Intrastriatal Injected Rats
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020122 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
The toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a highly oxidizable dopamine (DA) analog that is widely used for reproducing several cell processes identified in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Due to the close similarity of its neurotoxic mechanism to those of DA, it is suitable as a [...] Read more.
The toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a highly oxidizable dopamine (DA) analog that is widely used for reproducing several cell processes identified in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Due to the close similarity of its neurotoxic mechanism to those of DA, it is suitable as a model for testing the effects of potentially neuroprotective drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on brain oxidative stress (OS) in unilateral intrastriatal (6-OHDA) injected rats. Forty male Wistar rats, four months old (220–260 g), were evaluated. Half of them received LA (35 mg/kg i.p.) from the start to the end of the experiment. On day 2 of the trial, ten LA-supplemented rats and ten non-LA-supplemented rats were subjected to the apomorphine test. Brain homogenates were evaluated for thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The same evaluation procedures were repeated on day 14 with the remaining animals. An increased TBARS level and decreased GPx activity, suggestive for OS, were recorded in homogenates on day 14 vs. day 2 of the experiment in the 6-OHDA treated rats. The simultaneous application of LA mitigated these changes. Our study demonstrates that the low dose of LA could be of value for decreasing the OS of the neurotoxic 6-OHDA, supporting the need for further studies of the benefit of LA treatment in PD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aerobic Training Down-Regulates Pentraxin 3 and Pentraxin 3/Toll-Like Receptor 4 Ratio, Irrespective of Oxidative Stress Response, in Elderly Subjects
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020110 - 27 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-mediated cellular aging has been linked to diseases such as atherothrombosis and cancer. Although pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is associated with aging-related diseases via TLR4-dependent anti-inflammatory effects, its relationship with oxidative stress in aging remains to be elucidated. Exercise is [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-mediated cellular aging has been linked to diseases such as atherothrombosis and cancer. Although pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is associated with aging-related diseases via TLR4-dependent anti-inflammatory effects, its relationship with oxidative stress in aging remains to be elucidated. Exercise is proposed as the key intervention for health maintenance in the elderly. This study aimed to examine the association of PTX3 levels with changes in oxidative stress in both plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), following aerobic training in elderly adults. Nine trained and five controls participated in an eight-week aerobic training protocol. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analyses were used to determine PTX3, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and levels of oxidative stress biomarkers [3-nitrotyrosine (3NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), glutathione (GSH), protein carbonyl (PC), reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)] in plasma and/or PBMCs. Results showed a down-regulation of PTX3 expression in PBMCs following aerobic training, along with decreased PTX3/TLR4 ratios. Oxidative stress responses in PBMCs remained unchanged with the exercise protocol. Comparable levels of plasma PTX3 and oxidative stress biomarkers were observed in trained vs. control groups. No correlation was found between PTX3 and any oxidative stress biomarkers following training. These findings demonstrated the down-regulation of PTX3 and PTX3/TLR4 ratio, irrespective of oxidative stress response, in elderly adults following eight weeks of aerobic training. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sangiovese cv Pomace Seeds Extract-Fortified Kefir Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity in an In Vitro Model of Intestinal Epithelium Using Caco-2 Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010054 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease and food allergies are a growing topic in the field of nutrition science. Polyphenols, which are the most important secondary metabolites of plants, demonstrated to modulate the expression and/or production of numerous proteins, but also to regulate the intestinal ecosystem. [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease and food allergies are a growing topic in the field of nutrition science. Polyphenols, which are the most important secondary metabolites of plants, demonstrated to modulate the expression and/or production of numerous proteins, but also to regulate the intestinal ecosystem. In this context, our aim was the investigation of protective effects against the gastrointestinal mucosa of fortified milk kefir obtained by adding seeds extract from Sangiovese cv. Pomace. Methods: An ultrasound-assisted method was used to obtain the extracts. All the extracts were assayed for the antioxidant activity. The best extract was used as an additive of fermented milk kefir to obtain a fortified final product. Kefir samples were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. The efficiency of the barrier functions was evaluated by measuring trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER) using a voltmeter. Results: the enriched kefir (Ksgn) possesses higher antioxidant performances compared to the unfortified sample (Kwht). Kwht and Ksgn did not alter Caco-2 TEER in basal condition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Negative Mood Is Associated with Diet and Dietary Antioxidants in University Students During the Menstrual Cycle: A Cross-Sectional Study from Guangzhou, China
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010023 - 26 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Postpubescent females may have negative mood or premenstrual syndrome during the menstrual cycle; with the emotional and physical symptoms interfering with their quality of life. Little is known about the relationship of dietary behaviors and dietary antioxidant intake with negative mood or premenstrual [...] Read more.
Postpubescent females may have negative mood or premenstrual syndrome during the menstrual cycle; with the emotional and physical symptoms interfering with their quality of life. Little is known about the relationship of dietary behaviors and dietary antioxidant intake with negative mood or premenstrual syndrome in university students in China; so we explored the relationship between negative mood and dietary behavior in female university students during the three menstrual cycle phases. Random sampling was used to enroll 88 individuals from a university in Guangzhou; China in the study. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. During the menstrual phase, tea, black coffee and carbonated beverage intake was higher in the group with a high negative affect scale score than in the low score group (p < 0.05). Likewise; during the premenstrual phase, fresh fruit (banana and red Chinese dates) intake was higher in the group with a high negative affect scale score than in the low-score group (p < 0.05). The logistic regression analysis results showed that negative mood was positively associated with tea, coffee, and carbonated beverage intake during the menstrual phase (β = 0.21, p = 0.0453, odds ratio = 1.23), and negative mood was positively associated with banana and red Chinese dates intake during the premenstrual phase (β = 0.59, p = 0.0172, odds ratio = 1.81). Our results suggest that negative mood may be associated with diet and specific food in university postpubescent females. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sulforaphane Protects Cells against Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammation in Murine Macrophages
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120577 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
Inflammation is an essential part for the general or innate immune defenses to defend against tissue damage and accelerate the curing process by providing protection against pathogens. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural isothiocyanate that has potential properties against inflammation, along with other protective [...] Read more.
Inflammation is an essential part for the general or innate immune defenses to defend against tissue damage and accelerate the curing process by providing protection against pathogens. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural isothiocyanate that has potential properties against inflammation, along with other protective functions. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of its protective effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in Raw 264.7 macrophages. Here, we compared LPS-challenged macrophages with or without SFN pretreatment. Macrophages were pre-incubated for 6 h with a wide range of concentrations of SFN (0 to 50 µM), and then treated with LPS for 24 h. Nitric oxide (NO) concentration and gene expression of different inflammatory mediators, i.e., interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β, were measured. SFN neither directly reacted with cytokines, nor with NO. To understand the mechanisms, we performed analyses of the expression of regulatory enzyme inducible nitic oxide synthase (iNOS), the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and its enzyme heme-oxygenase (HO)-1. Our results revealed that LPS increased significantly the expression of inflammatory cytokines and concentration of NO in non-treated cells. SFN was able to prevent the expression of NO and cytokines through regulating inflammatory enzyme iNOS and activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signal transduction pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Efficacy of Dietary Selenomethionine Supplementation in the Setting of Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110546 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 925
Abstract
Oxidative stress is a major hallmark of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This partly arises from the presence of activated phagocytes releasing myeloperoxidase (MPO) and its production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The dietary supplement selenomethionine (SeMet) has been shown to bolster endogenous antioxidant processes [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is a major hallmark of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This partly arises from the presence of activated phagocytes releasing myeloperoxidase (MPO) and its production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The dietary supplement selenomethionine (SeMet) has been shown to bolster endogenous antioxidant processes as well as readily react with MPO-derived oxidants. The aim of this study was to assess whether supplementation with SeMet could modulate the extent of cellular damage observed in an in vitro cardiac myocyte model exposed to (patho)-physiological levels of HOCl and an in vivo rat model of cardiac I/R injury. Exposure of the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line to HOCl resulted in a dose-dependent increase in necrotic cell death, which could be prevented by SeMet supplementation and was attributed to SeMet preventing the HOCl-induced loss of mitochondrial inner trans-membrane potential, and the associated cytosolic calcium accumulation. This protection was credited primarily to the direct oxidant scavenging ability of SeMet, with a minor contribution arising from the ability of SeMet to bolster cardiac myoblast glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. In vivo, a significant increase in selenium levels in the plasma and heart tissue were seen in male Wistar rats fed a diet supplemented with 2 mg kg−1 SeMet compared to controls. However, SeMet-supplementation demonstrated only limited improvement in heart function and did not result in better heart remodelling following I/R injury. These data indicate that SeMet supplementation is of potential benefit within pathological settings where excessive HOCl is known to be generated but has limited efficacy as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of heart attack. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Salivary Antioxidants Status Following Progressive Aerobic Exercise: What Are the Differences between Waterpipe Smokers and Non-Smokers?
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100418 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Waterpipe tobacco (WPT) smoking is a public health problem with similar or even stronger effects than cigarette smoking. Although it appears to be associated with extensive oxidative stress, there is a limited number of studies on the oxidative effects of WPT smoking in [...] Read more.
Waterpipe tobacco (WPT) smoking is a public health problem with similar or even stronger effects than cigarette smoking. Although it appears to be associated with extensive oxidative stress, there is a limited number of studies on the oxidative effects of WPT smoking in stressful conditions. We, therefore, compared the responses of salivary flow rate (SFR), uric acid (UA) concentration, and peroxidase (POX) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) activities between WPT smokers and non-smokers following a bout of exhaustive aerobic exercise (AE). Twenty-three sedentary young women (age: 22.95 ± 2.83 years) participated in this study, including 11 smokers (7.00 ± 1.41 uses/week) and 12 non-smokers. All participants were required to perform the Bruce protocol treadmill test at an initial gradient of 10% at 1.7 mph, with increases of these parameters every 3 min until exhaustion. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 hour after AE. WPT smokers showed lower SFR compared with non-smokers at all time points (p < 0.05). In comparison to WPT smokers, a larger increase in POX activity (approximately 23% vs. 14%; p = 0.009) and a smaller decline in DPPH activity (approximately −8% vs. −15%; p = 0.004) were found in non-smokers compared with WPT smokers. While these changes were slowly compensated within 1 hour after exhaustion, the activity of both markers was different from the pre-exercise values (p < 0.001). There was also a trend for UA concentration in non-smokers to be higher during the recovery period, with no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). It seems that WPT smoking is associated with negative effects on important human antioxidants and a diminished antioxidative response following acute exercise. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Short Overview of Changes in Inflammatory Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in Response to Physical Activity and Antioxidant Supplementation
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090886 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
Excessive release of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress (OS) are triggering factors in the onset of chronic diseases. One of the factors that can ensure health in humans is regular physical activity. This type of activity can enhance immune function and dramatically prevent [...] Read more.
Excessive release of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress (OS) are triggering factors in the onset of chronic diseases. One of the factors that can ensure health in humans is regular physical activity. This type of activity can enhance immune function and dramatically prevent the spread of the cytokine response and OS. However, if physical activity is done intensely at irregular intervals, it is not only unhealthy but can also lead to muscle damage, OS, and inflammation. In this review, the response of cytokines and OS to exercise is described. In addition, it is focused predominantly on the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) generated from muscle metabolism and damage during exercise and on the modulatory effects of antioxidant supplements. Furthermore, the influence of factors such as age, sex, and type of exercise protocol (volume, duration, and intensity of training) is analyzed. The effect of antioxidant supplements on improving OS and inflammatory cytokines is somewhat ambiguous. More research is needed to understand this issue, considering in greater detail factors such as level of training, health status, age, sex, disease, and type of exercise protocol. Full article
Open AccessReview
Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Induced by Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Despite Possible Protective Effects of Exercise Training: A Review of the Literature
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090777 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), which is also known as ghalyan, shisha or hookah, is increasing rapidly around the world, especially among youth. Growing interest in this form of tobacco smoking can be traced, in part, to the use of flavored [...] Read more.
The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), which is also known as ghalyan, shisha or hookah, is increasing rapidly around the world, especially among youth. Growing interest in this form of tobacco smoking can be traced, in part, to the use of flavored tobacco products, social acceptability as a safer option than cigarettes, and its consideration as a relaxation method or entertainment. However, there is a well-established association between WTS and oxidative stress that causes irreversible chronic pathological conditions such as cardiovascular and respiratory problems, as well as different types of cancers, and thus increases the risk of mortality. Clearly, induction of inflammation status through increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn leads to oxidative stress and harm to lipids, DNA, and proteins, is the most plausible mechanism to explain the potential harmful effects of WTS. Unlike WTS, well-designed exercise training programs increase ROS to the extent that it is beneficial to the body. In this study, we aimed to review available evidence on the impact of exercise training on oxidative stress and inflammation status. We also summarize the effect of acute and chronic WTS on different exercise capacities. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Molecular Adaptive Responses of Skeletal Muscle to High-Intensity Exercise/Training and Hypoxia
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080656 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
High-intensity exercise/training, especially interval exercise/training, has gained popularity in recent years. Hypoxic training was introduced to elite athletes half a century ago and has recently been adopted by the general public. In the current review, we have summarised the molecular adaptive responses of [...] Read more.
High-intensity exercise/training, especially interval exercise/training, has gained popularity in recent years. Hypoxic training was introduced to elite athletes half a century ago and has recently been adopted by the general public. In the current review, we have summarised the molecular adaptive responses of skeletal muscle to high-intensity exercise/training, focusing on mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and muscle fibre composition. The literature suggests that (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha) PGC-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1-α) might be the main mediators of skeletal muscle adaptations to high-intensity exercises in hypoxia. Exercise is known to be anti-inflammatory, while the effects of hypoxia on inflammatory signalling are more complex. The anti-inflammatory effects of a single session of exercise might result from the release of anti-inflammatory myokines and other cytokines, as well as the downregulation of Toll-like receptor signalling, while training-induced anti-inflammatory effects may be due to reductions in abdominal and visceral fat (which are main sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines). Hypoxia can lead to inflammation, and inflammation can result in tissue hypoxia. However, the hypoxic factor HIF1-α is essential for preventing excessive inflammation. Disease-induced hypoxia is related to an upregulation of inflammatory signalling, but the effects of exercise-induced hypoxia on inflammation are less conclusive. The effects of high-intensity exercise under hypoxia on skeletal muscle molecular adaptations and inflammatory signalling have not been fully explored and are worth investigating in future studies. Understanding these effects will lead to a more comprehensive scientific basis for maximising the benefits of high-intensity exercise. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Terpenoids as Potential Geroprotectors
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060529 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
Terpenes and terpenoids are the largest groups of plant secondary metabolites. However, unlike polyphenols, they are rarely associated with geroprotective properties. Here we evaluated the conformity of the biological effects of terpenoids with the criteria of geroprotectors, including primary criteria (lifespan-extending effects in [...] Read more.
Terpenes and terpenoids are the largest groups of plant secondary metabolites. However, unlike polyphenols, they are rarely associated with geroprotective properties. Here we evaluated the conformity of the biological effects of terpenoids with the criteria of geroprotectors, including primary criteria (lifespan-extending effects in model organisms, improvement of aging biomarkers, low toxicity, minimal adverse effects, improvement of the quality of life) and secondary criteria (evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of action, reproducibility of the effects on different models, prevention of age-associated diseases, increasing of stress-resistance). The number of substances that demonstrate the greatest compliance with both primary and secondary criteria of geroprotectors were found among different classes of terpenoids. Thus, terpenoids are an underestimated source of potential geroprotectors that can effectively influence the mechanisms of aging and age-related diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Integrative Role of Sulforaphane in Preventing Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Fatigue: A Review of a Potential Protective Phytochemical
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060521 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Cruciferous vegetables hold a myriad of bioactive molecules that are renowned for possessing unique medicinal benefits. Sulforaphane (SFN) is one of the potential nutraceuticals contained within cruciferous vegetables that is useful for improving health and diseased conditions. The objective of this review is [...] Read more.
Cruciferous vegetables hold a myriad of bioactive molecules that are renowned for possessing unique medicinal benefits. Sulforaphane (SFN) is one of the potential nutraceuticals contained within cruciferous vegetables that is useful for improving health and diseased conditions. The objective of this review is to discuss the mechanistic role for SFN in preventing oxidative stress, fatigue, and inflammation. Direct and indirect research evidence is reported to identify the nontoxic dose of SFN for human trials, and effectiveness of SFN to attenuate inflammation and/or oxidative stress. SFN treatment modulates redox balance via activating redox regulator nuclear factor E2 factor-related factor (Nrf2). SFN may play a crucial role in altering the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway (an intricate response to many stimuli or stress), which induces Nrf2 target gene activation to reduce oxidative stress. In addition, SFN reduces inflammation by suppressing centrally involved inflammatory regulator nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which in turn downregulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators. Exercise may induce a significant range of fatigue, inflammation, oxidative stress, and/or organ damage due to producing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines. SFN may play an effective role in preventing such damage via inducing phase 2 enzymes, activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway or suppressing nuclear translocation of NF-κB. In this review, we summarize the integrative role of SFN in preventing fatigue, inflammation, and oxidative stress, and briefly introduce the history of cruciferous vegetables and the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of SFN reported in previous research. To date, very limited research has been conducted on SFN’s effectiveness in improving exercise endurance or performance. Therefore, more research needs to be carried out to determine the effectiveness of SFN in the field of exercise and lifestyle factors. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Linking What We Eat to Our Mood: A Review of Diet, Dietary Antioxidants, and Depression
Antioxidants 2019, 8(9), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8090376 - 05 Sep 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5234
Abstract
Studies have shown that diet and nutrition play significant roles in the prevention of depression and its clinical treatment. The present review aims to provide a clear understanding of the associations between diet patterns, specific foods, nutrients such as antioxidants, and depression. As [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that diet and nutrition play significant roles in the prevention of depression and its clinical treatment. The present review aims to provide a clear understanding of the associations between diet patterns, specific foods, nutrients such as antioxidants, and depression. As a result, balanced dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet and certain foods such as fish, fresh vegetables, and fruits have been associated with a lower risk of depression or depressive symptoms, while high-fat Western diets and sugar-sweetened beverages have been associated with higher risk of depression or depressive symptoms. Dietary antioxidants such as green tea polyphenols or isoflavonoid intake have been negatively associated with depression or depressive symptoms. It is concluded that diet patterns, specific foods, and antioxidants play important roles in the prevention and clinical treatment of depression. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Ketogenic Diet and microRNAs Linked to Antioxidant Biochemical Homeostasis
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080269 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1577
Abstract
Recently, we demonstrated the capability of the ketogenic diet (KD) to influence the microRNA (miR) expression profile. Here, we report that KD is able to normalize miR expression in obese subjects when compared with lean subjects. By applying two different bioinformatics tools, we [...] Read more.
Recently, we demonstrated the capability of the ketogenic diet (KD) to influence the microRNA (miR) expression profile. Here, we report that KD is able to normalize miR expression in obese subjects when compared with lean subjects. By applying two different bioinformatics tools, we found that, amongst the miRs returning to comparable levels in lean subjects, four of them are linked to antioxidant biochemical pathways specifically, and the others are linked to both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory biochemical pathways. Of particular interest is the upregulation of hsa-miR-30a-5p, which correlates with the decrease of catalase expression protein in red blood cells. Full article
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