Special Issue "Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Dietary Supplementation and Lifestyle Factors"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Katsuhiko Suzuki
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan
Tel. 04-2947-6898
Interests: immunology; inflammation; muscle damage; cytokine; leukocyte; oxidative stress
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Llion Roberts
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Allied Health Sciences, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia
Interests: exercise; adaptation; metabolism; inflammation; hormesis; adaptive-based redox control
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over recent years, a greater understanding has been obtained surrounding the sole and combined abilities of nutritional supplementation and lifestyle factors to influence chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress. However, a more detailed understanding is required to optimise approaches. As inflammation and oxidative stress responses are themselves very complex and multi-faceted processes, further information is required to decipher the underlying mechanisms of how dietary and lifestyle changes, independently or in combination with each other, influence these processes. Importantly, a key lifestyle factor to consider is physical (in)activity. This is of relevance from both a health perspective, e.g., considering the association between chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress and multiple clinical conditions, and an athletic perspective, e.g., considering the undulating periods of stress experienced by athletes related to optimal performance and recovery. Therefore, the importance of physical (in)activity as a key lifestyle characteristic that requires further exploration alongside dietary supplementation cannot be overstated. As a result, additional benefits could be experienced by individuals from a combined diet and lifestyle approach, over and above those obtained from these factors individually.

After the sucess of the previous Special Issue "Exercise and Inflammation", this Special Issue will include both original research papers and reviews relating to the effects of nutritional supplementation and lifestyle factors on subsequent inflammatory and antioxidant responses. Articles involving human and/or animal models are welcome. Relevant and acceptable topics include, but are not limited to, the following examples: phenotypical and physiological effects of dietary interventions, e.g., pre/probiotics, chronic low-carbohydrate and high-fat diets, effects of nutraceuticals, such as sulforaphane, Montmorency tart cherry juice, beetroot juice, and phytochemical-rich food supplementation. The evaluation of the role of these factors in exercise adaptation and physical (in)activity will be favourably considered.

Prof. Dr. Katsuhiko Suzuki
Dr. Llion Roberts
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Antioxidant Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in 6-Hydroxydopamine Unilateral Intrastriatal Injected Rats
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020122 - 01 Feb 2020
Abstract
The toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a highly oxidizable dopamine (DA) analog that is widely used for reproducing several cell processes identified in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Due to the close similarity of its neurotoxic mechanism to those of DA, it is suitable as a [...] Read more.
The toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a highly oxidizable dopamine (DA) analog that is widely used for reproducing several cell processes identified in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Due to the close similarity of its neurotoxic mechanism to those of DA, it is suitable as a model for testing the effects of potentially neuroprotective drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on brain oxidative stress (OS) in unilateral intrastriatal (6-OHDA) injected rats. Forty male Wistar rats, four months old (220–260 g), were evaluated. Half of them received LA (35 mg/kg i.p.) from the start to the end of the experiment. On day 2 of the trial, ten LA-supplemented rats and ten non-LA-supplemented rats were subjected to the apomorphine test. Brain homogenates were evaluated for thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The same evaluation procedures were repeated on day 14 with the remaining animals. An increased TBARS level and decreased GPx activity, suggestive for OS, were recorded in homogenates on day 14 vs. day 2 of the experiment in the 6-OHDA treated rats. The simultaneous application of LA mitigated these changes. Our study demonstrates that the low dose of LA could be of value for decreasing the OS of the neurotoxic 6-OHDA, supporting the need for further studies of the benefit of LA treatment in PD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aerobic Training Down-Regulates Pentraxin 3 and Pentraxin 3/Toll-Like Receptor 4 Ratio, Irrespective of Oxidative Stress Response, in Elderly Subjects
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020110 - 27 Jan 2020
Abstract
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-mediated cellular aging has been linked to diseases such as atherothrombosis and cancer. Although pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is associated with aging-related diseases via TLR4-dependent anti-inflammatory effects, its relationship with oxidative stress in aging remains to be elucidated. Exercise is [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-mediated cellular aging has been linked to diseases such as atherothrombosis and cancer. Although pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is associated with aging-related diseases via TLR4-dependent anti-inflammatory effects, its relationship with oxidative stress in aging remains to be elucidated. Exercise is proposed as the key intervention for health maintenance in the elderly. This study aimed to examine the association of PTX3 levels with changes in oxidative stress in both plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), following aerobic training in elderly adults. Nine trained and five controls participated in an eight-week aerobic training protocol. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analyses were used to determine PTX3, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and levels of oxidative stress biomarkers [3-nitrotyrosine (3NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), glutathione (GSH), protein carbonyl (PC), reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)] in plasma and/or PBMCs. Results showed a down-regulation of PTX3 expression in PBMCs following aerobic training, along with decreased PTX3/TLR4 ratios. Oxidative stress responses in PBMCs remained unchanged with the exercise protocol. Comparable levels of plasma PTX3 and oxidative stress biomarkers were observed in trained vs. control groups. No correlation was found between PTX3 and any oxidative stress biomarkers following training. These findings demonstrated the down-regulation of PTX3 and PTX3/TLR4 ratio, irrespective of oxidative stress response, in elderly adults following eight weeks of aerobic training. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sangiovese cv Pomace Seeds Extract-Fortified Kefir Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity in an In Vitro Model of Intestinal Epithelium Using Caco-2 Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010054 - 08 Jan 2020
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease and food allergies are a growing topic in the field of nutrition science. Polyphenols, which are the most important secondary metabolites of plants, demonstrated to modulate the expression and/or production of numerous proteins, but also to regulate the intestinal ecosystem. [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease and food allergies are a growing topic in the field of nutrition science. Polyphenols, which are the most important secondary metabolites of plants, demonstrated to modulate the expression and/or production of numerous proteins, but also to regulate the intestinal ecosystem. In this context, our aim was the investigation of protective effects against the gastrointestinal mucosa of fortified milk kefir obtained by adding seeds extract from Sangiovese cv. Pomace. Methods: An ultrasound-assisted method was used to obtain the extracts. All the extracts were assayed for the antioxidant activity. The best extract was used as an additive of fermented milk kefir to obtain a fortified final product. Kefir samples were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. The efficiency of the barrier functions was evaluated by measuring trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER) using a voltmeter. Results: the enriched kefir (Ksgn) possesses higher antioxidant performances compared to the unfortified sample (Kwht). Kwht and Ksgn did not alter Caco-2 TEER in basal condition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Negative Mood Is Associated with Diet and Dietary Antioxidants in University Students During the Menstrual Cycle: A Cross-Sectional Study from Guangzhou, China
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010023 - 26 Dec 2019
Abstract
Postpubescent females may have negative mood or premenstrual syndrome during the menstrual cycle; with the emotional and physical symptoms interfering with their quality of life. Little is known about the relationship of dietary behaviors and dietary antioxidant intake with negative mood or premenstrual [...] Read more.
Postpubescent females may have negative mood or premenstrual syndrome during the menstrual cycle; with the emotional and physical symptoms interfering with their quality of life. Little is known about the relationship of dietary behaviors and dietary antioxidant intake with negative mood or premenstrual syndrome in university students in China; so we explored the relationship between negative mood and dietary behavior in female university students during the three menstrual cycle phases. Random sampling was used to enroll 88 individuals from a university in Guangzhou; China in the study. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. During the menstrual phase, tea, black coffee and carbonated beverage intake was higher in the group with a high negative affect scale score than in the low score group (p < 0.05). Likewise; during the premenstrual phase, fresh fruit (banana and red Chinese dates) intake was higher in the group with a high negative affect scale score than in the low-score group (p < 0.05). The logistic regression analysis results showed that negative mood was positively associated with tea, coffee, and carbonated beverage intake during the menstrual phase (β = 0.21, p = 0.0453, odds ratio = 1.23), and negative mood was positively associated with banana and red Chinese dates intake during the premenstrual phase (β = 0.59, p = 0.0172, odds ratio = 1.81). Our results suggest that negative mood may be associated with diet and specific food in university postpubescent females. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Sulforaphane Protects Cells against Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammation in Murine Macrophages
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120577 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Inflammation is an essential part for the general or innate immune defenses to defend against tissue damage and accelerate the curing process by providing protection against pathogens. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural isothiocyanate that has potential properties against inflammation, along with other protective [...] Read more.
Inflammation is an essential part for the general or innate immune defenses to defend against tissue damage and accelerate the curing process by providing protection against pathogens. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural isothiocyanate that has potential properties against inflammation, along with other protective functions. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of its protective effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in Raw 264.7 macrophages. Here, we compared LPS-challenged macrophages with or without SFN pretreatment. Macrophages were pre-incubated for 6 h with a wide range of concentrations of SFN (0 to 50 µM), and then treated with LPS for 24 h. Nitric oxide (NO) concentration and gene expression of different inflammatory mediators, i.e., interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β, were measured. SFN neither directly reacted with cytokines, nor with NO. To understand the mechanisms, we performed analyses of the expression of regulatory enzyme inducible nitic oxide synthase (iNOS), the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and its enzyme heme-oxygenase (HO)-1. Our results revealed that LPS increased significantly the expression of inflammatory cytokines and concentration of NO in non-treated cells. SFN was able to prevent the expression of NO and cytokines through regulating inflammatory enzyme iNOS and activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signal transduction pathway. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Efficacy of Dietary Selenomethionine Supplementation in the Setting of Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110546 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Oxidative stress is a major hallmark of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This partly arises from the presence of activated phagocytes releasing myeloperoxidase (MPO) and its production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The dietary supplement selenomethionine (SeMet) has been shown to bolster endogenous antioxidant processes [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is a major hallmark of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This partly arises from the presence of activated phagocytes releasing myeloperoxidase (MPO) and its production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The dietary supplement selenomethionine (SeMet) has been shown to bolster endogenous antioxidant processes as well as readily react with MPO-derived oxidants. The aim of this study was to assess whether supplementation with SeMet could modulate the extent of cellular damage observed in an in vitro cardiac myocyte model exposed to (patho)-physiological levels of HOCl and an in vivo rat model of cardiac I/R injury. Exposure of the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line to HOCl resulted in a dose-dependent increase in necrotic cell death, which could be prevented by SeMet supplementation and was attributed to SeMet preventing the HOCl-induced loss of mitochondrial inner trans-membrane potential, and the associated cytosolic calcium accumulation. This protection was credited primarily to the direct oxidant scavenging ability of SeMet, with a minor contribution arising from the ability of SeMet to bolster cardiac myoblast glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. In vivo, a significant increase in selenium levels in the plasma and heart tissue were seen in male Wistar rats fed a diet supplemented with 2 mg kg−1 SeMet compared to controls. However, SeMet-supplementation demonstrated only limited improvement in heart function and did not result in better heart remodelling following I/R injury. These data indicate that SeMet supplementation is of potential benefit within pathological settings where excessive HOCl is known to be generated but has limited efficacy as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of heart attack. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Salivary Antioxidants Status Following Progressive Aerobic Exercise: What Are the Differences between Waterpipe Smokers and Non-Smokers?
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100418 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Waterpipe tobacco (WPT) smoking is a public health problem with similar or even stronger effects than cigarette smoking. Although it appears to be associated with extensive oxidative stress, there is a limited number of studies on the oxidative effects of WPT smoking in [...] Read more.
Waterpipe tobacco (WPT) smoking is a public health problem with similar or even stronger effects than cigarette smoking. Although it appears to be associated with extensive oxidative stress, there is a limited number of studies on the oxidative effects of WPT smoking in stressful conditions. We, therefore, compared the responses of salivary flow rate (SFR), uric acid (UA) concentration, and peroxidase (POX) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) activities between WPT smokers and non-smokers following a bout of exhaustive aerobic exercise (AE). Twenty-three sedentary young women (age: 22.95 ± 2.83 years) participated in this study, including 11 smokers (7.00 ± 1.41 uses/week) and 12 non-smokers. All participants were required to perform the Bruce protocol treadmill test at an initial gradient of 10% at 1.7 mph, with increases of these parameters every 3 min until exhaustion. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 hour after AE. WPT smokers showed lower SFR compared with non-smokers at all time points (p < 0.05). In comparison to WPT smokers, a larger increase in POX activity (approximately 23% vs. 14%; p = 0.009) and a smaller decline in DPPH activity (approximately −8% vs. −15%; p = 0.004) were found in non-smokers compared with WPT smokers. While these changes were slowly compensated within 1 hour after exhaustion, the activity of both markers was different from the pre-exercise values (p < 0.001). There was also a trend for UA concentration in non-smokers to be higher during the recovery period, with no significant difference between the groups (p > 0.05). It seems that WPT smoking is associated with negative effects on important human antioxidants and a diminished antioxidative response following acute exercise. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Linking What We Eat to Our Mood: A Review of Diet, Dietary Antioxidants, and Depression
Antioxidants 2019, 8(9), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8090376 - 05 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Studies have shown that diet and nutrition play significant roles in the prevention of depression and its clinical treatment. The present review aims to provide a clear understanding of the associations between diet patterns, specific foods, nutrients such as antioxidants, and depression. As [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that diet and nutrition play significant roles in the prevention of depression and its clinical treatment. The present review aims to provide a clear understanding of the associations between diet patterns, specific foods, nutrients such as antioxidants, and depression. As a result, balanced dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet and certain foods such as fish, fresh vegetables, and fruits have been associated with a lower risk of depression or depressive symptoms, while high-fat Western diets and sugar-sweetened beverages have been associated with higher risk of depression or depressive symptoms. Dietary antioxidants such as green tea polyphenols or isoflavonoid intake have been negatively associated with depression or depressive symptoms. It is concluded that diet patterns, specific foods, and antioxidants play important roles in the prevention and clinical treatment of depression. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessBrief Report
Ketogenic Diet and microRNAs Linked to Antioxidant Biochemical Homeostasis
Antioxidants 2019, 8(8), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8080269 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Recently, we demonstrated the capability of the ketogenic diet (KD) to influence the microRNA (miR) expression profile. Here, we report that KD is able to normalize miR expression in obese subjects when compared with lean subjects. By applying two different bioinformatics tools, we [...] Read more.
Recently, we demonstrated the capability of the ketogenic diet (KD) to influence the microRNA (miR) expression profile. Here, we report that KD is able to normalize miR expression in obese subjects when compared with lean subjects. By applying two different bioinformatics tools, we found that, amongst the miRs returning to comparable levels in lean subjects, four of them are linked to antioxidant biochemical pathways specifically, and the others are linked to both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory biochemical pathways. Of particular interest is the upregulation of hsa-miR-30a-5p, which correlates with the decrease of catalase expression protein in red blood cells. Full article
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