Characterization and Encapsulation of Natural Antioxidants: Interaction, Protection and Delivery

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Extraction and Industrial Applications of Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2022) | Viewed by 59364

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
2. School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Interests: bioactive compounds; proteins; polysaccharides; structure–function relationship; delivery system; co-encapsulation; biological activity; food additives; funcitonal foods
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
1. State Key Lab of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
2. School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Interests: bioactive components; proteins; polysaccharides; synergism; biopolymer-based delivery system; in vitro digestion; functional additives and foods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural antioxidants, such as polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, peptides, and enzymes, are expected to inhibit oxidative damage of proteins and lipids in food systems and reduce the risk of certain chronic diseases related to oxidative stress. Their antioxidant activity is dependent on structure and concentration and is sensitive to environmental conditions. Additionally, combinations of diverse antioxidants (e.g., crude extracts) may work synergistically to exert enhanced chemical stability and biological activity. Therefore, natural antioxidants are a good source of nutraceuticals for application in functional foods and additives. However, most natural antioxidants have poor aqueous solubility, high sensitivity to processing and storage conditions, and low bioavailability, which restricts their incorporation into many food systems and health benefits.

Biopolymers, such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids, are edible carriers for antioxidants. Many of their structural and physicochemical properties facilitate the design and fabrication of edible delivery systems, which can overcome the limitations of natural antioxidants used in food and pharmaceutical industries. In general, an edible delivery system should have a high payload of antioxidants, be compatible with a product matrix, improve the physical and chemical stability of antioxidants, and show a controlled release profile in response to specific changes in environmental conditions. Additionally, co-delivery systems have gained significant interest because they can simultaneously and efficiently deliver different compounds to produce synergistic effects in the treatment of certain diseases. Although a wide range of antioxidants have been encapsulated into edible carriers, the mechanisms underlying the impact of encapsulation on antioxidant activity and antioxidant–material interactions remain limited. Therefore, novel delivery designs and new technologies can be brought into conventional administration approaches to expand applications of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical fields.

We invite you to submit your latest research findings or review articles to this Special Issue, which will bring together current research concerning the mechanisms of antioxidant–antioxidant and antioxidant–material interactions; the encapsulation, protection, and delivery of a single antioxidant or a mixture of diverse antioxidants; and the evaluation of encapsulated antioxidants in in vitro and in vivo models.

Prof. Dr. Li Liang
Dr. Hao Cheng
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Antioxidant
  • Characterization
  • Interaction
  • Encapsulation
  • Protection
  • Controlled release
  • Bioaccessibility/bioavailability
  • Functional additives
  • Functional foods.

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 214 KiB  
Editorial
Characterization and Encapsulation of Natural Antioxidants: Interaction, Protection, and Delivery
by Hao Cheng and Li Liang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(8), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081434 - 24 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Natural antioxidants (e [...] Full article

Research

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17 pages, 1679 KiB  
Article
Thermo-Responsive Gel Containing Hydroxytyrosol-Chitosan Nanoparticles (Hyt@tgel) Counteracts the Increase of Osteoarthritis Biomarkers in Human Chondrocytes
by Anna Valentino, Raffaele Conte, Ilenia De Luca, Francesca Di Cristo, Gianfranco Peluso, Michela Bosetti and Anna Calarco
Antioxidants 2022, 11(6), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11061210 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2962
Abstract
Although osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory degenerative disease affecting millions of people worldwide, the current therapies are limited to palliative care and do not eliminate the necessity of surgical intervention in the most severe cases. Several dietary and nutraceutical factors, such as [...] Read more.
Although osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory degenerative disease affecting millions of people worldwide, the current therapies are limited to palliative care and do not eliminate the necessity of surgical intervention in the most severe cases. Several dietary and nutraceutical factors, such as hydroxytyrosol (Hyt), have demonstrated beneficial effects in the prevention or treatment of OA both in vitro and in animal models. However, the therapeutic application of Hyt is limited due to its poor bioavailability following oral administration. In the present study, a localized drug delivery platform containing a combination of Hyt-loading chitosan nanoparticles (Hyt-NPs) and in situ forming hydrogel have been developed to obtain the benefits of both hydrogels and nanoparticles. This thermosensitive formulation, based on Pluronic F-127 (F-127), hyaluronic acid (HA) and Hyt-NPs (called Hyt@tgel) presents the unique ability to be injected in a minimally invasive way into a target region as a freely flowing solution at room temperature forming a gel at body temperature. The Hyt@tgel system showed reduced oxidative and inflammatory effects in the chondrocyte cellular model as well as a reduction in senescent cells after induction with H2O2. In addition, Hyt@tgel influenced chondrocytes gene expression under pathological state maintaining their metabolic activity and limiting the expression of critical OA-related genes in human chondrocytes treated with stressors promoting OA-like features. Hence, it can be concluded that the formulated hydrogel injection could be proposed for the efficient and sustained Hyt delivery for OA treatment. The next step would be the extraction of “added-value” bioactive polyphenols from by-products of the olive industry, in order to develop a green delivery system able not only to enhance the human wellbeing but also to promote a sustainable environment. Full article
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13 pages, 1387 KiB  
Article
Preparation, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity of Nanoemulsions Incorporating Lemon Essential Oil
by Ting Liu, Zhipeng Gao, Weiming Zhong, Fuhua Fu, Gaoyang Li, Jiajing Guo and Yang Shan
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040650 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3508
Abstract
Lemon essential oil (LEO) is a kind of citrus essential oil with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities, but low water solubility and biological instability hinder its industrial application. In this study, LEO was nanoemulsified to solve these problems. The preparation procedure of lemon [...] Read more.
Lemon essential oil (LEO) is a kind of citrus essential oil with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities, but low water solubility and biological instability hinder its industrial application. In this study, LEO was nanoemulsified to solve these problems. The preparation procedure of lemon essential oil nanoemulsions (LEO-NEs) was optimized, and the physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activities were explored. Single-factor experiments (SFEs) and response surface methodology (RSM) were conducted for the effects on the mean droplet size of LEO-NEs. Five factors of SFE which may influence the droplet size were identified: HLB value, concentration of essential oil, concentration of surfactant, ultrasonic power, and ultrasonic time. On the basis of the SFE, the RSM approach was used to optimize the preparation procedure to obtain LEO-NEs with the smallest droplet size. LEO-NEs exhibited good antioxidant activity when the HLB value was 13, content of surfactant was 0.157 g/mL, ultrasonic time was 23.50 min, and ultrasonic power was 761.65 W. In conclusion, these results can provide a good theoretical basis for the industrial application of lemon essential oil. Full article
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21 pages, 3266 KiB  
Article
Resveratrol Stabilization and Loss by Sodium Caseinate, Whey and Soy Protein Isolates: Loading, Antioxidant Activity, Oxidability
by Xin Yin, Hao Cheng, Wusigale, Huanhuan Dong, Weining Huang and Li Liang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(4), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040647 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2346
Abstract
The interaction of protein carrier and polyphenol is variable due to their environmental sensitivity. In this study, the interaction between resveratrol and whey protein isolate (WPI), sodium caseinate (SC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) during storage were systematically investigated from the aspects of [...] Read more.
The interaction of protein carrier and polyphenol is variable due to their environmental sensitivity. In this study, the interaction between resveratrol and whey protein isolate (WPI), sodium caseinate (SC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) during storage were systematically investigated from the aspects of polyphenol loading, antioxidant activity and oxidability. It was revealed that resveratrol loaded more in the SPI core and existed both in the core of SC micelles and on the particle surface, while WPI and resveratrol mainly formed in complexes. The loading capacity of the three proteins ranked in order SC > SPI > WPI. ABTS assay showed that the antioxidant activity of the protein carriers in the initial state was SC > SPI > WPI. The results of sulfhydryl, carbonyl and amino acid analysis showed that protein oxidability was SPI > SC > WPI. WPI, with the least oxidation, improved the storage stability of resveratrol, and the impact of SC on resveratrol stability changed from a protective to a pro-degradation effect. Co-oxidation occurred between SPI and resveratrol during storage, which refers to covalent interactions. The data gathered here suggested that the transition between the antioxidant and pro-oxidative properties of the carrier is the primary factor to investigate its protective effect on the delivered polyphenol. Full article
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18 pages, 1765 KiB  
Article
Tamarillo Polyphenols Encapsulated-Cubosome: Formation, Characterization, Stability during Digestion and Application in Yoghurt
by Tung Thanh Diep, Michelle Ji Yeon Yoo and Elaine Rush
Antioxidants 2022, 11(3), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11030520 - 08 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3080
Abstract
Tamarillo extract is a good source of phenolic and anthocyanin compounds which are well-known for beneficial antioxidant activity, but their bioactivity maybe lost during digestion. In this study, promising prospects of tamarillo polyphenols encapsulated in cubosome nanoparticles prepared via a top-down method were [...] Read more.
Tamarillo extract is a good source of phenolic and anthocyanin compounds which are well-known for beneficial antioxidant activity, but their bioactivity maybe lost during digestion. In this study, promising prospects of tamarillo polyphenols encapsulated in cubosome nanoparticles prepared via a top-down method were explored. The prepared nanocarriers were examined for their morphology, entrapment efficiency, particle size and stability during in vitro digestion as well as potential fortification of yoghurt. Tamarillo polyphenol-loaded cubosomes showed cubic shape with a mean particle size of 322.4 ± 7.27 nm and the entrapment efficiency for most polyphenols was over 50%. The encapsulated polyphenols showed high stability during the gastric phase of in vitro digestion and were almost completely, but slowly released in the intestinal phase. Addition of encapsulated tamarillo polyphenols to yoghurt (5, 10 and 15 wt% through pre- and post-fermentation) improved the physicochemical and potential nutritional properties (polyphenols concentration, TPC) as well as antioxidant activity. The encapsulation of tamarillo polyphenols protected against pH changes and enzymatic digestion and facilitated a targeted delivery and slow release of the encapsulated compounds to the intestine. Overall, the cubosomal delivery system demonstrated the potential for encapsulation of polyphenols from tamarillo for value-added food product development with yoghurt as the vehicle. Full article
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13 pages, 4060 KiB  
Article
Construction of Polygonatum sibiricum Polysaccharide Functionalized Selenium Nanoparticles for the Enhancement of Stability and Antioxidant Activity
by Wanwen Chen, Hao Cheng and Wenshui Xia
Antioxidants 2022, 11(2), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11020240 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3629
Abstract
Although selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have attracted great attention due to their potential antioxidant activity and low toxicity, the application of SeNPs is still restricted by their poor stability. A combination of polysaccharides and SeNPs is an effective strategy to overcome the limitations. In [...] Read more.
Although selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have attracted great attention due to their potential antioxidant activity and low toxicity, the application of SeNPs is still restricted by their poor stability. A combination of polysaccharides and SeNPs is an effective strategy to overcome the limitations. In this study, Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide (PSP) was used as a stabilizer to fabricate SeNPs under a simple redox system. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer were applied to characterize the synthesized PSP-SeNPs. The stability and the antioxidant activity of PSP-SeNPs were also investigated. The results revealed that the zero-valent and well-dispersed spherical PSP-SeNPs with an average size of 105 nm and a negative ζ-potential of −34.9 mV were successfully synthesized using 0.1 mg/mL PSP as a stabilizer. The prepared PSP-SeNPs were stable for 30 days at 4 °C. The decoration of the nanoparticle surface with PSP significantly improved the free radical scavenging ability of SeNPs. Compared to the H2O2-induced oxidative stress model group, the viability of PC-12 cells pretreated with 20 μg/mL PSP-SeNPs increased from 56% to 98%. Moreover, PSP-SeNPs exhibited a higher protective effect on the H2O2-induced oxidative damage on PC-12 cells and lower cytotoxicity than sodium selenite and SeNPs. In summary, these results suggest the great potential of PSP-SeNPs as a novel antioxidant agent in the food or nutraceuticals area. Full article
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17 pages, 26561 KiB  
Article
A Novel Insight into Screening for Antioxidant Peptides from Hazelnut Protein: Based on the Properties of Amino Acid Residues
by Chenshan Shi, Miaomiao Liu, Hongfei Zhao, Zhaolin Lv, Lisong Liang and Bolin Zhang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010127 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2468
Abstract
This study used the properties of amino acid residues to screen antioxidant peptides from hazelnut protein. It was confirmed that the type and position of amino acid residues, grand average of hydropathy, and molecular weight of a peptide could be comprehensively applied to [...] Read more.
This study used the properties of amino acid residues to screen antioxidant peptides from hazelnut protein. It was confirmed that the type and position of amino acid residues, grand average of hydropathy, and molecular weight of a peptide could be comprehensively applied to obtain desirable antioxidants after analyzing the information of synthesized dipeptides and BIOPEP database. As a result, six peptides, FSEY, QIESW, SEGFEW, IDLGTTY, GEGFFEM, and NLNQCQRYM were identified from hazelnut protein hydrolysates with higher antioxidant capacity than reduced Glutathione (GSH) against linoleic acid oxidation. The peptides having Tyr residue at C-terminal were found to prohibit the oxidation of linoleic acid better than others. Among them, peptide FSEY inhibited the rancidity of hazelnut oil very well in an oil-in-water emulsion. Additionally, quantum chemical parameters proved Tyr-residue to act as the active site of FSEY are responsible for its antioxidation. This is the first presentation of a novel approach to excavating desired antioxidant peptides against lipid oxidation from hazelnut protein via the properties of amino acid residues. Full article
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14 pages, 1728 KiB  
Article
Engineering of Liposome Structure to Enhance Physicochemical Properties of Spirulina plantensis Protein Hydrolysate: Stability during Spray-Drying
by Maryam Mohammadi, Hamed Hamishehkar, Marjan Ghorbani, Rahim Shahvalizadeh, Mirian Pateiro and José M. Lorenzo
Antioxidants 2021, 10(12), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10121953 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2858
Abstract
Encapsulating hydrolysates in liposomes can be an effective way to improve their stability and bioactivity. In this study, Spirulina hydrolysate was successfully encapsulated into nanoliposomes composed of different stabilizers (cholesterol or γ-oryzanol), and the synthesized liposomes were finally coated with chitosan biopolymer. The [...] Read more.
Encapsulating hydrolysates in liposomes can be an effective way to improve their stability and bioactivity. In this study, Spirulina hydrolysate was successfully encapsulated into nanoliposomes composed of different stabilizers (cholesterol or γ-oryzanol), and the synthesized liposomes were finally coated with chitosan biopolymer. The synthesized formulations were fully characterized and their antioxidant activity evaluated using different methods. Then, stabilization of coated nanoliposomes (chitosomes) by spray-drying within the maltodextrin matrix was investigated. A small mean diameter and homogeneous size distribution with high encapsulation efficiency were found in all the formulations, while liposomes stabilized with γ-oryzanol and coated with chitosan showed the highest physical stability over time and preserved approximately 90% of their initial antioxidant capacity. Spray-dried powder could preserve all characteristics of peptide-loaded chitosomes. Thus, spray-dried hydrolysate-containing chitosomes could be considered as a functional food ingredient for the human diet. Full article
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16 pages, 6981 KiB  
Article
Improving Aqueous Solubility of Natural Antioxidant Mangiferin through Glycosylation by Maltogenic Amylase from Parageobacillus galactosidasius DSM 18751
by Jiumn-Yih Wu, Hsiou-Yu Ding, Tzi-Yuan Wang, Yu-Li Tsai, Huei-Ju Ting and Te-Sheng Chang
Antioxidants 2021, 10(11), 1817; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111817 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
Mangiferin is a natural antioxidant C-glucosidic xanthone originally isolated from the Mangifera indica (mango) plant. Mangiferin exhibits a wide range of pharmaceutical activities. However, mangiferin’s poor solubility limits its applications. To resolve this limitation of mangiferin, enzymatic glycosylation of mangiferin to produce [...] Read more.
Mangiferin is a natural antioxidant C-glucosidic xanthone originally isolated from the Mangifera indica (mango) plant. Mangiferin exhibits a wide range of pharmaceutical activities. However, mangiferin’s poor solubility limits its applications. To resolve this limitation of mangiferin, enzymatic glycosylation of mangiferin to produce more soluble mangiferin glucosides was evaluated. Herein, the recombinant maltogenic amylase (MA; E.C. 3.2.1.133) from a thermophile Parageobacillus galactosidasius DSM 18751T (PgMA) was cloned into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) via the expression plasmid pET-Duet-1. The recombinant PgMA was purified via Ni2+ affinity chromatography. To evaluate its transglycosylation activity, 17 molecules, including mangiferin (as sugar acceptors), belonging to triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, and polyphenol glycosides, were assayed with β-CD (as the sugar donor). The results showed that puerarin and mangiferin are suitable sugar acceptors in the transglycosylation reaction. The glycosylation products from mangiferin by PgMA were isolated using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Their chemical structures were glucosyl-α-(1→6)-mangiferin and maltosyl-α-(1→6)-mangiferin, determined by mass and nucleic magnetic resonance spectral analysis. The newly identified maltosyl-α-(1→6)-mangiferin showed 5500-fold higher aqueous solubility than that of mangiferin, and both mangiferin glucosides exhibited similar 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activities compared to mangiferin. PgMA is the first MA with glycosylation activity toward mangiferin, meaning mangiferin glucosides have potential future applications. Full article
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14 pages, 1313 KiB  
Article
Whey Protein Isolate-Xylose Maillard-Based Conjugates with Tailored Microencapsulation Capacity of Flavonoids from Yellow Onions Skins
by Ștefania Adelina Milea, Iuliana Aprodu, Elena Enachi, Vasilica Barbu, Gabriela Râpeanu, Gabriela Elena Bahrim and Nicoleta Stănciuc
Antioxidants 2021, 10(11), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111708 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
The objective of this study is to encapsulate flavonoids from yellow onion skins in whey protein isolates (WPI) and xylose (X), by Maillard-based conjugates, as an approach to improve the ability to entrap flavonoids and to develop powders with enhanced antioxidant activity. WPI [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to encapsulate flavonoids from yellow onion skins in whey protein isolates (WPI) and xylose (X), by Maillard-based conjugates, as an approach to improve the ability to entrap flavonoids and to develop powders with enhanced antioxidant activity. WPI (0.6%, w/v) was conjugated to X (0.3%, w/v) through the Maillard reaction at 90 °C for 120 min, in the presence of a flavonoid-enriched extract. Two variants of powders were obtained by freeze-drying. The glycation of WPI allowed a better encapsulation efficiency, up to 90.53 ± 0.29%, corresponding to a grafting degree of 30.38 ± 1.55%. The molecular modelling approach was used to assess the impact of X interactions with α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin on the ability of these proteins to bind the main flavonoids from the yellow onion skins. The results showed that X might compete with quercetin glucosides to bind with α-lactalbumin. No interference was found in the case of β-lactoglobulin. The microstructural appearance of the powders revealed finer spherosomes in powder with WPI–X conjugates via the Maillard reaction. The powders were added to nachos, followed by a phytochemical characterization, in order to test their potential added value. An increase in antioxidant activity was observed, with no significant changes during storage. Full article
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19 pages, 1876 KiB  
Article
Yogurt Fortification by the Addition of Microencapsulated Stripped Weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa) Protein Hydrolysate
by Karina Oliveira Lima, Meritaine da Rocha, Ailén Alemán, María Elvira López-Caballero, Clara A. Tovar, María Carmen Gómez-Guillén, Pilar Montero and Carlos Prentice
Antioxidants 2021, 10(10), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101567 - 01 Oct 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2634
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to fortify yogurt by adding a stripped weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa) protein hydrolysate obtained with the enzyme Protamex and microencapsulated by spray drying, using maltodextrin (MD) as wall material. The effects on the physicochemical properties, [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was to fortify yogurt by adding a stripped weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa) protein hydrolysate obtained with the enzyme Protamex and microencapsulated by spray drying, using maltodextrin (MD) as wall material. The effects on the physicochemical properties, syneresis, texture, viscoelasticity, antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of yogurt after 1 and 7 days of storage were evaluated. In addition, microbiological and sensory analyses were performed. Four yogurt formulations were prepared: control yogurt (without additives, YC), yogurt with MD (2.1%, YMD), with the free hydrolysate (1.4%, YH) and the microencapsulated hydrolysate (3.5%, YHEn). Yogurts to which free and microencapsulated hydrolysates were added presented similar characteristics, such as a slight reduction in pH and increased acidity, with a greater tendency to present a yellow color compared with the control yogurt. Moreover, they showed less syneresis, the lowest value being that of YHEn, which also showed a slight increase in cohesiveness and greater rheological stability after one week of storage. All yogurts showed high counts of the microorganisms used as starters. The hydrolysate presence in both forms resulted in yogurts with antioxidant activity and potent ACE-inhibitory activity, which were maintained after 7 days of storage. The incorporation of the hydrolysate in the microencapsulated form presented greater advantages than the direct incorporation, since encapsulation masked the fishy flavor of the hydrolysate, resulting in stable and sensorily acceptable yogurts with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities. Full article
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17 pages, 3503 KiB  
Article
Improving Physicochemical Stability of Quercetin-Loaded Hollow Zein Particles with Chitosan/Pectin Complex Coating
by Muhammad Aslam Khan, Chufan Zhou, Pu Zheng, Meng Zhao and Li Liang
Antioxidants 2021, 10(9), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10091476 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3289
Abstract
Hollow nanoparticles are preferred over solid ones for their high loading capabilities, sustained release and low density. Hollow zein particles are susceptible to aggregation with a slight variation in the ionic strength, pH and temperature of the medium. This study was aimed to [...] Read more.
Hollow nanoparticles are preferred over solid ones for their high loading capabilities, sustained release and low density. Hollow zein particles are susceptible to aggregation with a slight variation in the ionic strength, pH and temperature of the medium. This study was aimed to fabricate quercetin-loaded hollow zein particles with chitosan and pectin coating to improve their physicochemical stability. Quercetin as a model flavonoid had a loading efficiency and capacity of about 86–94% and 2.22–5.89%, respectively. Infrared and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed the interaction of quercetin with zein and the change in its physical state from crystalline to amorphous upon incorporation in the composite particles. The chitosan/pectin coating improved the stability of quercetin-loaded hollow zein particles against heat treatment, sodium chloride and in a wide range of pH. The complex coating protected quercetin that was encapsulated in hollow zein particles from free radicals in the aqueous medium and enhanced its DPPH radical scavenging ability. The entrapment of quercetin in the particles improved its storage and photochemical stability. The storage stability of entrapped quercetin was enhanced both at 25 and 45 °C in hollow zein particles coated with chitosan and pectin. Therefore, composite hollow zein particles fabricated with a combination of polysaccharides can expand their role in the encapsulation, protection and delivery of bioactive components. Full article
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20 pages, 3045 KiB  
Article
The Fine-Tuned Release of Antioxidant from Superparamagnetic Nanocarriers under the Combination of Stationary and Alternating Magnetic Fields
by Lucija Mandić, Anja Sadžak, Ina Erceg, Goran Baranović and Suzana Šegota
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081212 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2592
Abstract
Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with excellent biocompatibility and negligible toxicity were prepared by solvothermal method and stabilized by widely used and biocompatible polymer poly(ethylene glycol) PEG-4000 Da. The unique properties of the synthesized MNPs enable them to host the unstable and water-insoluble quercetin [...] Read more.
Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with excellent biocompatibility and negligible toxicity were prepared by solvothermal method and stabilized by widely used and biocompatible polymer poly(ethylene glycol) PEG-4000 Da. The unique properties of the synthesized MNPs enable them to host the unstable and water-insoluble quercetin as well as deliver and localize quercetin directly to the desired site. The chemical and physical properties were validated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer, FTIR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The kinetics of in vitro quercetin release from MNPs followed by UV/VIS spectroscopy was controlled by employing combined stationary and alternating magnetic fields. The obtained results have shown an increased response of quercetin from superparamagnetic MNPs under a lower stationary magnetic field and s higher frequency of alternating magnetic field. The achieved findings suggested that we designed promising targeted quercetin delivery with fine-tuning drug release from magnetic MNPs. Full article
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18 pages, 1074 KiB  
Article
Encapsulation of Phenolic Compounds from a Grape Cane Pilot-Plant Extract in Hydroxypropyl Beta-Cyclodextrin and Maltodextrin by Spray Drying
by Danilo Escobar-Avello, Javier Avendaño-Godoy, Jorge Santos, Julián Lozano-Castellón, Claudia Mardones, Dietrich von Baer, Javiana Luengo, Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós, Anna Vallverdú-Queralt and Carolina Gómez-Gaete
Antioxidants 2021, 10(7), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071130 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 5790
Abstract
Grape canes, the main byproducts of the viticulture industry, contain high-value bioactive phenolic compounds, whose application is limited by their instability and poorly solubility in water. Encapsulation in cyclodextrins allows these drawbacks to be overcome. In this work, a grape cane pilot-plant extract [...] Read more.
Grape canes, the main byproducts of the viticulture industry, contain high-value bioactive phenolic compounds, whose application is limited by their instability and poorly solubility in water. Encapsulation in cyclodextrins allows these drawbacks to be overcome. In this work, a grape cane pilot-plant extract (GCPPE) was encapsulated in hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) by a spray-drying technique and the formation of an inclusion complex was confirmed by microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The phenolic profile of the complex was analyzed by LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS and the encapsulation efficiency of the phenolic compounds was determined. A total of 42 compounds were identified, including stilbenes, flavonoids, and phenolic acids, and a complex of (epi)catechin with β-CD was detected, confirming the interaction between polyphenols and cyclodextrin. The encapsulation efficiency for the total extract was 80.5 ± 1.1%, with restrytisol showing the highest value (97.0 ± 0.6%) and (E)-resveratrol (32.7 ± 2.8%) the lowest value. The antioxidant capacity of the inclusion complex, determined by ORAC-FL, was 5300 ± 472 µmol TE/g DW, which was similar to the value obtained for the unencapsulated extract. This formulation might be used to improve the stability, solubility, and bioavailability of phenolic compounds of the GCPPE for water-soluble food and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 932 KiB  
Review
Chemical Stability of Ascorbic Acid Integrated into Commercial Products: A Review on Bioactivity and Delivery Technology
by Xin Yin, Kaiwen Chen, Hao Cheng, Xing Chen, Shuai Feng, Yuanda Song and Li Liang
Antioxidants 2022, 11(1), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010153 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 68 | Viewed by 16663
Abstract
The L-enantiomer of ascorbic acid is commonly known as vitamin C. It is an indispensable nutrient and plays a key role in retaining the physiological process of humans and animals. L-gulonolactone oxidase, the key enzyme for the de novo synthesis of ascorbic acid, [...] Read more.
The L-enantiomer of ascorbic acid is commonly known as vitamin C. It is an indispensable nutrient and plays a key role in retaining the physiological process of humans and animals. L-gulonolactone oxidase, the key enzyme for the de novo synthesis of ascorbic acid, is lacking in some mammals including humans. The functionality of ascorbic acid has prompted the development of foods fortified with this vitamin. As a natural antioxidant, it is expected to protect the sensory and nutritional characteristics of the food. It is thus important to know the degradation of ascorbic acid in the food matrix and its interaction with coexisting components. The biggest challenge in the utilization of ascorbic acid is maintaining its stability and improving its delivery to the active site. The review also includes the current strategies for stabilizing ascorbic acid and the commercial applications of ascorbic acid. Full article
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