Special Issue "Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens"

A special issue of Agronomy (ISSN 2073-4395). This special issue belongs to the section "Crop Breeding and Genetics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Katja Witzel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Leibniz Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Theodor-Echtermeyer Weg 1, 14979 Großbeeren, Germany
Interests: targeted and nontargeted proteome analyses; plant-pathogen interaction; plant physiology; plant secondary metabolites
Dr. Beatrice Berger
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Julius Kühn Institut (JKI) - Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Insitute for Plant Protection in Field Crops and Grasslands, Messeweg 11/12, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany
Interests: plant environmental stress physiology and plant defense; plant–microbe and plant–pathogen interaction; plant protection
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the growing demand on food and energy plants worldwide, there is the urgent need to secure crop productivity and quality. During cultivation, crops are often challenged by soil-borne pathogens that are difficult to control and that can cause severe damages to the plant and in consequence losses of yield quality and amount. Nevertheless, plants are not helpless and do respond with a set of integrated signal transduction pathways and defence responses that can lead to an enhanced plant protection or even resistance. Comparative analyses of plant genotypes with contrasting resistance or tolerance traits aided in the identification of genes, metabolites or other physiological alterations that account for the observed different levels of susceptibility. More recently, the role of rhizosphere microbiota or specific inocula in influencing plant defence responses has been in the centre of research interest and could provide means for strengthening a sustainable crop production.

This special issue is intended to provide an insight into defence responses of glasshouse and/or field grown crops against soil-borne pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes on phenotypic, molecular and metabolite level. We also welcome contributions reporting how crop tolerance to these organisms can be enhanced by microbial inocula in field studies or other novel strategies for improved plant defence.

Dr. Katja Witzel
Dr. Beatrice Berger
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • soil-borne pathogens
  • host immune response
  • signal transduction pathways
  • crop physiology
  • disease resistance and susceptibility
  • rhizosphere
  • root exudates
  • root microbiota
  • agricultural and horticultural crops
  • pest management strategies

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Special Issue “Integrated Defense Responses in Crops against Soil-Borne Pathogens”
Agronomy 2020, 10(12), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10121986 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 559
Abstract
Soil-borne pathogenic organisms can have severe detrimental effects on crop growth and yield production and represent a serious threat to food security [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Application of Endophytic Bacillus subtilis and Salicylic Acid to Improve Wheat Growth and Tolerance under Combined Drought and Fusarium Root Rot Stresses
Agronomy 2020, 10(9), 1343; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10091343 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
In nature, plants are constantly exposed to a varied abiotic and biotic stresses or their combinations, limiting the productivity of major crops, including wheat. Combinations of drought and soil-borne Fusarium-instigated diseases are the most common combinations of stresses, significantly reducing wheat yield [...] Read more.
In nature, plants are constantly exposed to a varied abiotic and biotic stresses or their combinations, limiting the productivity of major crops, including wheat. Combinations of drought and soil-borne Fusarium-instigated diseases are the most common combinations of stresses, significantly reducing wheat yield around the world. Here, were analyzed the potential of application of endophytic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (strain 10–4) together with the natural signal molecule salicylic acid (SA) to improve growth and tolerance of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) plants under combined drought and Fusarium culmorum-instigated root rot (FRR) stresses. It was revealed that pre-sowing treatment with B. subtilis 10–4, SA, and B. subtilis 10–4 + SA, both under normal and combined drought conditions, notably reduced (by 50–80% or more) the incidence of FRR development in wheat plants, with the most notable effect for B. subtilis 10–4 + SA (wherein disease symptoms were almost absent). Moreover, B. subtilis 10–4, SA, and especially B. subtilis 10–4 + SA increased plant growth (root and shoot length, fresh and dry biomass) under normal (up to 20–50%), drought (up to 15–40%), FRR (up to 15–30%), and combined drought + FRR stresses (up to 20%), with the maximum effect for B. subtilis 10–4 + SA. Additionally, B. subtilis 10–4, SA, and B. subtilis 10–4 + SA decreased stress (drought, FRR, and combined drought + FRR)-instigated lipid peroxidation and osmotic damages of plant cells. The findings indicate that endophytic bacteria B. subtilis 10–4 alone and in a mixture with SA may be used as an effective eco-friendly agent to improve wheat growth and tolerance under the influence of drought, FRR, and combinations of these stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
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Article
Global Research on Plant Nematodes
Agronomy 2020, 10(8), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10081148 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Background: The more than 4100 species of phytoparasitic nematodes are responsible for an estimated economic loss in the agricultural sector of nearly $125 billion annually. Knowing the main lines of research and concerns about nematodes that affect plants is fundamental. Methods: For this [...] Read more.
Background: The more than 4100 species of phytoparasitic nematodes are responsible for an estimated economic loss in the agricultural sector of nearly $125 billion annually. Knowing the main lines of research and concerns about nematodes that affect plants is fundamental. Methods: For this reason, an analysis using bibliometric data has been carried out, with the aim of tracing the state of world research in this field, as well as knowing the main lines of work, their priorities, and their evolution. Results: This will allow us to establish strategic lines for the future development of this research. Conclusions: The analysis has allowed us to detect that the interest in nematodes affecting plants has not stopped growing in the last decades, and that tomato, soybean, and potato crops are the ones that generate the most interest, as well as nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne and Globodera. Likewise, we have detected that the main lines of research in this field are focused on biological control and host–parasite interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
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Article
Impact of Winter Cover Crop Usage in Soilborne Disease Suppressiveness in Woody Ornamental Production System
Agronomy 2020, 10(7), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10070995 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
Diseases caused by soilborne pathogens are a major limitation to field grown nursery production. The application of cover crops for soilborne disease management has not been widely investigated in a woody ornamental nursery production system. The objective of this study was to explore [...] Read more.
Diseases caused by soilborne pathogens are a major limitation to field grown nursery production. The application of cover crops for soilborne disease management has not been widely investigated in a woody ornamental nursery production system. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of winter cover crops usage on soilborne disease management in that system. Soils from established field plots of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) with and without winter cover crops (crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) or triticale (× Triticosecale W.)) were sampled following the senescence of the cover crops. Separate bioassays were performed using red maple cuttings on inoculated (with Phytopythium vexans, Phytophthora nicotianae or Rhizoctonia solani) and non-inoculated field soils. The results indicated that winter cover crop usage was helpful for inducing soil disease suppressiveness. There was lower disease severity and pathogen recovery when the cover crops were used compare to the non-cover cropped soil. However, there were no differences in maple plant fresh weight and root weight between the treatments. The rhizosphere pseudomonad microbial population was also greater when the cover crops were used. Similarly, the C:N ratio of the soil was improved with the cover crop usage. Thus, in addition to improving soil structure and reducing erosion, cover crops can provide improved management of soilborne diseases. Therefore, stakeholders can consider cover crop usage as an alternative sustainable management tool against soilborne diseases in field nursery production system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
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Article
Potential Application of Crotalaria longirostrata Branch Extract to Reduce the Severity of Disease Caused by Fusarium
Agronomy 2020, 10(4), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10040524 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
Fusarium are considered as the major plant pathogen fungi, that cause the majority of soil-borne diseases to more than 100 plant species in the world, including maize. Thus, there are emerging demands of biocontrol reagents, and Crotalaria longirostrata showed fungicidal activity. The C. [...] Read more.
Fusarium are considered as the major plant pathogen fungi, that cause the majority of soil-borne diseases to more than 100 plant species in the world, including maize. Thus, there are emerging demands of biocontrol reagents, and Crotalaria longirostrata showed fungicidal activity. The C. longirostrata branch extract was phytochemically characterized and evaluated for efficacy for the control of Fusarium wilt in maize. The application of the extract reduced the percentage of disease incidence significantly caused by Fusarium verticillioides from 70.4% to 40.12% as compared to non-treated plants, and evenly the disease severity was reduced from 40.15% to 29.46%. The phytochemical components of the extract were cinnamic acids (caffeic acid and ferulic acid) and phenolic acid (gallic acid). Furthermore, multiple structures were detected through mass spectrometry such as: phenols, alkaloids, esters, terpene, ketones, and amides. The bioautography assay showed that to separate the compounds of C. longirostrata branch extract causes it’s the loss of fungicidal activity. This is due to the synergy or additive interactions of secondary metabolites present in the raw extract. Our results suggest that the application of C. longirostrata branch extract is a promising strategy to be applied to the soil as a preventive treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
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Article
Mentha and Oregano Soil Amendment Induces Enhancement of Tomato Tolerance against Soilborne Diseases, Yield and Quality
Agronomy 2020, 10(3), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10030406 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 983
Abstract
Tomato is considered among the most important horticulture crops in both temperate and tropical regions, and two of the major biotic stresses include Fusarium oxysporun f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) and Verticillium dahliae (Vd). The effect of soil incorporated spearmint and [...] Read more.
Tomato is considered among the most important horticulture crops in both temperate and tropical regions, and two of the major biotic stresses include Fusarium oxysporun f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) and Verticillium dahliae (Vd). The effect of soil incorporated spearmint and oregano dried plant material on physiological, yield and quality parameters of tomato, along with their efficacy against soilborne fungal diseases, was studied in pot experiments conducted in a greenhouse environment. Tomato plants grown in soil amended with spearmint or oregano showed better agronomical characteristics (taller plants with thicker stems) and improved physiological ones (higher chlorophyll content index and photosynthetic rate). Yield was increased and the qualitative features of tomato fruits were enhanced. In addition, plants grown in soil amended with spearmint or oregano and inoculated with Fol or Vd had no visual disease symptoms 50 days from the inoculated tomato transplantation, except from plants grown in soil amended with oregano and inoculated with Fol, which showed symptoms of chlorosis and leaves loss. These enhancements on physiological parameters and on disease suppression resulted in increased fruit yields of plants–grown in soil amended with spearmint and oregano and inoculated with Fol or Vd–by 77%–95% compared with free-disease controls. GC-MS analysis of volatiles derived from soils amended of either spearmint or oregano indicated that several constituents remained in the soil environment long after incorporation of plant material, although, at lower concentrations and considerable modified. The current study reveals that direct incorporation of spearmint or oregano plant material into the soil could improve tomato tolerance against soilborne fungi, soil fertility and consequently increase yield and product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
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Article
Effect of Winter Oilseed Rape Cropping on the Development of the Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and Control of Volunteer Plants as a Trap Crop Method
Agronomy 2020, 10(3), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10030355 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
The integration of oilseed rape (OSR) into sugar beet rotation systems is restricted due to the very good host status of OSR for the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii. In contrast to sugar beet, the cultivation of winter OSR covers a [...] Read more.
The integration of oilseed rape (OSR) into sugar beet rotation systems is restricted due to the very good host status of OSR for the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii. In contrast to sugar beet, the cultivation of winter OSR covers a longer period, but at a lower soil temperature regime. Thus, presumably one or two generations of BCN may develop during the cultivation of winter OSR, resulting in moderate multiplication rates of 1–2 in the present study. This multiplication rate was year-dependent, but not affected by different sowing times. For the first time, the present study identified volunteer OSR emerging in high densities post-harvest as a major risk for a high multiplication of BCN at optimum temperatures. The emergence of BCN females with offspring was observed very early, resulting in a significant population increase before 350-degree days (>8 °C) in inoculation experiments and in field investigations. Conducting treatment trials with glyphosate to control volunteer OSR in micro-plots and field experiments confirmed effective suppression of BCN reproduction when growth of volunteer OSR was interrupted at 250–350-degree days. Thus, data gained from BCN reproduction studies under controlled and field conditions provided a unique basis for the development of a trap crop method. The degree day model has been successfully implemented as part of an open access management tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
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Article
Variations in Growth, Physiology, and Antioxidative Defense Responses of Two Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivars after Co-Infection of Fusarium oxysporum and Meloidogyne incognita
Agronomy 2020, 10(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10020159 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) and the nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) are destructive pathogens that cause substantial yield losses to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops worldwide. The present study sought to elucidate the physiological, biochemical, and cytological [...] Read more.
The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) and the nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) are destructive pathogens that cause substantial yield losses to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops worldwide. The present study sought to elucidate the physiological, biochemical, and cytological responses of tomato cultivars (Gailing maofen 802 and Zhongza 09) by root invasion of Fo (1 × 105 CFUmL−1) and Mi (1500 second-stage juveniles (J2) alone and in combination after 14 days. Results revealed that combined inoculation of Fo and Mi significantly increased disease intensity, electrolyte leakage, and hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents; and decreased photosynthetic capacity and enzyme activity in both cultivars as compared to their solo inoculation. Increasing the disease intensity reduced the maximum morphological traits, such as shoot length, total dry weight, and total chlorophyll contents, in G. maofen 802 (by 32%, 54.2%, and 52.3%, respectively) and Zhongza 09 (by 18%, 32%, and 21%, respectively) as compared to the control. Others factors were also reduced in G. maofen 802 and Zhongza 09, such as photosynthetic capacity (by 70% and 57%, respectively), stomatal conductance (by 86% and 70%, respectively), photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (YII) (by 36.6% and 29%, respectively), and electron transport rate (by 17.7% and 10%, respectively), after combined inoculation of Fo and Mi. Furthermore, the combined infestation of Fo and Mi resulted in reduced activity of plant-defense-related antioxidants in G. maofen 802 compared with their single application or control. However, these antioxidants were highly up-regulated in Zhongza 09 (by 59%–93%), revealing the induction of tolerance against studied pathogens. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results further demonstrated that root cells of Zhongza 09 had unique tetrahedral crystal-like structures in the membrane close to mitochondria under all treatments except control. Therefore, it is concluded that Mi caused severe root damage, suppressed plant growth, depleted antioxidants, and caused high generation of ROS in the presence of Fo as compared to its solo inoculation. Tolerant cultivars adopted different mechanistic strategies at the structural and cellular levels to tolerate the Mi and Fo stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
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Article
Serendipita Species Trigger Cultivar-Specific Responses to Fusarium Wilt in Tomato
Agronomy 2019, 9(10), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9100595 - 28 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
The endophytic fungi Serendipita indica and S. vermifera have recently gained increasing attention due to their beneficial effects on plant growth and plant health. Little is known about other species, such as S. williamsii and S. herbamans. To test their biocontrol and [...] Read more.
The endophytic fungi Serendipita indica and S. vermifera have recently gained increasing attention due to their beneficial effects on plant growth and plant health. Little is known about other species, such as S. williamsii and S. herbamans. To test their biocontrol and growth-promoting potential, susceptible and tolerant tomato cultivars (Kremser Perle and Micro-Tom, respectively) were inoculated with S. williamsii, S. herbamans, S. indica, or S. vermifera and challenged with the soilborne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) in greenhouse experiments. Furthermore, in vitro assays on the direct inhibitory effects of Serendipita spp. against Fol were performed. Negative effects of Fol on phenological growth in the susceptible cultivar were alleviated by all four applied Serendipita spp. Apart from these similar effects on biometric parameters, disease incidence was only reduced by S. herbamans and S. vermifera. In the tolerant cultivar, disease parameters remained unaffected although shoot dry mass was negatively affected by S. vermifera. Direct effects of Serendipita spp. against Fol were not evident in the in vitro assays indicating an indirect effect via the host plant. Our results highlight the importance of identifying cultivar-specific effects in pathogen–endophyte–plant interactions to determine the most beneficial combinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
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Article
Development and Application of Seed Coating Agent for the Control of Major Soil-Borne Diseases Infecting Wheat
Agronomy 2019, 9(8), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9080413 - 26 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
In order to reduce the usage amount of pesticide fertilizers and protect the natural environment, seed coating agents are receiving increased wide concern. In this study, the active constituent (pesticide) and inactive components (surfactants and film former) of the seed coating agents were [...] Read more.
In order to reduce the usage amount of pesticide fertilizers and protect the natural environment, seed coating agents are receiving increased wide concern. In this study, the active constituent (pesticide) and inactive components (surfactants and film former) of the seed coating agents were screened and optimized by the wet sand processing superfine grinding method. The fungal inhibition test of pesticides showed that thifluzamide, fludioxonil, pyraclostrobin, and difenoconazole have an obvious fungal inhibitory effect on wheat sharp eyespot, take-all, and root rot. LAE-9 and polyacrylamide + carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is recommended for the safe surfactant and film former, respectively, based on the seed germination test. Moreover, 6% difenoconazole · fludioxonil flowable concentrate for seed coating (FSC) stimulates the seedling growth of wheat, advances the growth of root, and improves biomass in the field trial, meanwhile, the control efficiency reached above 80%. Thus, we suggested it can be used as an effective seed coating agent for the control of soil-borne diseases in wheat. The seed coating agent has the characteristics of disease prevention, increasing crop yield, and safety of environment, which is of significance in practical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
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Article
Temporal Interactions between Root-Lesion Nematodes and the Fungus Rhizoctonia Solani Lead to Reduced Potato Yield
Agronomy 2019, 9(7), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9070361 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Soil microorganisms and soil fauna may have a large impact on the tuber yield of potato crops. The interaction between root-lesion nematodes and the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn was studied on potato plants grown in pots under controlled conditions. In two similar [...] Read more.
Soil microorganisms and soil fauna may have a large impact on the tuber yield of potato crops. The interaction between root-lesion nematodes and the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn was studied on potato plants grown in pots under controlled conditions. In two similar experiments, different combinations of nematodes and fungal mycelium were added to the pots at three occasions; at planting, after 14 days, and after 28 days. The nematodes reduced root biomass and the combination of nematodes and R. solani resulted in reduced tuber yield in both experiments, but the interaction was not synergistic. In contrast, the number of stem canker lesions decreased in the presence of nematodes compared to treatments with R. solani only. The time of inoculation influenced the severity of both fungal and nematode damage. The nematode damage on tubers was less severe if the nematodes were added at 28 days, while the number of severe stem canker lesions increased if the fungus was added at 28 days. However, the time of nematode inoculation did not affect the incidence of fungal damage, hence the nematodes did not assist R. solani to infect the plant. Our results highlight the underestimated importance of root-lesion nematodes, not resulting in obvious above ground symptoms or misshaped tubers yet affecting the performance of other pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
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Review

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Review
Fusarium Wilt Management in Legume Crops
Agronomy 2020, 10(8), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10081073 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1865
Abstract
Legumes are among the most important crops worldwide for human and animal consumption. However, yield inconsistency due to susceptibility to pests and diseases strongly affects its production. Among diseases affecting legumes, Fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. (Fo [...] Read more.
Legumes are among the most important crops worldwide for human and animal consumption. However, yield inconsistency due to susceptibility to pests and diseases strongly affects its production. Among diseases affecting legumes, Fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. (Fo) is one of the major factors limiting production worldwide. This disease can cause total losses in highly infested fields of some legume species. To minimize yield losses, integrated disease management strategies combining different agronomic practices with the use of resistant varieties should be applied. Although often characterized by a high degree of host specificity, with formae speciales (ff. spp.) and races identified, some Fo ff. spp. can have a broader host range, infecting more than one species, requiring further investigation. In this review, we describe the state of the art on legume Fusarium wilt management achievements, highlighting different aspects such as the use of rhizosphere microbiota as biocontrol agents, crop rotation and the use of resistant varieties. The different methods of identification and characterization of resistance sources, mechanisms as well as the genetic basis of resistance or the development of molecular tools to support legume precision breeding for Fo resistance are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
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Review
Biofumigation for Fighting Replant Disease- A Review
Agronomy 2020, 10(3), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10030425 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1525
Abstract
Replant disease is a soil (micro-) biome-based, harmfully-disturbed physiological and morphological reaction of plants to replanting similar cultures on the same sites by demonstrating growth retardation and leading to economic losses especially in Rosaceae plant production. Commonly, replant disease is overcome by soil [...] Read more.
Replant disease is a soil (micro-) biome-based, harmfully-disturbed physiological and morphological reaction of plants to replanting similar cultures on the same sites by demonstrating growth retardation and leading to economic losses especially in Rosaceae plant production. Commonly, replant disease is overcome by soil fumigation with toxic chemicals. With chemical soil fumigation being restricted in many countries, other strategies are needed. Biofumigation, which is characterized by the incorporation of Brassicaceae plant materials into soil, is a promising method. We review the potential of biofumigation in the fight against replant disease. Biofumigation using optimized Brassicaceae seed meal compositions in combination with replant disease tolerant plant genotypes shows promising results, but the efficacy is still soil and site-dependent. Therefore, future studies should address the optimal timing as well as amount and type of incorporated plant material and environmental conditions during incubation in dependence of the soil physical and chemical characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
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